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Satan,” against the seat of persecution, of corrupt morals, and of corrupt philosophy *. Ver. 13. Antipas. ]
No account has been preserved to our times, of this martyr; but Andreas Cæsariensis reports, that he had read the history of his martyrdom t. Ver. 14. Doctrine of Balaam.]
This Church is hitherto commended for its stedfast faith and perseverance, even in times of great trial. But she had in her bosom some who taught impure doctrines. By referring to Numb. xxxi. 16, and then to the whole 25th chapter of the same book, we learn that Balaam suggested to Balak the means, or stumbling-block, by which he decoyed Israel from their duty; and that the sin which they committed, when fallen into this snare, was apostacy from their God, by joining in the heathen sacrifices with the dissolute women, who were employed to seduce them. Hence, by the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Jude, a defection from the true religion, when united with immoral and lascivious practices, is called, “ following the way, “ or error of Balaam.”
Ver. 15. Nicolaitans.] See note, ch. ii. 5. These were followers of the doctrine of Balaam, as the name signifies both in Hebrew and Arabic. See Michaelis, Introd. to New Test. ch. xxviii. sect. 3.
Ver. 16. I will war against them.] Not against you the Church, but them, the corrupters of it. Yet, insomuch as many received these impure doctrines, and the rulers of the Church had not been vigilang to reclaim or eject them, all are called to repent, For the weapon with which their Lord threatens to
+ Comm. in loc.
See the last note. 1 2 Pet. ii. 15. Jude 11.
attack them, see note ch. i. 16. It is with this powerful sword that Antichrist shall be slain, and the enemies of the church shall be finally subdued *. The word of God, advancing in its purity, and gaining dominion over the hearts and actions of men, shall in due time expel idolatry, infidelity, and the persecuting spirit of worldly policy and of insincere religion f.
This "s word of God” is described as having a living efficacy, 'sharper than any two-edged “ sword,” penetrating into the inmost parts of man f; and it is represented as an object of terror to those of the brethren, who, from an evil heart of unbelief, shall apostatize from the living God g. And, in the subsequent verse, the whole congregation is directed to exhort each other daily, lest any of them be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. Apply this to the Church of Pergamos, which the members of it might then have done, by having recourse to the same Sacred Scripture.
Ver. 17. Hidden manna.] This expression will become intelligible, by the perusal of the 6th chapter of Saint John's Gospel from the 26th verse. Our Lord declares to the multitude, who followed him in the expectation of being miraculously fed, that he himself is the bread of life, the manna from heaven, which shall support those partaking of it to everlasting life : and when they could not, or would not, understand him in the spiritual sense which he intended, he tells them that he is to be understood in a figurative, and not in a literal meaning.
« It is
* Is. xi. 4. 2 Thess. ii. 8. Rev. xix. 15, 21.
+ Matt. xii. 36, 37. John viii. 31, 37, 43, 47. xii. 47, 48. xv. 3, 7. Heb. i. 3. 1 Pet. i. 23, 25. | Heb. iv, 12.
§ Heb. iii, 12.
" the * John vi. 47, 48. $ 1 Cor. ii. 9.
“the Spirit that quickeneth, the fleshi profiteth no“ thing; the words that I speak to you, they are 'Spirit, and they are Life.” The “ hidden manna" is this bread of life in its spiritual signification, of which the manna, free from corruption, laid up in the tabernacle, was only a type ; namely, the benefits derived to the faithful followers of Christ by the offering of his body; forgiveness of sins and everlasting salvation. In the midst of a figurative discourse, our Lord presented his disciples with this plain interpretation: “Verily, verily I say unto you, “ he that believeth on me hath everlasting life; I
ain that bread of life*.” He who through faith in his crucified Redeemer, follows him in his victorious career, unmoved by the temptations or threats of the enemy, is by his Lord's appointment entitled to this food of heavenly life. But this " Life is hid “ with Christ in Godt.”
" It does not yet appear “ what we shall be.” Eye hath not seen, nor ear “ heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, “ the things which God hath prepared for those that “ love himş.” Such appears to be the hidden manna, namely, the ineffable joys of a blessed immortality.
From the small remains of history, which are preserved to us of this church, she seems to have remembered these splendid promises of her Lord; for many of the Pergamenians underwent the fiery trial of martyrdom, at the time when Polycarp suffered at Smyrna l. Ver. 17. White stone.] Stones,
Stones, typor, calculi, were used by the ancient nations, as the vames import, to calculate and to vote with; and in criminal processes the white stone was the mark of acquittal, the black one of condemnation :
+ Col. iii. 3.
# 1 John ïïi. 2. || Euseb. Hist. Eçcl. lib. iv. c. 15. P 2
Mos erat antiquus niveis atrisque lapillis ;
The white stone, presented to the conquering Christian, may be supposed to signify, “well done, “ thou good and faithful servant.” But this white stone is inscribed with characters; so were the tu por of the ancients. The letter with the Greeks was the token of condemnation; or, in a general sense, of disapprobation. So Persius ;
Et potis es nigrum vitio præfigere Thetat.
But on this white stone, given by our Lord to his approved servants, was written a new name, which will be explained in the following note.
Ver. 17. A new name.] By the custom of nations, from the earliest ages, a person raised to dignity was commonly invested with a new name or title, expressive of his deserts. Many instances occur in Scripturet. It is the promise of God to Zion, that, becoming the glory and the light of the Gentiles, “she shall “ be called by a new name, which the mouth of the “ Lord shall name.” He has promised also to the Eunuchs and Gentiles, who shall “ keep his covenant, “ and love the name of the Lord, a place and a name “ better than of sons and of daughters, an everlast“ing name which shall not be cut off g.” Of this kind and nature is the new name or title, given by the Lord of Heaven to his elected servants. The
* Ovid. Metam. lib. xv. 41.
+ Sat. iv. 13. [ Gen. xli. 45. 2 Sam. xii. 25. Dan. i. 7. Joho i. 42. Matt. xvi, 18. Is. xlii. 1, 6. lvi. 5.
honour CHAP. ii. VER. 18—to the end.
honour which they shall receive at his hands, when their spiritual warfare is accomplished, is beyond conception, and can only be known by being enjoyed.
The Address to the Church in Thyatira.
18 Και το αγέλη της
έν Θυατείροις εκκλησίας γράψον" Τάδε λέγει ο υιός το Θεά, ο έχων της οφθαλμές αυτά ως φλόγα συρος, και
οι σόδες αυτέ όμοιοι 19χαλκολιβάνω. Οίδα
σε τα έρία, και την αγάπην, και την διακονίαν, και την αίσιο, και την υπομονής σε, και τα igία σε τα έσχαία
πλείονα των πρώ20 των 'Αλλ' έχω
καλά σε ότι αφείς την γυναίκα σε Ιεζαςήλ, και λέγεσα εαυτην τροφήτιν, και διδάσκει και αλανά Tes fuss deros,
Wagneūrau x sidw21 λόθλα φαγείν. Και
έδωκα αυτή χρόνου, ,
18 And to the angel of 18 And unto the angel of
the Church in Thya- the church in Thya. tira write: Thus saith tira, write, These the Son of God, who things saith the Son hath his eyes as
of God, who hath his flame of fire, and his eyes like unto a flame
feet like smelting brass. of fire, and his feet are 19 I know thy works, 19 like fine brass; I know
even thy love, and thy thy works, and chariservice, and thy faith, ty, and service, and and thy patience, and faith, and thy patience, thy last works to be and thy works; and more than the first :
the last to be more 20 But I have against 20 than the first. Not
thee, that thou sufferest withstanding, I have thy woman Jezebel, a few things against who calleth herself a thee, because thou sufprophetess, and teach- ferest that woman Jeeth and seduceth my zebel, which called servants to commit herself a prophetess, fornication, and to eat to teach and to se
meats sacrificed unto duce my servants to 21 idols: And I have commit fornication,
given her a time, that and to eat things sashe might repent, and crificed unto idols. she will not repent of 21 And I gave her space