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in bis Dictionary as those who sold themselves for a bribe to betray their country, and then accepting a pension himself from a Whig king, poured contempt on Rousseau, who preferred copying music to taking a pension from the King of Prussia. Rousseau had an upright soul, and a truthloving soul: he was faithful to his light; or, if led astray, openly confessed and bewailed bis sin. We forgive David his murder, because he repented. We forgive Peter his repeated lies, because he repented. Shall we not forgive Rousseau his chief sin, of abandoning his children, when he bitterly bewailed it ever after, and made such a splendid expiation in his “ Emile,” devoted to saving little children from the sufferings and cruelty they endured in his time?
We cannot better close this study of Rousseau's life than with the words of Thomas Carlyle :
“Hovering in the distance, with woe-struck, minatory air, sternbeckoning, comes Rousseau. Poor Jean Jacques ! Alternately deified, and cast to the dogs; a deep-minded, high-minded, even noble, yet wofully misarranged mortal, with all misformations of Nature intensated to the verge of madness by unfavorable fortune. A lonely man; his life a long soliloquy! The wandering Tiresias of the time, - in whom, however, did lie prophetic meaning, such as none of the others offer. Whereby, indeed, it might partly be that the world went to such extremes about him: that, long after his departure, we have seen one whole nation worship him; and a Burke, in the name of another, class him with the offscourings of the earth.
His true character, with its lofty aspirings and poor performings; and how the spirit of the man worked so wildly, with celestial fire in a thick, dark element of chaos, and shot forth ethereal radiance, all-piercing lightning, yet could not illuminate, was quenched and did not conquer: this, with what lies in it, may now be pretty accurately appreciated. Let his history teach all whom it concerns, to harden themselves against the ills which Mother Nature will try them with;' to seek within their own soul what the world must for ever deny them; and say composedly to the Prince of the Power of this lower Earth and Air, “Go thou thy way: I go mine.''
1. Apollonius of Tyana, the Pagan Christ of the Third Century. An
Essay, by ALBERT RÉville, Doctor in Theology, and Pastor of the Walloon Church in Rotterdam. Authorized Transla
tion. London: J. C. Hotten, 1866. 2. Apollonius von Tyana und Christus, oder das Verhältniss des
Pythagoreismus zum Christenthum. Ein Beitrag zur Religionsgeschichte der ersten Jahrhunderte nach Christus. Von D.
FERD. CHRIST. BAUR. Tübingen, 1832. 3. The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, translated from the Greek of
Philostratus. With Notes and Illustrations. By the Rev.
London, 1809. 4. An Account of the Life of Apollonius Tyaneus. By M. LE NAIN
DE TILLEMONT. Translated out of French. To which are added some Observations upon Apollonius. London : Printed for S. Smith and B. Walford, at the Prince's Arms in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1702.
THERE are sentences in the New Testament that sound very exclusive. “Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.”—“There is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.” Why, it is asked, should the disciple of Jesus thus claim for his Master a solitary dignity? It is asserted, as if it were an axiom which none could think of denying, that all inspiration is of the same kind. Moses was inspired, and so was Homer; Jesus was sent of God, and so was Confucius. Why, then, arrogate for the Teacher of Nazareth an exclusive supremacy, instead of regarding him, with courtesy yet with freedom, as “the first among equals"?
So thought educated men, two hundred years after Christ, when persecution had for a time been abandoned, partly from weariness and disgust, partly because of its utter want of success, and partly because the holy character of the Saviour and the excellence of his precepts had made their impression even upon those who sat in the high places of the earth. So
thought the good young Emperor Alexander Severus; and, collecting the statues of those who had benefited mankind, he placed Abraham and Jesus side by side with Orpheus and A pollonius of Tyana.
Alexander was the last sovereign of a dynasty which ruled the Roman world between the years 193 and 235. It was, as dynasties in general are, founded by a warrior. When Didius had bought the sovereignty from the soldiers who had murdered Pertinax, Septimius Severus marched on Rome, put to death the murderers and their trafficking emperor, overthrew some rivals of a more manly description, and gave to the distracted empire eighteen years of comparative repose and splendor, before he left his power to his unworthy
Severus found the old persecuting edicts still existing; and the first years of his reign were darkened by their enforcement. At length he modified them so far as to prohibit only future conversions to Christianity. Yet, even as tlus softened, the law was cruel; and “ the blood of the martyrs” continued to be “the seed of the Church.” Among the sufferers at that time, the martyrologists record the heroic steadfastness of Perpetua and Felicitas, of whom the one could resist the agonized entreaties of her heathen father, and the other could leave her new-born child, and go rejoicing to her death. As at their martyrdom the very jailor became a convert, it is probable that the wisest counsellors of the emperor concluded that this was not the way to stop the progress of Christianity.
His best counsellor appears to have been his wife, Julia Domna, the daughter of a priest of the Sun, at Emesa in Cælesyria. Not less interested, probably, than others to oppose the progress of the new religion, Julia, a woman of commanding mind and literary culture, forsook the path of persecution, and endeavored to attain her object by rendering paganism more attractive. She gathered around her philosophers and men of letters. Known as the imperial patroness of learning, she received probably, from those who courted her favor, many a curious manuscript which had long been unread." Among such treasures was an account of Apollonius, the philosopher of Tyana, purporting to bave been written by his companion, Damis. The empress intrusted it to Philostratus, one of the learned men of her court, with directions to prepare from it, and such other materials as he could find, a Life of the Tyanean sage.
The little volume by M. Réville, bearing the name of this personage, brings before us, in a brief but vivid sketch, the imperial lady, her warlike husband, his son Caracalla, and the two youths, Elagabalus and Alexander, with the able princesses who really reigned under their names. But a dynasty of boys and women could but hold their power and their lives during the pleasure of a fierce and dissolute *soldiery; and, just as the ripening age of Alexander gave promise of a glorious reign, bis murder threw the Roman world beneath the feet of the barbarian tyrant, Maximin. Long before that time, Julia Domna liad passed away. She died before the book was completed, which she had commanded Philostratus to prepare.
The work of M. Réville may be regarded as an abridgment of Dr. Baur's. It is, however, an abridgment by an able hand. While much is omitted and much condensed, the learning and judgment of M. Réville have been employed upon what remains; and his vivid portraiture of the imperial family carries us back in imagination to the stormy period he displays.
The question has been much discussed, whether the work of Philostratus was written in hostility to Christianity. That author himself makes not the slightest direct reference to Jesus or his religion; but this studied silence is, as Dr. Baur well suggests, itself a suspicious circumstance. Hierocles in ancient times, and Charles Blount in modern, endeavored to exalt the sage of Tyana above the Saviour. Among Christian writers, some have denounced Apollonius as a detestable magician; others have thought him almost a fictitious personage, - believing that his real history has been forgotten or suppressed, while actions and words have been ascribed to him, partly the growth of tradition, and partly imitated from those of Jesus. Such is the judgment of Dr. Baur and M. Réville; and the purpose with which, in their opinion, the work was composed is expressed in these words of the latter:
“ It contains no evidences, either of indifference or hostility to Christianity; but rather of jealousy. It is inspired by a desire to turn the advantages and the superiority possessed by Christianity over ordinary Paganism to the profit of a reformed Paganism.” — Réville,
It is hard, however, to mark the limit between hostility and jealousy; and we are not sure but that the object of Philostratus is as accurately stated in the language of Huet, Bishop of Avranches, which Réville thinks too severe:
“ Philostratus seems to have made it his chief aim to depreciate both the Christian faith and Christian doctrine, both of which were progressing wonderfully at that time, by the exhibition, on the opposite side, of that shallow representation of a miraculous science, holiness, and virtue. He invented a character in imitation of Christ, and introduced almost all the incidents in the life of Jesus Christ into the history of Apollonius, in order that the Pagans might have no cause to envy the Christians: by doing which he inadvertently advanced the glory of Christ; for, by falsely attributing to another the real character of the Saviour, he gave to the latter the praise which is his just due, and indirectly held him up to the admiration and praise of others." Réville, p. 57.
The birth of Apollonius is thought to have nearly coincided in date with that of Jesus. His native place, Tyana, was a city of Cappadocia, in Asia Minor; and he pursued his early studies at Tarsus, not far off, possibly under the same teachers from whom the youthful Saul was receiving the elements of Grecian learning. If we may believe Philostratus, whose account we shall now follow, the birth of the future sage had been foretold to his mother by Proteus, the changeful and prophetic deity, who became incarnate in his person. A flock of swans sung at his birth, as at that of Apollo. In youth he embraced with great zeal the philosophy of Pythagoras, and became so famous for the beauty