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ivore uslavonon, xj 22 her fornication; Be. I to repent of her forni

hold, I cast her into a cation, and she reεκ της πορνείας bed, and those who | 22 pented not. Behold, 22 aútās.ʻldo, Bánra commit adultery with | I will cast her into a

airno eis známo, her, into great tribu bed, and them that ry Tes Hosgevarlas lation, unless they commit adultery with μετ' αυτής εις θλίψιν shall repent from her her into great tribuladeyáany, tàu tn 23 works; And her chil. tion, except they re

μελανοήσωσιν εκ των | dren will I slay with pent of their deeds. 23 έρίων αυτής. Και death ; and all the 23 And I will kill her

τα τέκνα αυτής churches shall know children with death; å Foxtevã in San that I am he which and all the churches νάτω, και γνώσονίαι searcheth the reins and shall know that I am πάσαι αι εκκλσίαι hearts; And I will he which searcheth ότι εγώ είμι και

give unto every one of the reins and hearts : igevvãv veggès res I you according to your and I will give unto xaediase rý Show | 24 works. But unto you every one of you acEuño éxésø xalà I say, unto the rest cording to your works,

čeyo inãs. in Thyatira, as many | 24 But unto you I say, 24 'Yuño di neyw, as hold not this doc and unto the rest in

[Tois] 20strois mois trinė, (whosoever have Thyatira, As many as έν Θυατείροις, όσοι not known the depths have not this doctrine, bu xoor zno do

of Satan, as they and which have not dagar taitny, oito speak,) I shall put up kņown the depths of ves én bywwoay tà

on you none other Satan, as they speak,

25 burthen; Only that I will put upon you s náyzoire Où which which ye have, none other burden. βαλώ εφ' υμάς

hold fast until I come. | 25 But that which ye 25 ärao Báę@. Ilava

26 And he who over I have already, hold fast ö pxéle, ngamocele

cometh, and who keep 26 till I come. And he äxepes av čižmo

eth even unto the end that overcometh, and 26 Kai o vixão, vai

my works, to him will keepeth my works un. και τηρών άχρι τέλος

I give power over the to the end, to him will τα έρία με, δώσω

27 nations, (And he shall I give power over the αυτω εξεσίαν επί

rule over them with 27 nations: (And he shall 27 tūv dvæv, Kai

an iron sceptre, as the rule them with a rod ποιμανεί αυτές εν

vessels of earthen ware of iron: as the vessels Sábaw didnção as

are broken to pieces,) of a potter shall they τα σκεύη τα κε

28 Even as I have re be broken to shivers :) ραμικά συνιρίείαι,

ceived from my fa even as I received of 28 Ως καγώ είλησα

ther; and I will give | 28 my Father. And I will waga og aalpos I give him the morning give him the morning Moorj Swow aŭtū | 29 star. He that hath | 29 star. He that hath an

Tòr ásica tóx agwa an ear, let him hear ear, let him hear what 29 ivór. 'O i xwe os, what the Spirit saith the Spirit saith unto

exerátw, pi rol unto the churches. the churches.
πνεύμα λέγει ταις
ixxindiais.

Ver. 18. Thyatira.] This was a considerable city in the road from Pergamos to Sardis*. Lydia, who. at Philippi received the Apostles Paul and Silas, was of this place; and being a person of consequence, and divinely called to receive the Christian Religiont, probably became the cause of establishing a Church here. So that, on this account, as well as because this address of our Lord is directed to the Church of Thyatıra, we can give no credence to the notion which was holden by some persons in Epiphanius's time, (300 years after the date of this epistle,) that the church in this city was founded after the time of Saint John's seeing this vision. No Christians are at this time reported to be found in the remains of this city.

Ib. Eyes as a flame of fire, &c.] Thus the Son of God appeared in ch. i. 14, where see the note, and the meaning of the word χαλκολιβανον.

Ver. 19. Thy last works to be more than the first.] This is great commendation, and the reverse of the fault for which the Ephesians are reproved, (v. 4.) and of that lamentable state, described in Saint Luke, xi. 26. 2 Pet. ii. 20. Tu soxulce xeipova Tõu mewiūv, the last state worse than the first.

Ver. 20. Jezebel.] This might be literally, a wo

* Strabo and Pliny.

+ Acts xvi. 14,

man

man of great rank and influence at Thyatira, who seduced the Christians to intermix idolatry and heathen impurities with their religion. Such seducers were in the church in Saint Paul's time *. And the history of Queen Jezebel, that eminent patroness of idolatry, as delivered in the Books of Kings, shews that such a woman would be fitly represented under that name. But there is another sense in which it also may be applied; for, in symbolical language, by a woman is signified a city, a nation, a community, a church f. This passage is so understood by Venerable Bede, who explains the term Jezebel to mean [ a synagogue of false apostles pretending to be Christian; and it may signify a sect of seducers, like that described in verses 14 and 15 of this chapter; for the same doctrines are ascribed to both. In the comment of Andreas Bishop of Cæsarea, written about the year 500, and containing the matter, as the writer professes, of more ancient commentators on the Apocalypse, of Irenæus, Papias, Methodius, &c. it is said, that the Nicolaitan heresy is here called Jezebel figuratively y, on account of its impiety and intemperance. See also the note below, ver. 24.

Ver. 20. Fornication.] The edict of the Apostles, (Acts xv.) forbids to the Gentile converts that which is here mentioned: 1. Ilogveld, fornication, under which word are comprehended all those carnal impurities, which were common among the heathens, and even made a part of their sacred rites. 2. Eidwneduta, AlcoymuCTU TWY Eidwawy, meats offered unto idols; to partake of which, when declared to be such, was to partake of the

* 2 Cor. vi. 14, &c. + See note below, v. 22.

Synagogam pseudo-apostolicam, quæ se Christianam fingit. 5 Τροπικως ωνομαζομενην Ιεζαςηλ, δια την δυσσεβειαν και ασελγειαν.

worship:

d

TOI

an

worship. The two sins were nearly connected together in the heathen institutions, and introduced each other.

Ver. 22. Adultery.] In scriptural language, nations and cities, and communities are frequently expressed under the emblems of women, virgins, &c.; nor has this mode of representation been confined to the ancient or Eastern nations. In our times and country, Britannia is personified, and is seen, as a wo upon our coins; as are Judæa, Rome, &c. &c. on those of ancient days * The nation of Israel, or the church of God under the Old Testament, is constantly represented under this symbol. In the times of her purity, she is a virgin; in her happy prospects, a bride; in her impure connections, a harlot. And, conformably to this figure, the great Being who especially protects her, was pleased to represent himself, as the husband who espouseth her, and who, for her wickedness, divorces her t. For, by a continuance of the metaphor, she is described as “ treacherously departing from her husband,” committing adultery with stocks, stones, and idolst; but after chastisement and repentance, she is restored to favour and matrimonial distinction, and becomes fruitful in children, the multitudes of the Gentiles ş. The reader may see this imagery produced into allegory, in the xvith chapter of Ezekiel Agreeably to this, in the New Testament, our Lord, the head

.

* See the plates in Montfaucon, or in Calmet's Dictionary.

+ Jer, xxxi. 32. Is. xlix. 20, &c. liv. 5. Ixii. 1, 5. Hos. ii. 2. Is. liv. 7.

| Jer. iii. 8, 9. 20. Ezek. xvi. 22. xxiii. 37.
$ Hos. ii. 7, 16. 19. Is. liv. 6.

of the church, is represented as the bridegroom, and her apostacy from him is called adultery*.

Now, in the passage before us, adultery may be taken either in a literal, or in this its figurative sense; accordingly as we understand Jezebel to represent, either literally a woman, or figuratively a sect. If taken in the figurative meaning, (which seems most probable,) then her sons, to be slain, are the followers of her religious institutions; and they, who commit adultery with her, are the Christians, who are seduced to her doctrines and practices, from the duty they owe to their Lord.

Ver. 22. Bed.] The place which had been the scene of her transgression, is to be that of her punishment. Taken literally, it will imply the pains of a sick-bed ; and to be tormented in bed, where men seek rest, is peculiarly grievous t. Or, in a figurative sense, to adopt blasphemous and impure doctrines and practices, may, and probably will, occasion great tribulation to an apostatizing church.

Ver. 23. I will slay with death.] This is a Hebraism, denoting, by its repetition, the certainty of the event denounced. The equivalent expression in Genesis ii, 17, is translated, " thou shalt surely die.” Sickness and death are represented by Saint Paul, as punishments inflicted on the perverters of holy ordinances in the apostolical times $: or, Ouveltos may here signify, as it does evidently in ch. vi. 8, pestilence; and thus express the mode of death by which these rebellious servants of God were to be slain.

* Matt. xxv. 2 Cor. xi. 2. Rom. vii. 4. Eph. v. 23, &c. Gal. iv. 26, &c.

+ Daubuz. See Psalm vi. 3. xli. 3. Job xxxii. 19. Is. xxviii. 20. 1 1 Cor. xi, 30.

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