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PYTHAGORAS.

SOCRATES,

you; for respect produces admi They who excel others in ration, but fear excites hatred, good qualities or virtue ought to

Between friends the utmost be praised. care should be taken to avoid Wisdom is the composure of contention, which can only be the soul; and they are the done by shunning as much as wisest men who err against possible all occasions for strife, nature and reason the least. resentment, and exercising mu Be notover-forward in speech, tụal forbearance.

for many times the tongue hath It is an evident proof of a cut off the head. good education, to be able to The best and most rational endure the want of it in others. way of worshipping God is to

Reproof and cos rection are do what he commands, to abhor useful and becoming from the vice and to follow the practice elder to the younger, especially of virtue, when accompanied on the part Our prayers should be for of the reprover with evident blessings in general for God tokens of affection.

knows best what is good for Matual confidence is never us; our offerings proportioned for a moment to be interrupted to our abilities for he considers between friends, whether in integrity not display. : ! jest or earnest ; for nothing cạn An honest death is far better heal the wounds which are than a dishonest life.es made by deceit.

Contentedness is like a short A friend must never be for or pleasant way, it hath much saken in adversity, nor for any delight, little toil. infirmity in human nature, ex We ought not to seek pleacepting only invincible obsti sure in others, but in ourselves, nacy and moral depravity. the body being predisposed ac

Before we abandon a friend cording as it ought. we should endeavour by actions There can be no better way as well as words to reclaim to obtain glory than to endeahim.

vour to be good as well as to True friendship is a kind of seem such. ypion which is immortal. I DO Men, must obey the laws of

The great design and object their country wives their of all moral and virtuous pre- husbands. çepts is to lead men to the imi The reproof of a father is a tation of God.

kind remedy, it brings more Since the Deity directs all ease than pain. things, every good thing is to He is the richest man who is be sought for from him alone; contented with the least, for and nothing is to be done content is the riches of nature. which is contrary to his pleasure. It is arrogance to speak all

While we are performing di- and be unwilling to hear any vine rites piety should be al- thing.

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SEVEN WISE MEN.

CHRIST.

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foolish but may teach thee Whosoever committeth sin is something."

the servant of sin. Husband thy time, for it is Greater love hath no man than of more value to thee than this, that a man lay down his wealth; the one may be ac- life for his friends. quired, the other never.

These things I command you Regard the future in thy ac. that ye love one another. tions, and let not present gratification alone be all thy care. Precepts, some of which are

Do no injury to any one: manifestly immoral, and others thou hast no right to injure any of avery doubtful tendency ;man as he has no right to injure

Think not that I am come to thee.

send peace on earth; I came Have respect and kindness not to send peace but a sword ; for servants and dependants, I am come to set a man at vathough inferior in rank they riance against his father, and are thy fellow-creatures. the daughter against her mother,

Children should be instructed and the daughter-in-law against and brought up in the paths of her mother-in-law; and a man's virtue.

foes shall be they of his own What thou hast to spåre be- household. stow upon others : they may Agree with thine adversary want it more than thyself. quickly while thou art in the

Abhor deceit: fear it as you way with him, lest, at any time, would an enemy, for it will the adversary deliver thee to destroy your serenity of mind, the judge, and thou be cast and bring you into danger.

into prison. Speak well of every one; let Then charged he his disciples no lies or calumny be uttered that they should tell no man by your mouth.

that he was Jesus the Christ. In all thy judgments. let the He that hath no sword let strictest justice prevail ; equity him sell his garment and buy is the right of all,

one. Whatsoever thou knowest to Bless them that curse you, be right that do though thy and pray for them that despiteconduct may meet with reproach fully use you. and ridicule.

Love your enemies : do good Abstain from bloodshed, thou' to them that hate you. hast no right to spill the blood But he charged them that of another.

they should tell no man what Avoid envy, it is the canker was done. of the soul.

Take no thought for your life Never use calumny or detrac- what ye shall eat; neither for tion.

the body what

ye
shall

put on : Be modest and calm in your consider the ravens for they

PYTHAGORAS.

SOCRATES.

men

ways uppermost in the mind, Wicked

cannot be and no earthly thing engage the friends either amongst themattention.

selves or with the good. Oaths are in no case to be We esteem not him who is of violated.

the highest birth, but who is · Next to God the highest re possessed of the most noble verence is due to parents and qualities. legislators : and the laws and customs of our country are to No immoral inculcations are be religiously observed. observable in the writings of

this moralist. No precepts, of immoral or Nor in those of the seven wicked tendency handed down

wise men. to us by this philosopher.

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After carefully reading and diligently examining the above maxims, let any man, let any fair-judging Christian decide whether or no the science of ethics is of comparatively modern date. Let him ask himself whether 'the virtuous precepts and moral axioms of these Heathen philosophers are not equally worthy of divine origin as the precepts of Christ. Let him ask himself whether any of them are inferior, whether all of them are not equal, and whether some are not superior to those promulgated in the New Testament. To say that He must answer in favour of the Pagans would be begging the question of his judgment, and be considered unfair dealing towards a silent adversary; but if he be a man of learning, of justice, and of truth, the great probabi

lity

SEVEN WISE MEN.

CHRIST.

deportment.

neither SOW;

neither

reap, What thou possesseth let it' which neither have storehouse be with justice.

nor barn, and God feedeth Labour with equity, and do them. not that of which thou mayst

If God so clothe the grass repent.

which is to day in the field, When having sinned be peni and to morrow is cast into the tent, preserve amity and be oven, how much more will he grateful for kindnesses.

clothe you, O ye of little faith, Avoid hatred, malice, ca I am come to send fire on lumny, and unjustice, observe the earth, and what will i, if it concord, violate no secrecy, and be already kindled. pursue what is honourable. Sell that ye have, and give

Condole with the uvhappy. alms.t. 11
Wrong not the dead.

Those mine enemies that Be in childhood modest; in would not I should reign over youth temperate; in manhood them, bring hither and slay just, and in old age prudent, them before me. and let thy death be calm and If any man come to me, and unruffled.

hate not his father and mother, and wife and children, and brethren and sisters ; yea, and his own life, also, he cannot be my disciple.

1

lity is, that he could so decide, at least tacitly, if not openly. A man who had never heard either of Paganism or Christianity; consequently having no previous bias to either, would be an im partial umpire;. and to which such a man would adjudge the palm of merit, taking all the moral and immoral precepts of Christ equally into consideration, there can hardly remain a doubt.

It plainly appears that morality is of so pure, so holy a nature, as to shine conspicuously with its own light, which has been visible to all countries, and in all ages, and its practices universally followed without the intervention of a divine mission from God to make it apparent.

I am,

&c.

T. G.

1

ON THE NATURE OF OATHS.

To the Editor of The Republican,"

i Sir, I have been attentively reading your Address to the Legislature in your last. Number, and its perusal suggests the following reflections relative to oaths, and to the establishment of some means for ensuring true testimony.

Oaths are evidently founded on the principle that men of bad dispositions, who are, nevertheless, imbued with sincere religious feelings, and a belief of a future state of rewards and punishments, will not stick at a common lie as being only a venial fault, but will dread the consequence of a solemn asseveration in the name of God, from it being declared a deadly sin. Now, I object to oaths-on this ground, that their real or pretended necessity, as a mode of eliciting truth, teaches men to undervalue truth when spoken in common; but still, as society is so full of faithless witnesses, and as the temptations to swear falsely are often 80 powerful, it seems reasonable to seek for a criterion of true testimony. - It was a principle laid down by Sir Samuel Romilly, and recognized as just by the best political lawyers, and the profoundest philosophers of our times, that, though the love of truth be an internal principle, and is a powerful motive to veracity, yet witnesses cannot be expected to speak the truth, when they are operated on by more powerful motives to speak falsely. Now, surely, there are many cases in which the sum of the motives to veredicity are less than the sum of the motives to false swearing, and as the balance of motives must ever regulate moral actions, so we may from hence derive a general expression for the chances of true, testimony. They will vary directly as the degree of preponderance of the inducements to true over the inducements to false affirmation. As the motives to false swearing were various, and as they were often indiscoverable from the frightful security which resides in the pernicious nature of secrecy, so legislators in the earliest ages endeavoured to set up, and establish as a principle of action, a sort of posthumous tribunal of divine police, whose judge could not be deceived, being the omnipresent and instantaneous inspector of the human heart; and thus they guarded against deceptions on earth, which no earthly police could always detect, by making the successful deceiver of mortals dread an immortal avenger of deception. Hence oaths, affidavits, and swearing of every kind, in every age, and in every country.

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