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against the common enemy,-such assistance as shall enable them to overcome*. But with what arms did our Lord himself overcome? for with none other can his followers expect to conquer ;-not with the weapons of human warfare. When such were offered to him, previously to the grand conflict, “put up thy "sword,” said he to the zealous apostle, who drew it in his defence, “all they that take the sword,” that rely on such arms in such a cause, “shall perish with “ the sword,” shall lose that victory, which is to be gained by other means. The means then used by the great “ Captain of our salvation,” was meek perseverance in the cause of truth and righteousness, founded upon faith in his God; he conquered, he “ was made perfect, by sufferings t.” Which words are explained in the 14th verse of the same chapter; " through death he destroyed him that had the “power of death, even the devil, openly triumphing "over him," ju this very act . It is for this reason, that our Lord, when preparing for this combat, in which he knew that by suffering he should overcome, calls his death his glorification ģ. In that last and decisive conflict in the flesh, with “ the prince of this 5 world 1,” as our Lord then calls him, he overcame him by suffering ; and passing through the grave to heaven, he opened a passage for his faithful followers, leading them triumphantly into that kingdom, which he had prepared for them, and where “he must “ reign,” till all his enemies shall be finally subdued; until “ Death shall be swallowed up in victory (." Thus, as I have seen it expressed, with brighter truth

* Luke x. 18. &c. Heb. ii. 10. Col. ij. 15.

John xii. 23, 28. xiii. 31. xvii. 1. also vii. 13. xii. 16. # John xii. 13. xiv. 20.

q 1 Cor. xv. 24. 54–57.


than Latinity, “Victus qui sæviebat, vicit qui suf. “ferebat.” “The conqueror was subdued, the sufferer conquered;" or, as, in more stately language, God the Father is represented speaking of the Son incarnate;

" I send him forth
“ To conquer sin and death, the two grand foes,
“ By humiliation and strong suff'rance*.”



It is the duty of every Christian to be ready at all times to fight this spiritual battle, under the conviction, that he is certain to triumph, if he be lawfully called to the conflict t, and have faith to follow his great Leader. For, to suffer in that cause is to triumph; “nay, in all these things,” says Saint Paul speaking of such sufferings, “we are more than conquerors, through Him who loved us f.” And this notion of conflict, battle, victory, &c. will be found also to pervade the writings of the early Christians. In the martyrdom of Ignatius, published by Archbishop Usher, that martyr is called Aodytus nae yev, VRLOS uaplus Xp1oly, nalatalyous tov Aíuborov. § and in that precious morsel of Ecclesiastical History in the second century, the epistle from the Gallic Churches, the persecuting power is styled o avlixEIJLENOS, the adversary, who apoyupvasel, skirmishes before the battle; but evliglater š xagis 78 Ots, the grace of God conducts the Christian force against him, and supports the martyrs, who are called yEvveidu æbaridi, noble combatants ll. Agreeably to these images, that ancient hymn of the

* Par. Reg. i. 159. + 2 Tim. ii. 5. I Rom. viii. 37. $ Euseb. Hist. Eccl. lib. v. Pref. & c.i.

|| Euseb. H. E. lib. v. Pref. & cap. i. See also the same language in Minuc. Felix Octav, c. 37. 02

Christian Christian Church, beginning with Te Deum, recounts the noble army of Martyrs.” But besides this battle which every Christian has to fight individually, and on his own private account, against the great adversary, there is a more general and extended warfare, in which the followers of Christ are engaged in a body, as the body of Christ's Church. It is against the same arch-enemy, the devil, and under the same leader, Christ. For our Lord is represented as continually presiding over the fortunes of his church: "Lo, I am with you, even unto the end of the “ world *.” It is this warfare extended through all the ages of the world, which seems principally, if not solely, to be prefigured in the Apocalypse. The Devil and his worldly agents attack by seduction and corrupt doctrine, by terror and persecution; the church resists, covering herself with the arms of her great Leader,the cincture of truth, the breast-plate of “ righteousness, the helmet of salvation, the sword of “ the Spirit, and, above all, the shield of faith t. Though she walk in the flesh, yet does she not war “after the flesh, for the weapons of her warfare are “ not carnal, but mighty, through God, to the pull“ing down of strong holds, bringing into captivity “every thought to the obedience of Christ.” Agreeably to which words of Scripture in the language of the Apocalypse: “He that conquereth,” is “he " who keeps the works of his Lord even unto the “end † ;" he who, by the prevalence of faith, perseveres in the profession and practice of Christianity, when assailed by temptation or terror, is the faithful and victorious soldier of Christ. And to a church Matt. xxviii. 20.

f Eph. vi. 14, &c. See ch. ii. 26. where the expression may be thus paraphrased..

of this character, and to none other, is promised “power over the nations,” a spiritual, increasing dominion.

As to the passage immediately before us, it concerns the times & €166 , the situation of the church at the time when our Lord addressed these warnings to it; when the Faith was assailed both by delusive teachers from within, and by heathen persecutors from without. Of the former of these, we have spoken f. The hostility of the latter had commenced some years before, in the reign of Nero, whoseunjust edicts against the Christians had been renewed by Domitian a little time before the date of this prophecy. For, under this persecution, Saint John was banished to the Isle of Patmos, where he saw the vision 1. That the seven Churches were actually under persecution at this time, and were not to be relieved immediately, may be collected from various passages of these addresses to them .

Ver. 7. To eat of the tree of Life, &c.] The Lord God is described to have planted a garden, or paradise, in Eden, and to have placed in the midst of the garden the tree of life; of which the first created pair might eat, and by eating live for ever. Under this description is represented that immortality, to wbịch, by obedience, the race of men might have attained in their primitive state, and which they forfeited by disobedience jl. For they listened to the seductions of their wily foe, and were overcome. But the “ Second Adam, the Lord from “ Heavens," having condescended to undergo, in

* See note, ch. i. 19.

. + Note, ch. ii. 6. | Hist. Eccl. lib. iii. cap. xix. $ Ch. ii. 3, 10, 13. iii. 10. Il Gen. ii. 8, 9. q 1 Cor. xv. 22, 45. John vi. 51. xi. 25.



the behalf of fallen man, the penalty, which was death", man is hereby restored to his lost privileges. The tree of life is again placed within his reach, he may “put forth his hand and live for ever.” This advantage, which the Saviour of the world has regained by his own prowess, he bestows as a free gift or reward upon those servants of his who follow him faithfully in his victorious career t. A description of the tree of life will recur in ch. xxii. 2, 14.

* Gen. ii. 17.

+ See a copious explanation of the tree of life, as signifying immortality, in Bp. Horne's Sermons, vol. i. It was so understood by the author of the 2d Book of Esdras, ch. viii. 52. which was probably written soon after this book of Revelation. See Gray's Key to the Old Testament.


The Address to the Church in Smyrna.

CHAP. ii. ver. 8-11. & Kai tū dryera rñs 1 & And to the Angel of , 8 And unto the Angel

iv Ejupon èxnancias the Church in Smyrua, of the Church in Smyr. γράψου: Τάδε λέ write ; Thus saith the na, write, These things yos ó węWTOs xy ó First and the Last, who saith the First and the ROXATOS, ôs éyévelo was dead and is alive ; | Last, which was dead,

vexgòs xai inox 9 I know thy (works and 9 and is alive ; I know 9 Oidá od [Ta igla, thy] ţribulation and thy works, and tribu.

i] and daiting y thy poverty, (but thou lation, and poverty, The alwgríar, (árna

art rich,) and the blas (but thou art rich,) and wrócios eig) rý thy

phemy of those who 1. I know the blasphemy βλασφημίαν εκ των

say they are Jews, and of them which say they deryóvlwe 'lodaies ci

are not, but are a syna- | are Jews, and are not, You Savrès, rj óx 10 gogue of Satan. Fear

but are the synagogue siou, ártá ouva

none of those things 10 of Satan. Fear none

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