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ABELSON (JOSHUA), M.A., D.Lit. (London). ARNOLD (THOMAS WALKER), C.I.E., Litt.D.,

Principal of Aria College, Portsmouth ; author M.A.

of Immanence of God in Rabbinical Litera. Professor of Arabic, University of London, ture, Jewish Mysticism, Maimonides on the University College; author of The Preaching Jewish Creed.

of Islam ; English editor of The EncycloMysticism (Hebrew and Jewish).

paedia of Islām.

Persecution (Muhammadan).
ABRAHAMS (ISRAEL), M.A. (Lond. and Camb.),

D.D. (Heb. Union Coll., Cincin.).
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature

BAIKIE (JAMES).
in the University of Cambridge; formerly

Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society ; Senior Tutor in the Jews' College, London ;

Minister of the United Free Church at Edin. editor of the Jewish Quarterly Review, 1888

burgh ; author of Lands and Peoples of the

Bible (1914).
1908.

Names (Jewish), Name of God (Jewish). . Music (Egyptian), Nature (Egyptian).
ADAM (D. S.), M.A., B.D.
Professor of Systematic Theology and Church BALDWIN (JAMES MARK), M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc.,

LL.D.
History in Ormond College, Melbourne,

Formerly Professor of Philosophy and Psycho
Australia.

logy in Johns Hopkins University; Corre. Perseverance.

spondent of the Institute of France ; author

of Mental Development, Thought and Things ; ADENEY (WALTER FREDERIC), M.A., D.D.

editor of the Dictionary of Philosophy and Formerly Principal of Lancashire College, and Psychology. Lecturer on History of Doctrine in Man.

Object, Organic Selection, Pancalism. chester University, author of The Greek and Eastern Churches, and other works. Nonconformity.

BALL (JAMES DYER), I.S.O., M.R.A.S., M. Ch.

Br. R.A.S.
ALEXANDER (HARTLEY BURR), Ph.D.

Of the Hongkong Civil Service (retired);
Professor of Philosophy in the University of author of Things Chinese, The Chinese at
Nebraska ; author of vol. X. (North Home, and other works; editor of Friend of
American) of The Mythology of All Races China.
(1916).

Music (Chinese), Names (Chinese).
Music (American), Orenda, Philosophy
(Primitive).

BARTON (GEORGE AARON), A.M., Ph.D., LL.D.
ALLEN (ABEL LEIGHTON), B.A., B.L.

Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic Member of the Bar, Chicago, Ill. ; author of

Languages in Bryn Mawr College, PennsylThe Message of New Thought.

vania; author of A Sketch of Semitic Origins,

Ecclesiastes' in the International Critical New Thought.

Commentary, The Origin and Development ANESAKI (MASAHARU), M.A., D.Litt.

of Babylonian Writing, Archæology and

the Bible.
Professor of the Science of Religion in the
Imperial University of Tokyo ; Professor of

Old Age (Semitic and Egyptian).
Japanese Literature and Life in the Univer-
sity of Harvard, 1913–15.

BASSET (RENÉ).
Philosophy (Japanese).

Doyen de la Faculté des Lettres de l'Uni.

versité d'Alger ; Correspondant de l'Institut; ARMSTRONG (ROBERT CORNELL), B.A., M.A., Président du xiv. Congrès international des Ph.D.

Orientalistes (Alger, 1905); Membre de la
Professor of Philosophy and Comparative Société asiatique de Paris, de la Société

Religions in the Union Methodist College, asiatique allemande, de la Société historique
Kobe, Japan ; author of Light from the algérienne, de la Société de Géographie
East; Studies in Japanese Confucianism.

d'Alger.
Ninomiya Sontoku.

Nusairis.

BECELAERE (E. L. VAN), Ph.D., D.D.

CARNOY (ALBERT JOSEPH), Docteur en Philosophie
Sometime Professor of Philosophy, of Moral et Lettres (Louvain).

Theology, and of Holy Scripture in the Professor of Zend and Pahlavi and Greek
Dominican Convent of Studies, Ottawa, Palæography in the University of Louvain ;
Canada (belonging to the Dominican Pro- Research Professor in the University of
vince of Paris); Member of the American Pennsylvania (1915–16).
Philosophical Association.

Ormazd.
Penance (Roman Catholic), Penitence.

CARRIER (AUGUSTUS STILES), D.D., LL.D.
BEET (WILLIAM ERNEST), M.A., D.Litt. (London). Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exe.

Lecturer Designate in Church History to the gesis in McCormick Theological Seminary,
Liverpool Board of Biblical Studies; author

Chicago, Ili.
of The Early Roman Episcopate, The Rise of

Nature (Semitic).
the Papacy, and other works.
Oath (New Testament and Christian). CARTER (JESSE BENEDICT), Ph.D. (Halle), LL.D.

(Princeton).
BENNETT (WILLIAM HENRY), M.A. (Lond.), D.D.
(Aber.), Litt.D. (Camb.).

Director of the American Academy in Rome.
Principal of Lancashire College, Manchester ;

Personification (Roman).
sometime Fellow of St. John's College, Cam-
bridge ; author of The Religion of the Post CARVER (WILLIAM OWEN), M.A., Th.D., LL.D.
Exilic Prophets, and other works.

Professor of Comparative Religion and Mis-
Personification (Semitic).

sions in the Southern Baptist Theological

Seminary, Louisville, Ky.
BILLSON (CHARLES JAMES), M.A.

Negroes (United States).
Corpus Christi College, Oxford ; author of
The Popular Poetry of the Finns (1900). CASARTELLI (LOUIS CHARLES), M.A. (Lond.),
Names (Lapp).

D.D. and D.Litt. Or. (Louvain), M.R.A.S.

Bishop of Salford ; Lecturer on Iranian Lan-
DE BOER (TJITZE), Philos. Dr.

guages and Literature in the University of
Professor of Philosophy in the University of Manchester ; formerly Professor of Zend and
Amsterdam.

Pahlavi in the University of Louvain.
Philosophy (Muslim).

Philosophy (Iranian).
Box (GEORGE HERBERT), M.A.

CHAPMAN (JOHN), O.S.B.
Lecturer in Rabbinical Hebrew, King's Palazzo San Calisto, Rome.
College, London; Hon. Canon of St.

Mysticism (Roman Catholic).
Albans; formerly Scholar of St. John's
College, Oxford ; sometime Hebrew Master CLAY (ALBERT T.), Ph.D., LL.D.
at Merchant Taylors' School, London ;

Laffan Professor of Assyriology and Baby-
author of The Book of Isaiah translated in lonian Literature, and Curator of the Baby-
accordance with the results of Modern Criti- lonian Collection, in Yale University, New
cism (1908), The Ezra Apocalypse (1912),

Haven, Conn.
The Virgin Birth of Jesus (1916).

Names (Babylonian).
Pharisees.

CLEMENTS (ERNEST).
BRABROOK (Sir EDWARD), C.B.

Of the Indian Civil Service, Bombay Presi.
Of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law; Director dency; District Judge, Dharwar.
S.A. ; Vice-President R.A.I. ; past President

Music (Indian).
of the Sociological Society and Child Study
Society, and of the Economic and Anthro- COBB (WILLIAM FREDERICK), D.D.
pological Sections of the British Association ; Rector of the Church of St. Ethelburga the
Treasurer of the Royal Archäological Insti-

Virgin, London ; author of Origines Judaicæ,
tute; formerly Chief Registrar of Friendly The Book of Psalms, Mysticism and the
Societies.

Creed, Spiritual Healing.
Oddfellows.

Pascal.
BROOKS (ERNEST WALTER), M.A.

COHEN (FRANCIS LYON).
London.

Chief Minister of the Great Synagogue,
Names (Syriac).

Sydney ; President of the Jewish Ecclesiasti.

cal Court (Beth Din) for New South Wales ;
BRYANT (Mrs. SOPHIE), D.Sc. (London), Litt.D. author of Rise and Development of Syna.
(Dublin).

gogue Music; music-editor of the Jewish
Headmistress of the North London Collegiate Encyclopedia.
School; author of Educational Ends, and

Music (Jewish).
other works.
Nationality, Patriotism.

COLEMAN (ALEXIS IRÉNÉE DU PONT), M.A.

(Oxon.).
CAMPBELL-SMITH (MARY), M.A.

Assistant Professor of English Literature,
Dundee.

College of the City of New York.
Neutrality.

Newman.
CANNEY (MAURICE A.), M.A. (Oxon.).

COOKE _(

GEORGE ALBERT), D.D., Hon. D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Edin.).

in the University of Manchester ; editor of Regius Professor of Hebrew and Canon of
the Journal of the Manchester Egyptian and Christ Church, Oxford ; Hon. Canon of St.
Oriental Society.

Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh.
Oath (Semitic).

Nabatæans.

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COOKE (SELWYN MONTAGU), M.A.

DAVIDSON (T) IOMAS).
Rector of Belbroughton, Worcs ; formerly Minister of the United Free Church at Afton,

Hebrew Scholar of St. John's College, Ox- New Cumnock; assistant-editor of the
ford ; Hebrew Lecturer at Cuddesdon Theo. Globe Encyclopædia and of Chambers's En.
logical College ; Vice-Principal of Edinburgh cyclopædia.
Theological College, and Examining Chap-

Numbers (Introductory).

lain to the late Bishop of Oxford.

Nazirites.

DENIKER (JOSEPH), Docteur ès-Sciences (Paris),

Hon. LL.D. (Aber.).

CRAWLEY (ALFRED ERNEST), M.A. (Camb.).

Librarian of the Muséum national d'histoire
Fellow of the Sociological Society ; Examiner naturelle; Hon. Fellow of the Royal An-

to the University of London ; author of thropological Institute of Great Britain ;
The Mystic Rose, The Tree of Life, The Idea Chevalier de la légion d'honneur.
of the Soul, The Book of the Ball.

Patagonians.
Oath (Introductory and Primitive), Ob: DORNER (AUGUST), Dr. Theol. und Philos.
scenity, Ordeal (Introductory and

Ordentlicher Professor an der Universität zu
Primitive), Orgy, Palmistry.

Königsberg.
CROOKE (WILLIAM), B.A.

Obedience.

Ex-Scholar of Trinity College, Dublin; Fellow EDIE (WILLIAM), M.A., B.D.

of the Royal Anthropological Institute;

Minister of the Church of Scotland at Inveresk,

President of the Anthropological Section of

Musselburgh; formerly Examiner in

the British Association, 1910; President of

Hebrew and Biblical Criticism in the

the Folklore Society, 1911-12; late of the

University of St. Andrews.

Bengal Civil Service.

Paul.

Mundas, Musahar, Narbada, Nasik,

Nepal, Oraons, Orissa, _Out-Castes EDWARDS (EDWARD), B.A. (Wales and Cantab.),
(Indian), Panchpiriya, Pandharpur, M.R.A.S.
Parasnath.

Member of the Board of Archæology, and

Examiner in Persian to the University of
CRUICKSHANK (WILLIAM), M.A., B.D.

London; Assistant in the Department of
Minister of the Church of Scotland at Kinneff,

Oriental Printed Books and Manuscripts in

Bervie ; author of The Bible in the Light of the British Museum.

Antiquity (1913).

Ordeal (Iranian).

Numbers (Semitic).

EHRHARDT (CHRISTIAN EUGÈNE).

CUETIS (WILLIAM ALEXANDER), D.D., D.Litt.

Professeur honoraire de l'Université; Profes.

Professor of Biblical Criticism in the Uni. seur à la Faculté libre de Théologie pro.

versity of Edinburgh ; author of A History testante de Paris ; Pasteur à Bourg-la-Reine

of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in (Consistoire de Paris).

Christendom and Beyond (1911).

Nomism.

Orthodoxy.

ELLIS (HENRY HAVELOCK), L.S.A.

CZAPLICKA (MARIE ANTOINETTE), F.R.A.I.,

Editor of the Contemporary Science Series ;

author of Studies in the Psychology of Sex,
F.R.G.S.

and other works.

Somerville College and Lady Margaret Hall,

Oxford; Mianowski Travelling. Scholar,

Nietzsche.

Warsaw ; Diplomée in Anthropology, Ox- ENTHOVEN (REGINALD E.), C.I.E., I.C.S.

ford ; Mary Ewart Lecturer in Ethnology to Commissioner, 1st Grade, Bombay Presidency.

the Committee of Anthropology, University

Panchala.

of Oxford ; author of Aboriginal Siberia, FALLAIZE (EDWIN NICHOLAS COLLINGFORD), B.A.
My Siberian Year.

(Oxon.).
Ostyaks.

Late King Charles Exhibitioner, Exeter Col.
DAICHES (SALIS), M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig).

lege, Oxford.

Rabbi of the Hebrew Congregation, Sunder-

Pastoral Peoples.

land.

FARNELL (LEWIS RICHARD), M.A., D.Litt. (Ox.

Nahmanides.

ford), Hon. D.Litt. (Geneva and Dublin),

Hon. LL.D. (St. Andrews), F.R.A.S., F.B.A.
DAVIDS (T. W. Rhys), LL.D., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.B.A.

Rector of Exeter College, Oxford ; University
Formerly Professor of Comparative Religion, Lecturer in Classical Archæology; formerly
Manchester; President of the Pāli Text

Hibbert Lecturer and Wilde Lecturer in
Society; author of Buddhism (1878), Ques-

Natural and Comparative Religion; corre-
tions of King Milinda (1890-94), American

sponding Member of the German Imperial
Lectures on Buddhism (1896), Buddhist

Archæological Institute ; author of The
India (1902), Early Buddhism (1908), Dia.

Cults of the Greek States (1896-1909), The

logues of the Buddha (1899, 1910).

Evolution of Religion (1905), Higher Aspects

Patimokkha.

of Greek Religion (1911), Greece and Babylon

(1911).

DAVIDS (Mrs. Rhys), M.A.
Formerly Lecturer on Indian Philosophy in the

Nature (Greek).

University of Manchester ; Fellow of Uni- FARQUHAR (JOHN NICOL), M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.).

versity College, London ; author of Buddhist Literary Secretary of the Young Men's Chris.

Psychological Ethics (1900), Psalms of the tian Association in India ; author of Gita

Early Buddhists (1909, 1913), Buddhism and Gospel, 4 Primer of Hinduism, The

(1912), Buddhist Psychology (1914).

Crown of Hinduism, Modern Religious Move-

Music (Buddhist), Paticca-Samuppada,

ments in India.

Perfection (Buddhist).

Narayana, New Dispensation.

FAWCETT (FREDERICK).

GARVIE (ALFRED ERNEST), M.A. (Oxford), D.D. Formerly Deputy Inspector General of Crimi. (Glas.). nal Intelligence and Railways in India.

Principal of New College, London; anthor of Nayars.

The Ritschlian Theology, Studies in the

Inner Life of Jesus, Studies of Paul and his FAWKES (ALFRED), M.A. (Oxon.).

Gospel, and other works.
Vicar of Ashby St. Ledgers.

Pantheism (Introductory).
Papacy, Persecution (Roman Catholic).
FLETCHER (ALICE CUNNINGHAM).

GASKOIN (CHARLES JACINTH BELLAIRS), M.A. Holder of Thaw Fellowship, Peabody Museum,

Director in History, Fitzwilliam Hall, Cam

bridge ; sometime Scholar of Jesus College, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Cambridge.
Pawnee,

Nonjurors.
FLEWELLING (RALPH T.), D.Phil.

Professor of Philosophy in the University of GASTER (Moses), Ph.D.,
South California, Los Angeles; author of

Chief Rabbi, Spanish and Portuguese Con-
Christ and the Dramas of Doubt, Personal.

gregations, London ; formerly President of ism and the Problems of Philosophy.

the Folklore Society ; Vice-President of the Personalism.

Royal Asiatic Society.

Ordination (Jewish), Parsiism in Judaism. FORKE (ALFRED), LL.D.

Agassiz Professor of Oriental Languages and GEDEN (ALFRED S.), M.A. (Oxon.), D.D. (Aber.). Literature in the University of California,

Professor of Old Testament Languages and Berkeley; Hon. Member of the Royal

Literature and of Comparative Religion in Asiatic Society at Shanghai.

the Wesleyan College, Richmond, Surrey; Philosophy (Chinese).

author of Studies in the Religions of the

East, Introduction to the Hebrew Bible ; FOUCART (GEORGE B.).

translator of Deussen’s Philosophy of the Directeur de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Upanishads. Orientale du Caire ; Professeur d'Histoire des

Nature (Hindu), Nimavats, Pantheism Religions à l'Université d'Aix-Marseille ;

(Hindu), Persecution (Indian). Ancien Inspecteur en chef du Service des Antiquités de l'Egypte ; auteur de Histoire GODDARD (PLINY EARLE), A.B., M.A., Ph.D. des Religions et Méthode Comparative (1912). Curator of Ethnology in the AnthropoNames (Primitive, Egyptian), Personifica. logical Department of the American Museum tion (Introductory and Primitive).

of Natural History.

Navaho.
Fox (WILLIAM SHERWOOD), M.A., Ph.D. (Johns
Hopkins).

GOMME (Sir LAURENCE), F.S.A.
Assistant Professor of Classics in Princeton

Late Fellow of the Anthropological Institute; University ; author of Mythology of Greece

Vice-President of the Folklore Society ; and Rome, The Johns Hopkins Tabella Hon. Member of Glasgow Archæological Defixionum.

Society.
Nature (Roman).

Mutilations, Need-Fire.
FRANKS (ROBERT SLEIGHTHOLME), M. A., B.Litt.

Principal of the Western College, Bristol ; GRAF (Prof. Dr.).
author of The New Testament Doctrines of

Late of Quedlinburg.
Man, Sin, and Salvation (1908).

Music (Greek and Roman).
Passibility and Impassibility.

GRANDIDIER (GUILLAUME), Docteur ès-Sciences.
GARBE (RICHARD), Ph.D.
Professor des Sanskrit und der allgemeinen

Correspondant du Muséum d'Histoire natu.

relle; Chargé de Missions scientifiques par le Religionsgeschichte an der Universität zu Gouvernement français à Madagascar, dans Tübingen.

l'Afrique australe et dans l'Amérique du Nyaya, Patanjali.

Nord. GARDINER (ALAN HENDERSON), D.Litt. (Oxon.).

Ordeal (Malagasy).
Formerly Reader in Egyptology at Manchester GRASS (KARL KONRAD), Dr. Theol.

University; Laycock Student of Egypt-
ology at Worcester College, Oxford ; sub-

Pensionary Professor of New Testament editor of the Hieroglyphic Dictionary of the

Exegesis in the Imperatorskij Jurjevskij German Academies at Berlin.

University, Dorpat, Russia; Counsellor of

State.
Personification (Egyptian), Philosophy

Mysticism (Russian).
(Egyptian).
GARDNER (ERNEST ARTHUR), M.A., Litt.D.

GRAY (GEORGE BUCHANAN), D.Litt., D.D. Yates Professor of Archæology in the Uni

Professor of Hebrew and old Testament versity of London; late Director of the

Exegesis in Mansfield College ; Speaker's British School of Archæology at Athens.

Lecturer in Biblical Studies in the Uni. Mythology, Personification (Greek).

versity of Oxford.

Names (Hebrew). GARDNER (PERCY), Litt.D., LL.D., F.S.A.

Professor of Classical Archæology in the Uni. GRAY (LOUIS HERBERT), Ph.D. (Columbia).

versity of Oxford ; Fellow of the British Editor of The Mythology of all Races ; anthor
Academy; Vice-President of the Hellenic of Indo-Iranian Phonology (1902); translator
Society; author of Exploratio Evangelica of Vāsavadattā, a Sanskrit Romance by
(1899), Principles of Greek Art (1913), and Subandhu (1913).
other works.

Muskhogeans, Names (Indo-European),
Mysteries (Greek, Phrygian, Roman).

Oahspe, Old Age (American, Iranian).

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