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Ver. 24. The depths of Satan.] Our interpretation of the word Jezebel in a figurative sense, seems to be confirmed. She had a doctrine, and taught deep mysterious knowledge, calling it perhaps with Saint Paul, Tu ExOn T8 Ok8, the deep things of God", but it is declared to be τα βαθη το Σατανα, the depths of Satan. Traces of such philosophizing sects are to be seen in the writings of the apostles, and of the apostolical fathers. And the Gnostics, who dealt eminently in these Geln, thus afterwards entered and corrupted the church.

Ver. 25. Until I come.] See note, ch. i. 3.

Ver. 27. Power over the Nations.] The expressions in this passage have near resemblance to those of the second Psalm, which are undoubtedly prophetic of Christ . He is there declared, “a king “over the nations, even unto the ends of the earth.” He shall “ rule over the nations with an iron rod," or sceptre," and break them to pieces, as a potter's vessel [." But our Lord informed his disciples, that " he appoints unto them a kingdom, even as “his Father had appointed unto him $;" and the promise is continued by them to their successors in the

# 1 Cor. ii. 10.

+ See Acts iv. 24. 1 In this passage in the Septuagint, the word wooow is used, as well as in the Apocalypse. And the ancient Hebrew text probably agreed with it. (See Reeves's Collation of Hebrew and Greek texts, Ps. ii. 9.) This character, of shepherd of the people, was anciently attributed to good kings. Such was the mosleny daws of Homer. By such a character, did the great Cyrus desire to be distinguished. (Xenoph. Cyrop. lib. i.) It is frequently applied in Scripture to the Messiah, and occurs in that sense four times in the Apocalypse. So "Pxbdos is properly translated sceptre, as in Heb. i. 8. See Schleusner, in voc. Luke xxii, 29. John xxi. 16. Acts xx. 8. 1 Pet. iii. 2.

church.

church. It is a kingdom of great power and glory, yet not after the fashion of this world; for it is neither acquired nor preserved by arms. It is not founded on worldly policy, over which it is destined to prevail. It is the stone of Daniel's vision, which, cut out of the mountain without hands, breaks to pieces the kingdoms of the world, miraculously increasing till it fills the whole earth. “ And the king“ dom and dominion, and the greatness of the king“ dom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the “people of the saints of the Most High, whose king" dom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions "shall serve and obey him*,"

Ver. 28. The morning star.] A star is a teachert; our Lord is eminently such ; and such he intitles himself in ch. xxii. 16. astus ó repagos nar og@givos, “the shi“ ning and morning star.” As such he was foretold in Numbers, xxiv. 17; and a star, in the eastern and morning quarter of the hemisphere, preceded his birth I. As this star, seen by the wise men, sig. nified to them his first coming; so by the star, promised in this passage, we must probably understand the signs denoting his second coming; a knowledge of “ the mysteries of the kingdom of hea“ ven ,” and of its approach in power. Saint Peter, speaking of prophecy, whose office it is in part to reveal these mysteries, recommends us to attend diligently to this “light shining in a dark place,” until some clearer manifestation shall be revealed; εως 8 ημερα διαυγασε και Φωςφορος ανατελη εν ταις nepdiens uuwv, until the day shine forth, and the daystar (or morning star, for so it should be translated,) shall rise in your hearts : until that time, when the prophetical information, imperfect in its nature, being “ done away,” that perfect knowledge shall succeed, which is like knowing “ face to face*.” But beside this time of perfect consummation to which both these apostles may be thought principally to refer, there is a time promised when the Divine Power shall “ remove the veil spread over all nations t," and the earth “ be filled with the knowledge of the “ glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea f.” This glorious and extensive reign of Christ and of his religion, is the subject of many sublime prophecies, and is copiously prefigured in the sequel of this book. To those, whether they be churches or individuals, who, in full assurance of faith, resist the temptations, and surmount the difficulties of their Christian warfare, looking forward to the accomplishment of the divine promises with spiritual discernment, to such shall be granted the dawnings and first light of these happy times; they shall see them, though afar offs; and seeing, they shall rejoice || ; and this joy no one shall take from them q.

* Dan. vii. 27. See the note, ch. ii. 7. and the Scriptures there quoted. This reign of the saints is again described in ch. xix. 15. + See note, ch. i. 16. Matt. ii. 2. Matt. xiii. 2.

star * i Cor. xiii. 10. & 12.

Heb. xi. 13.

+ Is. xxv.7.
|| John viii. 56.

1 Hab. ii. 14.
9 John xvi. 22.

PART names in Sardis, which not defiled their garweginamosos fuel

PART I.

SECTION VIII.
The Address to the Church in Sardis.

CHAP, iii. ver. 1-6. 1 Kai tū a yeag rñs | 1 And to the angel of | 1 And unto the angel

1. Lágdcorn ix the Church in Sardis of the Church in Sarκλησίας γράψον" write: Thus saith he dis, write, These things Τάδε λέγει ο έχων who hath the seven saith he that hath the τα επlα πνεύμαία Spirits of God, and seven Spirits of God, τύ Θεξ, και τες the seven stars. I and the seven stars; inlà ásépase orde know thy works, that I know thy works, that or å ipsos, öro thou hast a name, that thou hast a name, that όνομα έχεις, ότι thou livest, and thou thou livest, and art

Sãs, rj vexpòs si 2 art dead. Be watch 2 dead. Be watchful and 2 róne ypatogūr, rej ful, and strengthen strengthen the things

sígitoy tá dostá, the things remaining, which remain, that are & μέλλει αποθανείν which are about to ready to die: for I και γαρ εύρηκά σε τα die; for I have not have not found thy έρτα σεπληρωμένα found thy works per works perfect before

SVÁTSION TË Osê me. fect before my God. 3 God. Remember there3 Mmuóvevs õr, aws 3 Remember therefore fore how thou hast re

xianças rý ýmsous, how thou hast received ceived and heard, and rý tupei, rj mélaró and heard, and hold hold fast, and repent. noor dar & lan fast, and repent. For If therefore thou shalt ypolognons, öğw łTI if thou shalt not be not watch, I will come oè s xiénins, os watchful, I will come on thee as a thief, å kun goos, wolar upon thee, as a thief; and thou shalt not

üçar nu imi ci. and thou shalt not know what hour I will 4 'An' i'xeus órája know at what hour I 4 come upon thee. Thou

ονόμαλα εν Σάρδεσιν. shall come upon thee. hast a few names even ä óx éjónuvay tà 4 But thou hast a few in Sardis, which have ipátia airūv, rej

have not defiled their ments; and they shall εμέ εν λευκούς· ότι

garments; and they walk with me in white: 5 äžioíslow.'O vixūv, shall walk with me in for they are worthy.

έτος σεριβαλείται white, for they are 5 He that overcometh, εν έμαθίοις λευκούς worthy. He that over the same shall be

bij é des itanshte i cometh, the same shall το όνομα αυτά εκ be clothed in white 38 Bilde ans Gans, raiment; and I will oj oodcynow tò not blot out his name όνομα αυτά ενώπιον from the book of life; tē walgós fue, rý and I will confess his

ενώπιον των αγγέλων name before my Fa6 aitë. 'O lxwv és, ther, and before his

execÁTW, to 6 Angels. He that hath σνεϊμα λέγει ταϊς

an ear, let him hear *xxAncians.

what the Spirit saith
unto the churches.

clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Fa

ther, and before his 6 angels. He that hath

an

what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

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Ver. 1. Sardis.] Sardis, situated on the Pactolus, the ancient seat of Cresus, and of the Lydian kings, was proverbially the seat of Riches. This city had suffered grievously by an earthquake some time before the date of this vision; but, by the bounty of Tiberius Cæsar, had been restored to splendour *. Sardis possessed, from its natural situation, extraordinary means of acquiring riches. But riches are corruptive, and are apt to lead to that supineness in religion, and profligacy in morals, which in this epistle are so severely rebuked.

Sardis is now no more than a village. An ancient Christian church supplies the Turks, who inhabit it, with a mosque. The few Christians (if such they may be called) who still continue there, are represented to have neither Church nor minister.

Ib. The seven Spirits of God.] See note, ch. i. 4.
Ib. The seven Stars.] See note, ch. i. 16.
Ib. Name.] Character or reputation.

Ib. That thou livest, and thou art dead.] In the same figurative language, our Lord commanded his * Strabo ii. p. 931.

disciples

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