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a mark of mean disposition-winking with the power of; to give the hand the mark of amity; eye a sign of evil intent, lighting up the eye hands also used in a variety of idioms, to “clap dunoting begun or renewed attention; used them" expressive of sudden feeling-to " lay as the symbol of intellect, reason or opinion. them on," to take hold of, or to impart healNose the means of breathing and the organ ing, spiritual office, or gift--to lift or spread of smell, breathing of the nostrils metaphorically them the, posture of prayer--to lift those of descriptive of divine wrath. Mouth used in another to comfort him — to lift them against speaking-opening it the sign of commencing one to rebel-to join them a sign of combinaa discourse-laying the hand on it a token of tion; left hand used with the right, in idioreverence-smiting on it an act of contemptu- matical expressions, denoting both sides--left ous anger. Lips used with a variety of epithets handed persons noted for dexterity and preto express shades of character,as uncircumcised, cision of aim-right hand the symbol of power, flattering, lying, joyful, burning, unclean,etc., and the place of honour. Bošom the seat of used in Proverbs, especially to point out vices emotions, as joy, sorrow, etc.;-breast, smiting and virtues of character. Teeth, the organs of it, expressive of intense grief. Back, turning mastication, gnashing them a sign of agony, it the sign of forsaking-bowing it of servitude gnashing with them a sign of rage-the principal -loins bound, and strengthened by the girdle, instrument of speech, like lips used with a va expressive of lineage or descent. Heart the riety of epithets denoting great diversity of seat of emotion—to harden it, to persist in character. Throat as the means of utterance disobedience, to apply it, to devote oneself to compared in wicked men to a sepulchre-neck study. Liver called glory in the Hebrew Scrip; adorned with ornaments of needlework, chains tures; reins or kidneys, figuratively, the seat of gold, etc., the seat of yoke, and the symbol of feeling-bowels, used in many places of of subordination--clasped in joy and grief, Scripture, where in modern language, heart hard or stiff denoting obstinacy. Shoulder the would be employed. Thigh, putting the hand seat of burden, badges of honour borne on it, under it a form of oath. Knee, kneeling, toas exemplified' in Christ, on whose shoulder ken of obeisance to God or man-leg, foot, the government shall be.Arm the natural instruments of motion, therefore the symbol symbol of strength-of flesh denoting weak- of personal action, purpose, etc.,-Feei used ness-hand used in a variety of idioms, as,- idiomatically in various ways ; " under feet, at hand, near in time or space, by the hand,” token of subjection, “at the feetclose at-by means of, into," or " in the hand,into tendance on, or implied inferiority, "falling or in the power of, " from the hand,from the at another's” feet an act of homage.

CANAAN.

ITS BOUNDARIES, ETC.,

God,--the expulsion accomplished by Israel As defined by Moses, extending to Egypt, the under Moses and Joshua, acting under the great (Mediterranean) Sea, the desert and the Captain of the Lord's host, -- prosecuted little river (Euphrates); as defined by Ezekiel in by little,--the original inhabitants who were vision, more limited and more nearly coin- spared being in the meantime placed under cides with the territory generally possessed by tribute,--the chosen people entering on the the tribes,-noted for its hills and valleys, possession of cities which they had not built, fountains and springs, - its wheat, barley, and vineyards and oliveyards which they Ład vines, figtrees, and pomegranates, and for its not planted. richness represented as flowing with milk and CHART FOR THE DIVISION OF THE COUNTRY. honey, etc.

Canaan proper, having the wilderness of Sin, PROMISE OF POSSESSION,

etc., on the south, the great sea on the west, Repeatedly given to Abraham and the Patri- Lebanon on the north, and the Jordan on archs, to Moses, Joshua, etc., subsequent the east; the territory on the other side allusions to the same subject made by David, Jordan, having the Arnon on the south, the by the captives from Babylon, and by Stephen wilderness on the east, Hermon and Bashan and Paul, -conditions of continued possession

on the north, and the Jordan on the west;that the tribes should obey God and abstain the territory east of the Jordan conquered from idolatry.

under Moses, and allocated to two and a

half of the tribes, the rest by Joshua, and COMMISSION TO CONQUER THE LAND, given to the remaining nine tribes and a Given to Moses and renewed to Joshua,- half. the aborigines to be expelled, gigantic in

THE SEVERAL INHERITANCES, stature, given up to idolatry with other kin- Allocated to the several tribes and families dred sins, and falling under the judgment of for the most part or altogether by lot, and to Joshua and Caleb in pursuanca of special | by Nebuchadnezzar who destroyed it, and promise.

carried the people captive to Babylon.

METROPOLIS OF CANAAN,

RESTORATION, Jerusalem anciently called Jebus, and long in Promised and eventually fulfilled,—but again the hand of the aborigines, -at length taken its ruin predicted by Jesus, and accomplished by David, — divinely selected as the centre by the Roman army. of God's worship, and the scene of the national gatherings-placed under the special

JERUSALEM MYSTIC, protection of the Most High, and cherished Described by Ezekiel in vision, and by John by the people with the purest patriotism;- in the Apocalypse,

detailing its vast extent, its very frequently threatened and many times holiness, its felicity, and its security in the invaded by hostile armies, as by Shishak king presence of God, and holding it up to the of Egypt, Rezin king of Syria, Sennache ib hope of believers as the gathering place of the king of Assyria, Pharaoh-necho, Jehoast, and I redeemed from the earth.

COVENANTS.

COVENANTS,

with Isaac and Jacob and with similar Used in reference to men to signify an agree: the promise of Canaan;-with Levi anent the

promises; with Israel in the wilderness, and ment or contract, entered into deliberately and with solemnity, - in reference to God, priesthood -- and with David - his throne signifying his solemn promise or engagement reigrof Messiah.

being established forever in the mediatorial to those with whom he entered into covenant. COVENANTS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE,

GOD FAITHFUL TO HIS COVENANT, Between God and man, between man and Evinced by his faithfulness, his mercy, bis man, - ratified by oath and sacrifice, and covenant an everlasting covenant. sometimes written and sealed, -instano d in Abraham, and in the princes, levites, priests, THE OBLIGATION TO KEEP GOD'S COVENANT, and people of Israel, after the return froui Manifest from the kindness displayed in the captivity.

them, the danger of violating them seen in

the threatenings, and in the judgments he COVENANT OF SALT.

has often inflicted, instanced very frequently Salt an emblem of incorruptibility, and per- in the history of the chosen people. petuity,

MEN MAKING COVENANTS WITH GOD, BLOOD OF THE COVENANT, Flowed from the sacrifices which were slain Mentioned especially in seasons of special in ratification,-illustrated by Moscs at the solemnity, of providential judgments and of national covenant made by Israel in the religious revival, instanced in Israel in view wilderness, and by Christ in the covenant of of the death of Jushua, and in the days of

of the approaching death of Moses, in view redemption.

Josiah.
HUMAN COVENANTS,
Often mentioned in scripture, and entered into

THE NEW COVENANT,
with great solemnity-instanced in those of Made in Christ with believers, so called to
Abraham with Abimelech, Laban with distinguish it from the old covenant of Sinai,
Jacob, Joshua with the tribes, Jonathan with spiritual and is founded on the better promises.
David, etc.

COVENANTS OF VARIOUS CHARACTERS. COVENANTS OF GOD WITH MEN,

Wonderful, made by God for his people, with Graciously revealed to successive saints with the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, and their respective and appropriate promises,— with the stones of the ground, ruinous those twice with Noah in reference to the flood:

-which godless men make in their vain im. with Abraham, conveying the gift of the land agination with death and bell; unlawful, those of Canaan, and the promise of the seed, - which Israel made with heathen nations.

DIET AND DRESS.

HUNGER,

son, manna,-eating of human flesh threaten. Suffered by Esau,—by the army of king Saul, ed by Moses as an aggravation of famine, --by Jesus after his baptism, — by Paul in alluded to by the prophets, and instanced Damascus and at other times, - voluntarily in the seige of Samaria. borne by Abraham's servant,-by Hannah, and by king Saul in his last extremity.

THIRST,

Often mentioned in Scripture history-as FASTING IN CONNECTION WITH RELIGION, Often observed by individuals, families, and house of Jael, Samson at Lehi, and Jesus at

in the case of Israel at Rephidim, Sisera in communities, when observed to be in the the well of Sychar and on the cross, emblem right spirit

of kindness to fellow-men, alms of the awakened sinner's longing for spiritual giving to the poor, etc., opposed to the fasting blessings. of the Pharisees.

DRINK USUALLY PRESENTED IN A CUP. FASTS BY DIVINE AUTHORITY, Proclaimed by prophets and rulers in seasons This vessel, therefore, the emblem of a per. of calamity, as in Joel, and Esther, in Nine- son's lot or portion -as cup of salvation, of veh, -sometimes proclaimed under pretence trembling, of astonishment, of the Lord's right of piety, instanced in Jezebel.

hand, etc. EXTRAORDINARY PASTS,

EATING AND DRINKING, Extending to forty days, Moses on the mount, Denoting generally to take a meal, instanced Elijah on Horeb, and Jesus in the wilderness in the language of Elijah to Ahab-sometimes

feasting and indulgence, instanced in Israel FOOD THE GIFT OF GOD,

sitting down to eat and drink in connection Furnished from earth in his kind providence, with the golden calf. emblematical at the same time of Zion's pro. vision, - dependent on human industry in

BEVERAGES, tilling the ground, in sowing the seed, and Various, water most common-wine frequently harvesting the products, thanks therefore to be offered with prayer to God, that food may used, strong drink, weak wine called vinegar be blessed, as commanded by Moses, enjoined presented to Jesus on the cross, etc.; corn and

wine, often associated as the means of suste. by Apostles and exemplified by Christ.

nance, and corn, wine, and oil connected together, representing the produce of the field,

vineyard, and orchard. "To eat bread," the common term for taking food.

SOBRIETY, PREPABATION OF THE PRODUCE OF THE FIE*.D. forced by describing the evils of intempe.

Osten directly enjoined, and frequently en. Often done in the simplest form, even eaten rance, namely, personal and bodily suffering, on the field as when the disciples plucked the mental anguish, domestic strife and conten' corn, sometimes simply parched, --sometimes tion, spiritual insensibility, and if unrepented grinded into meal, and baked by females and of the curse of God in this world, and excluBlaves.

sion from the kingdom of heaven-instanced

in Noah, Lot, and Nabal; unjust imputations LEAVEN

in the case of Hannah, and by the Jews Generally used in the preparation of bread, against Christ; and also against the apostles -in its ditfusive and assimilating nature on the day of Pentecost. likened to malice and wickedness, to corrupt manners and customs; also to false doctrine; prohibited for specific reasons in the bread Principally two-the dinner, generally light, used at the Passover.

and caten in the forenoon; the supper, or OTHER ELEMENTS OF DIET, SUCH AS MILK, principal meal, eaten at a late hour of the day;

the former instanced in Joseph, and alluded BUTTER, CHEESE, HONEY, ETC.

to in the parable of the marriage feast-the [See under AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS.] latter in the feast in honour of Herod's birth.

day; postures observed in eating various, more

gener ly recumbent, as exemplified by Jesus Leeks, onions, garlic, (Egyptian) beans, pot- and his apostles in the Last Supper, John tage, fruit of the carob tree, figs, raisins, veni. I lying in his bosom.

XXxiy

BREAD THE STAFF OF LIFE.

MEALS.

FOOD MORE RARELY REFERRED TO

FEASTS,

DIET AND DRESS.)

SYNOPSIS.

[DISEASE AND DEATA

said to be naked, as David when he danced Provided on occasions of joy,—as marriages, before the ark, and Simon Peter when Jesus birthdays, etc., often referred to in the figura. came to him at the lake of Tiberias. tive language of the sacred writers, as emblems of divine blessingsinstanced' in that VARIOUS OTHER PARTS OF DRESS. provided by Solomon for bis servants; by The head dress, girdle made of linen, leather. Samuel for Saul; by Belshazzar for his lords silk, etc.

, wrapped round the loins, for the and captains, etc.-invitations to feasts some. double purpose of tucking up the loose gartimes issued, of which our Lord advises that ments, and for strengthening the loins, which on receiving and using them the guests should form the weakest part of the body; hence the study humility in selecting the lower seats.

emblem of power or strength. To gird up the

loins descriptive of readiness for travel, preDRESS.

paredness for labour, and emblematical of First felt to be necessary by Adam and Eve- preparedness for Christ's coming — shoes or fig-leaves—the skins of animals slain in sacri. sandals, generally consisting only of soles fice, etc.

tied over the foot with a latchet, put off on

entering houses, and sometimes on viber COLOURS OF DRESS.

occasions in token of reverence, and untying Significant; white, of felicity, purity, and glory; of which was assigned to the lowest servante purple, of royalty; hence in mockery one was the veil, important part of the female dress, put upon Jesus by Pilate; black, of mourning, used not only for covering the face, but for as metaphorically expressed by covering the carrying objects, instauced in Rebekah and heavens with blackness; various coloured, of Ruth-ornaments consisting of rings, bracelets, honour; usually, though not exclusively worn earrings, jewels, worn by females, as were also hy kings' daughters, and also instanced in the used a profusion of perfumes of myrrh, etc. coat which Jacob gave to Joseph.

DRESS IN MOURNING AND SORROW. MATERIALS OF DRESS. Wool, flax, silk, etc.; soft raiment-fine linen, rent made in the outer robe, instanced in

Strictly attended to, ornaments laid aside, or a embroidered

garments-coarser being worn by Reuben in not finding Joseph, in Joshua and the poor.

Caleb on hearing the report of the other SPECIAL DRESSES,

spies, etc., -sackcloth put on, and dust cast upon Worn on special occasions—the names given to the head as in case of Job and his triends, etc. them expressive, such as the garments of widorohod, prison garments, wedding garments, bridal

CHANGES OF RAIMENT attire, swaddling clothes, etc.

Often referred to and frequently mentioned JEWISH CLOTHING,

as given or sent in presents, as Joseph to his

brethren, Naaman to Elisha, etc., implying Made up of two robes; the first or inner, termed washing, instanced in Israel when the law the coat or tunic; the second or outer, termed was about to be given from Mount Sinai, the clook, which being gathered up formed the also the laying up of clothing, stated to be lap or bosom, on its being laid aside, the person sometimes motheaten in the wardrobe.

DISEASE AND DEATH,

DISEASE.

DISEASES VERY DIVERSIFIED. The token of sin, often painful, as instanced in Expressed in Scripture more generally by sickJob and Hezekiah, sent by God, who gives ness and leanness, more particularly according comfort and hope under it,-affliction some- to their specific nature as ague, boils

, blinds times not improved.

ness, consumption, deafness, debility, demo.

niacal po session, dumbness, dysentery, ADVANTAGES OF AFFLICTION.

emerode, epilepsy, fever, fractures, gout, itch, The afflicted person bumbling himself, open. inflammation,

issue, lameness, leprosy, loss of ing his heart to discipline, seeing the hand of appetite, lunacy, monomania, mortification, God in his trouble, being more impressed with palsy, plague, skin disease, ulcers, worms. the evil of sin and experiencing that purifi. cation which is compared to silver refined in

LAW OF LEPROSY. the fire.

Priest being judge of tho symptoms.

PHYSICIANS,

body when dead-instanced in Jacob, Joseph, Sometimes resorted to instead of the Lord, as and old Barzillai; spiritual, having reference

to a future world-instanced in all the saints. Asa, and sometimes withont any benefit, as the woman who had the issue of blood; the medicines and applications in use being balm, HAPPY DEATH OF THE RIGHTEOUS, wine, oil, figs, etc.

Characterized by peace, hope, confidence in

God, assurance, introduction into the house of OTHER MEANS OF CURE,

many mansions, and, finally, participation in a Miraculous power, as in the cures effected by blessed resurrection. Jesus and his apostles, praying over the sick; apart from miracle, disease sometimes incur.

DEATH A GREAT CHIANGE, able as in Jehoram; often alluded to by the Body laid in grave, food for worms, returns prophets while exposing the spiritual maladies to dust, the individual forgotten in the of Israel

house, the street and the city, cut off totally

and for ever from the world; hence said to RECOVERY FROM GOD,

be gathered to his fathers. In His hand the issues of death-sometimes bringing back from the grave,

PREPARATIONS FOR BURIAL,

In anointing the body, as that of Jesus, or emDEATH.

balming it, as that of Jacob in Egypt, then

wrapping it in fine linen,with spices, etc. THE ORIGINAL SENTENCE, Dust thou art and unto dust thou shalt telurn,

BURIAL, pronounced by God upon our tirst parents The ordinary mode of disposing of the dead after the fali, has descended also upon their illustrated in every part of Scripture-body posterity.

sometimes burned, as that of Saul and his

sons-non-burial regarded as a disgrace, and SHORTNESS AND UNCERTAINTY OF LIFE,

sometimes a punishment. Illustrated by many emblems and compari. sons-as a pilgrimage, a sojourn, a step, a hand

MOURNING FOR THE DEAD, breadth, and described as swifter than a post, a Strictly attended to-instanced in the death few days, a few years, grass, a flower, etc.-Its of Sarah, Aaron, Moses, etc.; very frequently frailty appearing from many images and by hired' mourners or minstrels, referred to figures-as when man is said to be dwelling in by Jeremiah; cutting for dead forbidden; and a cottage of clay, to be crushed before the moth, mourning forbidden to the high-priest, or to etc. -'Teaching us to be watchful, to be redeem- such as were under the vow of a Nazarite. ing the time; to be preparing for death.

BURIAL PLACES,
DEATH THE WILL OF GOD,

Of various kinds, in caves, under trees, in Asserted everywhere-He wounds and heals — gardens, etc., --instanced in those of Abraham, Preparation for it, of various kinds secular, Sarah, and Christ,—those of the kings of Judah having respect to the arrangement of worldly in the city of David-monuments, heaps of affairs-instanced in the instruction of Isaiah stones, pillows, and erections, whit d at reto Hezekiah; solicitude for survivors—instanced gular periods, employed by the Saviour as in Moses on behalf of Israel; care about the images of hypocrisy.

EARTH

CREATION AND FURNITURE OF GOD.

EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS, In the beginning, arranged and beautified by Often referred to, the former described as reHim, covered with vegetation, peopled with moving mountains, aɛ carrying them into the its numerous and diversified inhabitants, and midst of the sea, as shaking the earth out of fixed it as one of the orbs of space; ilustrative her place, the latter represented as causing of the Creator's wisdom and goodness, char- the mountains to melt, the hills to smoke, etc. acterized by stability, variety, order and permanence; compared to a building having EARTHQUAKES MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. foundation, and as a tent whose curtains are At mount Sinai, in the wilderness, --in tho the heavens above.

stronghold of the Philistines, - at mount

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