תמונות בעמוד

suppose that in the instance before us, such has been the case. For nearly the whole of this title is found quoted by the ancient Fathers, by Dionysius of Alexandria, and by Origen*. Add to this, that the greater part of it is to be found, expressed in the same words, in the body of the work t. It is therefore of similar authority. And the subsequent notes will shew, that the expressions contained in it are concordant in their meaning and doctrine with other passages of sacred Scripture.

Ver. 1. The Revelation.] We have many revelations from our Lord Jesus Christ. This delivered to his servant John, is one of them. Not only on this account, but because the prepositive article is omitted in the Greek, it may seem most proper to express the word aronalubis by " a revelation," and not as the revelation,” but it is not necessary to make this alteration. For, by long usage and acceptance in the Christian Church, it is now accounted the Revelation.

Ib. Which God gave unto him.] The scheme of the Christian revelation is mediatorial throughout. God giveth to the Son f, dispensing knowledge and favour through him.

Ib. Which must come to pass in a short time. The sąme expression is seen to recur at the close of the books; and we may collect from it, that the events foretold in this prophecy begin to be fulfilled even from the time of its delivery, and are to follow in a rapid succession until the final consummation. In

* Euseb, Hist. Eccl. lib. vii, c. 25.

+ See ch. xxii. 6, 7. | John iii. 35. v. 19, 27. viii, 28, 38. xii. 15. xiv. 6, 10. Phil, și. 9. . Ch. xxii, 6.


Daniel, ch. ii. 28, 29, 45, we have the same words, α δει γενεσθαι : there they are coupled with επ' εσχατων TW Fuegosy: the events were 'to take place in the latter days; but these latter days are said by Saint John, to have commenced in his time, that is, at the close of the apostolic age, and to be the antichristian days *. Thus we learn that the antichristian times, revealed to the prophet Daniel, are the same which are now to be disclosed in the Apocalypse. .

Ib. Signified them.] Egypavev, expressed them by oyuela signs significative, for oylenov has precisely this meaning in ch. xii. 1.t

Ib. Unto his servant John.] John the Evangelist, one of the twelve Apostles, as will appear from the Dissertation preceding these notes.

Ver. 2. Who bare record of the word of God, &c.] This may be understood to allude to the former testiinony of St. John, which he had delivered in his Gospel, or to the testimony which he had just now recorded of the visions seen by him in Patmos; or to both.

Ver. 3. Blessed is he who readeth, &c.] The same kind of blessing is pronounced in Matt. xiii. 16, Luke xi. 28, 2 Pet, i, 19, on those who cultivate spiritual knowledge, who attend with faith to the light of “ Prophecy, shining in a dark place, until the day “ dawn,” &c. But to knowledge must be added practice; " If ye know these things, happy are ye “ if ye do them.” The word Typew is used in this sense more frequently by Saint John, than by any

* 1 Joh. ii. 18.

+ See, says Daubuz, Jamblic. de Myst. Æg. sect. iii. c. 15. where onu.celow is used in the very same signification. Job. xiii. 17.


other sacred writer. And it is with great propriety applied to this book of prophecy, in which much practical exhortation is interspersed; more especially in the three first chapters.

. Ib. For the time is near.] The time which is here announced as fast approaching, seems to be that, wherein the Son of God, having obtained the victory over those powers who oppose the progress of his power, shall pass final sentence upon all; when “ he " cometh in the clouds of heaven,” as represented in the seventh verse of this chapter.

By comparing Deut. xxxii. 3, 5. Is. xiii. 6. Joel ii. 1, 15. Phil. iv. 5. 1 Pet. iv. 7, we shall perceive that it is usual with the Divine Spirit to announce this great day as near, when yet at considerable distance, measured by years, and applied to successive ages. The reason of which may be, that this great day is always near to every individual; who, at the time of his departure from this world, will have made up his account. And the warning is here applied to individuals, for such are addressed in the beginning of the verse. It has been observed also, that, in the Scriptures, we are never exhorted to prepare for death, but always for the coming of the Lord.





The Address, or Salutation, and the Doxology.

CHAP. I. Ver. 4-8. 4 'Iwávons rais étla 4. John to the seven 4 John to the seven εκκλησίαις ταις έν Churches which are in churches which are in añ 'Arice zápis Asia. Grace be unto Asia: Grace be unto öjnão reġ tighm ámbó you, and peace, from you, and peace, frum ó év, xj ó ñv, sjó Him which is, and Him which is, and ipxómsvQ. TO which was, and whịch which was, and which Tüv inlà avevues is to come; and from is to come; and from que, (isiv] ivó the seven spirits which the seven spirits which

Fly To Igóve airg are before his Throne; are before his throne; 5 Kaid toʻIncë Xpio- 5 And from Jesus Christ, 5 And from Jesus Christ,

rë, ónáglus o pisos, the faithful witness, who is the faithful witó wgwlóroxQ. (ix] the first-born of the ness, and the first-besữu vengão, sejo ag dead, and the ruler of gotten of the dead, χων των βασιλέων the kings of the earth. and the prince of the ths yn rii ixa Unto Him who loveth kings of the earth ; sarlo nuăs, ny há us, and hath washed Unto Him that loved σαι ημάς από των us from our sins in his us, and washed us auagrião stwo 6 blood, Aud hath made from our sins in his

za ainati ajtó, us a kingdom; hath | 6 own blood, And hath 6 Kai étoinoiy guãs made us priests, unto I made us kings and

Bagideiar iegtis tai God even bis Father; priests upto God and Seço walgi autê to him be the glory his Father; to him be கபாதர் 84a vala

and the dominion for glory and dominion for xapátos els Tès aiūras ever and ever. Amen. ever and ever. Amen,

Tur aidow, auno 7 Behold, he cometh 17 Behold, he cometh 7 °ids, isxilas uità with the clouds, and with clouds; and every rău repehara nai

every eye shall see him, eye shall see him, and bele avròn mãs and all they who have they also which pierced oplarvids, xj vitin

pierced him; and all him: and all kindreds nýtò ižexiloare

the Tribes of the earth of the earth shall wail rj xóforras in' aún

shąpi wail because of because of him: even qòr wãoui ai Gurai

him; even so, amen. 8 so, Amen. I am Alpha Tās vñsvai, apir. 8 I am the Alpha and and Omega, the-be

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Ver. 4. To the seven Churches which are in Asia.] This book, being written in an epistolary form, begins, like other Apostolic Epistles, with a Salutation, followed by a Doxology. It is addressed to the seven Churches, which are afterwards mentioned by name. They were situated in the proconsular province properly called Asia, which, at the time when the Apocalypse was written, is reported by historians to have contained five hundred great cities. Of these, Ephesus, Smyrna, and Pergamos, (being three of our seven,) long contested for the pre-eminence. And when a Heathen Temple was to be erected in this province, in honour of the Emperor Tiberius, and of the Roman Senate, eleven Cities contended for the possession of this Temple: and, among these, were five of the seven; for Sardis also and Laodicea entered the lists on this occasion They were certainly therefore cities of great accounts The order in which they are here named is that probably in which they were visited by the Apostle Saint John, who, both before and after his banishment to Patmos, superintended them all, residing principally at Ephesus f. It is the order also in which epistles written by Saint John from Patmos would be inost

* Tacit. Annal. iv. 55. Gibbon's Hist. i. 60. Inscriptions upos medals still extant, and relating to this contest, may be seen in a note of Michaelis to sect. i, of the 20th chapter of his lotroduction to the N.T. | Euseb. Eçcl. Hist, lib. iii. c. 20,


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