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by which the books of crimination and of life are opened, are shortly and sublimely related : and the language, though figurative, being conformable to other passages foretelling this great event, is of easy and obvious interpretation* We may perhaps except from this description ver. 14, wherein death and hell are said to be cast into the lake of fire, called the second death. But this second death will be found explained in note, ch. ii. 11.
* Compare Mal, iii. 16; iv. 1 : Job xxi. 30: Psalm ix. 17: Dans vii. 9; xii. 2: Isaiah xxviii. 14-19: Matt. xii. 41, 42: Mark ix. 44: 1 Cor. xv: Phil. iii. 21 : 1 Thess. iv, 16; 2 Thess. i. 7-10: 2 Tim. i. 10: Heb. ii. 14: 1 Pet. iii. 7, 10: Jude 14, 15: also Rex, i. 14. 18; ii. 5; iv, 2, 3; ii, 11; vi. 8 ; with the notes thereon.
The new Creation.
CHAP. XXI. ver, 1-8.
1 Kai sidor spayòn 11 And I saw a new hea- 1 1 And I saw a new hea
naszor sy gño nosno ven, and a new earth: ven, and a new earth: ο γαρ πρώτος ερα for the first heaven and for, the first heaven and yòs xj wspárn gyñ the first earth are pass the first earth were
zg7A92 xa: % ed away; and the sea passed away; and there Jánacor éx ison 2 is no more. And the 2 was no more sea. And 2 έτι. Και την πόλιν holy city, the new Je I John saw the holy
The Syiar, 'legro rusalem, I saw de city, new Jerusalem, omance sourno eidon, scending from God out coming down from καλαβαίνεσαν από of Heaven, prepared God out of heaven, sē ocê ix rõ égzvē, l as a bride adorned for prepared as a bride
Tollmouéven ús 3 her husband. And I adorned for her busróleone xexo Tunués heard a loud voice | 3 band. And I heard a my tw endgi avtñs.
out of heaven, saying ; great voice out of hea3 Και ήκεσα φωνής
“ Behold, the taberna ven, saying; Behold, μεγάλης έκ τα "cle of God with the tabernacle of God ågavē, decyeons. “ men : and he will is with men, and he Pldd, ý oxar to “ dwell with them : will dwell with them, Θεέ μεία των ανθρώ “ and they shall be and they shall be his πων, και σκηνώσει “his people, and God people, and God himdil airūv, sú ai “bimself will be with self shall be with them, του λαός αυτό έσον " them, their God. 4 and be their God. And Tal, j aitòs ó Osòs 4 “ And he will wipe God shall wipe away
esco Leot avtūr, “ away every tear from all tears from their 4 Ofis aútäv. Kai “their eyes. Anddeath eyes; and there shall Ižanalla sürdá
“ shall be no inore; be no more death, neiκριον από των οφ
“ nor shall sorrow, nor ther sorrow, por cryBaruar airão,
“ mourning, nor pain, ing, neither shall there ó Javalos óx isao “ be morė; for the be any more pain; for iti što wybos, “ former things are the former things are što xqavyni, 5 " passed away.” And | 5 passed away. And be σόνος εκ έσαι έτι· I he who sate upon the that sat upon the ότι τα πρώτα απ throne, said; " Be throne, said; Behold, 5 nagov. Kaišitev o “ hold, I make all I make all things new,
xabólleros émi If “ things new.” And And he said unto me; θρόνα Ιδε, καινα he saith (unto me) Write: for, these words wávia wciw. Kai
“ Write: for these are true and faithful. abcges [fos]: rçá " words are true, and 16 And he said unto me; Jose To štou os “ worthy of belief." It is done. I am Alpha
háryou á an Oixon xai | 6 And he said unto me, and Omega, the begin6 σιροί είσι. Και “ It is done! I am the ning and the end: I sité M40° recyóve'
“ Alpha and the 0. will give unto him that zyw siyo tò A nad “mega, the beginning is athirst, of the founvà 2,5 Lexì * Tò
tain of the water of TiAos rò rõ bi
“ give unto him that 7 life freely. He that Jarle Snow in año “ thirsteth, of the foun overcometh, shall in. σηγής τά ύδατος “ tain of the water of herit all things; and I
tñs Sañs owętúr 7 “ life freely. He who will be his God, and 7 'O vixūv xangovou
" overcometh, shallin he shall be my son. σει ταύτα" και έσο
“ herit these things : | 8 But the fearful and Moze avtü Otos, reģ
" and I will be his | unbelieving, and the
aúrès især mos ó 1 " God, and he shall | abominable, and mur8 vids. Tois do 88-18be my son. But for derers, and whore.
acīs rý anisas, ry “ the cowardly, and mongers, and sorceranaplanois rj ICOS “ faithless, and sinners, ers, and idolaters, and avljévois, xj poveis “ and defiled persons, all liars, shall have one rij wógvoss, rej • and murderers, and their part in the lake paguzxois, rj ci “ fornicators, and sor which burneth with owhorárpais, xari “ cerers, andidolaters, fire and brimstone: wãos toñs frúdeoi, “ and all the deceivers, which is the second το μέρος αυτών εν “their portion is in death. The aiuen tñ xalo “ the lake burning with trémn wuçi rý Jeio, “ fire and brimstone, Ő isto é Sávrlos ó “ which is the second δεύτερος
Ver. 1. And I saw a new heaven ; &c.] The general judgment having taken place, and the heavens and earth passed away, as described in ch. xx. 11, and also by St. Peter*, there follow (as mentioned also by the same Apostle) “new heavens and a new earth,” foretold likewise by Isaiah t; to which St. Peter seems to refer, as to a prophecy unfulfilled. But the Apocalyptic prophecy does not rest upon the general assurance given by former prophets; it proceeds to a more particular description. It presents to us “the new city, “ the New Jerusalem,” “ the Bride, the Spouse" of Christ. Under these images, which are perfectly concordant with many other texts of Scripture f, is represented that assembly of the Saints, purified from sin; that “ glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle," which is here contrasted with the great, the impure,
* 2 Pet. iii. + Ch. Ixv. Ixvi.
1 See Eph. ii. 19, &c. Gal. iv. 26. Heb. xji. 22, &c.; viii. 2; ix. 11; xi. 10. 1 Pet. ii. 5; iii. 13, &c. 1 Cor. in. 9.
. [Pt. VII. $ 7. idolatrous city, which has been destroyed. They are both of them exhibited, first as women, then as cities; which symbols are convertible*. But the first woman is an impure harlot. The second is a virgin bride, fit for her Lord. The first city is idolatrous, and wicked, a very Babylon; the second is “ the holy city,” the new Jerusalemt, under which symbol she is more especially represented in the remaining part of this chapter.
Ib. And the sea is no more.] Some of the commentators have perplexed themselves to find a particular representation signified in this passage, under the emblem of the sea. It seems to me, that none such is to be looked for. The Heaven, the Earth, and the Sea, (with, sometimes, the rivers and fountains,) in Scriptural idea, compose the world I. These all pass away; "all " things are made new." The old translation stands corrected so as to accord with this notion ; yet not for that reason; but because the language of the original seemed evidently to require it.
Ver. 3. And I heard a loud voice out of heaven, saying—] Preparatory to almost every change which has taken place in this prophecy, for the advancement of Religion and the consequent happiness of man, songs of joy, from the sacred chorus in heaven, have proclaimed the revolution, before it has been exhibited in the scenery. The Heavenly Jerusalem is descending, and soon will be seen from a nearer point of view. Meanwhile, the happy change is sublimely described : the heavenly voice expresses most eloquently that divine
* See notes, ch, xvii. 1; xix. 7, 8. + See note, ch. iii. 12.
I See note, ch. viii. 7. “In six days, the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is :" Exod. xx. As these component parts are mentioned at the creation, so again at the dissolution, of the world,
state of felicity, to which redeemed man may, by the grace of God, attain. It is beyond the power of human imagination to comprehend the particulars in which it consists. It is therefore described only by negatives. There shall be no sorrow, no pain, no death; -none of those evils which embitter this mortal life. And this description is confirmed by the great Judge and Creator, who sitteth upon the throne;—“behold," says he, “ I make all things new.”
Ver. 5. Write: for, these words are true and worthy of belief.] At the conclusion of the vision which contained the judgment of Babylon*, the angel, who accompanied the prophet during that vision, had addressed him in nearly the same wordst. But the present scene is that, in which the Son of God, who had appeared at the commencement of the prophecy, addresses the prophet for the last time. He addresses him from his glorious throne; where, having judged the dead, and caused the old heavens and earth to vanish away, he creates a new heaven and a new earth, and therein a new and heavenly city, to be the blissful habitation of his servants. He now therefore renews his command to the prophet, to write what he had seen I. And he assures him, and through him, the Church, that these visions are to be believed, and to be relied upon as the words of God. He then declares the piophecy to be brought to its conclusion. It concludes with the new creation. The enemies of Christ are now finally subdued. Their opposition was the grand argument of the book. It ends when this resistance is no more. The triumphant Messiah concludes
* Ch. xix. 9. + See the note, wbich is intended to shew their purport.
As in ch. i, 19.