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ένα μελανοήση, και 20 her fornication; Be. to repent of her forniκαι θέλει μελανοήσαι hold, I cast her into a cation, and she re

εκ της πορνείας bed, and those who 22 pented not. Behold, 22 αυτής. Ιδε, βάλλω commit adultery with

I will cast her into a αυτήν εις κλίνην, her, into great tribu- bed, and them that και τις μοιχεύονίας lation, unless they commit adultery with μετ' αυτής είς θλίψιν shall repent from her her into great tribulaμεγάλην, εαν μη 23 works; And her chil. tion, except they re

μελανοήσωσιν εκ των dren will I slay with pent of their deeds. 23 έργων αυτής. Και death; and all the 23 And I will kill her

τα τέκνα αυτής churches shall know children with death; αποκτενώ έν 9α- that I am he which and all the churches κάτω, και γνώσονλαι searcheth the reins and shall know that I am πάσαι αι εκκλσίαι hearts; And I will he which searcheth ότι εγώ είμι και

give unto every one of the reins and hearts : έρευνών νεφρές και you according to your and I will give unto καρδίας και δώσω 24 works. But unto you every one of you acεμϊν εκάσω καλα

I say, unto the rest cording to your works, τα έργα υμών. in Thyatira, as many

24 But unto you I say, 24 Υμίν δε λέγω, as hold not this doc. and unto the rest in [τοίς] λοιπούς τους

trine, (whosoever have Thyatira, As many as έν Θυατείροις, όσοι not known the depths have not this doctrine, έκ έχεσι την διof Satan, they

avd which have not δαχήν ταύτην, οίτιspeak,) I shall put up

as

known the depths of νες εκ έγνωσαν τα

on you none other Satan, as they speak, βάθη τα σαλανά,

25 burthen; Only that I will put upon you ως λέγεσιν Ου which which ye have,

other burden. βαλώ εφ' υμάς hold fast until I come. 25 But that which ye 25 άλλο βάρG, Πλήν 26 And he who over- have already, hold fast και έχετε, κρατήσατε

cometh, and who keep-26 till I come. And he άχις και αν ήξω

eth even unto the end that overcometh, and 26 Και ο νικών, και

my works, to him will keepeth my works un. και τηρών άχρι τέλος

I give power over the to the end, to him will δώσω

27 nations, (And he shall I give power over the αυτω εξεσίαν έπι

rule over them with 27 nations: (And he shall 27 των εθνών, Και an iron sceptre, as the

rule them with a rod ποιμανεί αυτές εν vessels of earthen ware

of iron: as the vessels Σαςδω σιδηρά: ας

are broken to pieces,) of a potter shall they τα σκεύη τα κε

28 Even as I have re- be broken to shivers :) εαμικά σινιρίλαι, ceived from my Fa

even as I received of 28 Ως καγώ είληφα

ther; and I will give 28 my Father. And I will

none

τα έξία μας

waga walpos give him the morning Ms. ry Suow aŭtão 29 star. He that hath τον αςέρα τον πρω

an ear, let him hear 29 ινόν. ο έχων ές, what the Spirit saith

ακοσάτων, τί το unto the churches.
πνεύμα λέγει ταις
εκκλησίαις. .

give him the morning 29 star. He that hath an

ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

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Ver. 18. Thyatira.] This was a considerable city in the road from Pergamos to Sardis*. Lydia, who at Philippi received the Apostles Paul and Silas, was of this place; and being a person of consequence, and divinely called to receive the Christian Religiont, probably became the cause of establishing a Church here. So that, on this account, as well as because this address of our Lord is directed to the Church of Thyatira, we can give no credence to the notion which was holden by some persons in Epiphanius's time, (300 years after the date of this epistle,) that the church in this city was founded after the time of Saint John's seeing this vision. No Christians are at this time reported to be found in the remains of this city.

Ib. Eyes as a flame of fire, &c.] Thus the Son of God appeared in ch. i. 14, where see the note, and the meaning of the word χαλκολιβανον. .

Ver. 19. Thy last works to be more than the first.] This is great commendation, and the reverse of the fault for which the Ephesians are reproved, (v. 4.) and of that lamentable state, described in Saint Luke, xi. 26. 9 Pet. ii. 20. Ta Escale weiệova Tãy sẹoi y, the last state worse than the first.

Ver. 20. Jezebel.] This might be literally, a wo

• Strabo and Pliny.

+ Acts xvi. 14,

man

man of great rank and influence at Thyatira, who seduced the Christians to intermix idolatry and heathen impurities with their religion. Such sedus cers were in the church in Saint Paul's time *. And the history of Queen Jezebel, that eminent patroness of idolatry, as delivered in the Books of Kings, shews that such a woman would be fitly represented under that name. But there is another sense in which it also may be applied; for, in symbolical language, by a woman is signified a city, a nation, a community, a churcht. This passage is so understood by Venerable Bede, who explains the term Jezebel to mean a synagogue of false apostles pretending to be Christian; and it may signify a sect of seducers, like that described in verses 14 and 15 of this chapter; for the same doctrines are ascribed to both. In the comment of Andreas Bishop of Cæsarea, written about the year 500, and containing the matter, writer professes, of more ancient commentators on the Apocalypse, of Irenæus, Papias, Methodius, &c. it is said, that the Nicolaitan heresy is here called Jezebel figuratively ý, on account of its impiety and intemperance. See also the note below, ver. 24.

Ver. 20. Fornication.] The edict of the Apostles, (Acts xv.) forbids to the Gentile converts that which is here mentioned: 1. Ilogveld, fornication, under which word are comprehended all those carnal impurities, which were common among the heathens, and even made a part of their sacred rites. 2. Ειδωλαθυτα, Αλισγηματα των Eidw1wv, meats offered unto idols; to partake of which, when declared to be such, was to partake of the

as the

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2 Cor. vi. 14, &c.

+ See note below, v. 22. Synagogam pseudo-apostolicam, quæ se Christianam fingit. 5 Τροπικως ωνομαζομενην Ιεζας ηλ, δια την δυσσεβειαν και ασελγειαν. ,

worship: worship. The two sins were nearly connected together in the heathen institutions, and introduced each other.

Ver. 22. Adultery.] In scriptural language, nations and cities, and communities are frequently expressed under the emblems of women, virgins, &c. ; nor has this mode of representation been confined to the ancient or Eastern nations. In our times and country, Britannia is personified, and is seen, as a

as a woman upon our coins; as are Judæa, Rome, &c. &c. on those of ancient days * The nation of Israel, or the church of God under the Old Testament, is constantly represented under this symbol. In the times of her purity, she is a virgin; in her happy prospects, a bride; in her impure connections, a harlot. And, conformably to this figure, the great Being who especially protects her, was pleased to represent himself, as the husband who espouseth her, and who, for her wickedness, divorces her f. For, by a continuance of the metaphor, she is described as

treacherously departing from her husband,” committing adultery with stocks, stones, and idols I; but after chastisement and repentance, she is restored to favour and matrimonial distinction, and becomes fruitful in children, the multitudes of the Gentiles ş. The reader may see this imagery produced into allegory, in the xvith chapter of Ezekiel. Agreeably to this, in the New Testament, our Lord, the head

* See the plates in Montfaucon, or in Calmet's Dictionary.

† Jer, xxxi. 32. Is. xlix. 20, &c. liv. 5. lxii. 1, 5. Hos. ii. 2. Is. liv. 7. | Jer. iii. 8, 9. 20. Ezek. xvi. 22. xxiii. 37. Hos. ii. 7, 16. 19. Is. liv, 6.

of

of the church, is represented as the bridegroom, and her apostacy from him is called adultery*.

Now, in the passage before us, adultery may be taken either in a literal, or in this its figurative sense; accordingly as we understand Jezebel to represent, either literally a woman, or figuratively a sect. If taken in the figurative meaning, (which seems most probable,) then her sons, to be slain, are the followers of her religious institutions; and they, who commit adultery with her, are the Christians, who are seduced to her doctrines and practices, from the duty they owe to their Lord.

Ver. 22. Bed.] The place which had been the scene of her transgression, is to be that of her punishment. Taken literally, it will imply the pains of a sick-bed; and to be tormented in bed, where men seek rest, is peculiarly grievous t. Or, in a figurative sense, to adopt blasphemous and impure doctrines and practices, may, and probably will, occasion great tribulation to an apostatizing church.

Ver. 23. I will stay with death.] This is a Hebraism, denoting, by its repetition, the certainty of the event denounced. The equivalent expression in Genesis ii. 17, is translated, “ thou shalt surely die.” Sickness and death are represented by Saint Paul, as punishments inflicted on the perverters of holy ordinances in the apostolical times I: or, Ouvetos may here signify, as it does evidently in ch. vi. 8, pestilence; and thus express the mode of death by which these rebellious servants of God were to be slain.

* Matt. xxv. 2 Cor. xi. 2. Rom. vii. 4. Eph. v. 23, &c, Gal. iv. 26, &c.

+ Daubuz. See Psalm vi. 3. xli. 3. Job xxxii. 19, Is. xxviii. 20. i i Cor. xi. 30.

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