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by which the books of crimination and of life are opened, are shortly and sublimely related : and the language, though figurative, being conformable to other passages foretelling this great event, is of easy and obvious interpretation *. We may perhaps except from this description ver. 14, wherein death and hell are said to be cast into the lake of fire, called the second death. But this second death will be found explained in note, ch. ii. 11.
* Compare Mal, iii. 16; iv. 1: Job xxi. 30: Psalm ix. 17: Dans vii. 9; xii. 2: Isaiah xxviii. 14-19: Matt. xii. 41,42: Mark ix. 44 : 1 Cor. xv: Phil. ii. 21 : 1 Thess. iv, 16; 2 Thess. i. 7-10: 2 Tim. i. 10: Heb. ii. 14: 1 Pet. iii. 7, 10: Jude 14, 15 : also Rev. i. 14. 18; ii. 5; iv, 2, 3; ii. 11; vi. 8 ; with the notes thereon.
The new Creation.
CHAP. XXI. VER, 1-8.
1 Kai sidor spayòn 11 And I saw a new hea
καινον και γην καινήν ven, and a new earth: ο γαρ πρώτος ερα- for the first heaven and νός και η πρώτη γη
the first earth are passwroñazo xai ๆ
ed away; and the sea θάλασσα εκ έσιν 2 is no more. And the 2 έτι. Και την πόλιν
holy city, the new Jeτην αγίαν, Ιερs- rusalem, I saw deσαλήμ καινήν είδον, , scending from God out καλαβαίνεσαν από of Heaven, prepared
1 And I saw a new hea
ven, and a new earth: for, the first heaven and the first earth were
passed away; and there 2 was no more sea. And
I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven,
& ocê ix Tð égzvē, as a bride adorned for
prepared as a bride “Toijasuivi ús 13 her husband. And I adorned for her husνύμφην κεκοσμημέ
heard a loud voice 3 band. And I beard a νην τα ανδρί αυτής. .
out of heaven, saying; great voice out of hea. 3 Και ήκεσα φωνής
• Behold, the taberna- ven, saying; Behold, μεγάλης έκ το c cle of God with the tabernacle of God έρανε, λεγέσης. men: and he will is with men, and he Ιδε, η σκηνή το “ dwell with them : will dwell with them, Θεξ μεία των ανθρώ- " and they shall be and they shall be his πων, και σκηνώσει
“ his people, and God people, and God himo μετ' αυτών, και αυ
“ himself will be with self shall be with them, Thiazos aútë Foor- “ them, their God. 4 and be their God, And T21, x airos ó Osos 4 “ And he will wipe
God shall wipe away tsar lautūr, “ away every tear from all tears from their 4 Θεός αυτών. Και
“their eyes. Anddeath eyes; and there shall εξαλείψει σαν δά6 shall be no inore;
be uo more death, neiαπό των οφ
ther sorrow, por cryfakuär aurăr, y " mourning, nor pain, ing, neither shall there ó Javalos óx 7521 “ be morė; for the be any more pain; for έτι' έτι σένθος, , “ former things are
the former things are õte xpavydo Te 5 " passed away.” And 5 passed away. And be πόνος εκ έσαι έτι: he who sate upon the
that sat ότι τα πρώτα απ- throne, said;
throne, said; Behold, 5 ήλθον. Και είπεν και " hold, I make all I make all things new. καθήμενος επί το “things new."
And he said unto me; Spova 'lot, nandi he saith (unto me]
Write: for, these words πάγία ποιω. Και
“ Write: for these are true and faithful. λέγει [μοι]: Γρά" words are true, and
6 And he said unto me; ψαν ότι έτοι οι worthy of belief.”
It is done. I am Alpha ncryou aan Devon xai | 6 And he said unto me, and Omega, the begin6 oigoi siol. Kai
“ It is done! I am the ning and the end: I είπε μοι· Γεγόνες “ Alpha and the 0. will give unto him that εγώ είμι το Α και mega, the beginning is athirst, of the foun
" and the end. I will: το Ω, η αρχή και το
tain of the water of τέλος εγώ το δι- “ give unto bim that 7 life freely. He that fürlo o tow éxi tõs
" thirsteth, of the foun- overcometh, shall inσηγής τα ύδατος
“ tain of the water of herit all things; and tñs Swñs Swçtúr 7 “ life freely. He who will be his God, and 7 Ο νικών κληρονομή
" overcometh, shall in- he shall be my son. σει ταύτα" και έσο
“ herit these things : 8 But the fearful and μαι αυτω Θεός, και
" and I will be his unbelieving, and the
Ver. 1. And I saw a new heaven; &c.] The general judgment having taken place, and the heavens and earth passed away, as described in ch. xx. 11, and also by St. Peter*, there follow (as mentioned also by the same Apostle) “new heavens and a new earth, foretold likewise by Isaiah t; to which St. Peter seems to refer, as to a prophecy unfulfilled.
But the Apocalyptic prophecy does not rest upon the general assurance given by former prophets; it proceeds to a more particular description. It presents to us “the new city, os the New Jerusalem," “ the Bride, the Spouse" of Christ. Under these images, which are perfectly concordant with many other texts of Scripture f, is represented that assembly of the Saints, purified from sin; that “ glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle,” which is here contrasted with the great, the impure,
2 Pet. jji.
+ Ch. Ixv. lxvi. I See Eph. ii. 19, &c. Gal. iv. 26. Heb. xii. 22, &c.; viii. 2; ix. 11; xi. 10. Pet. ii. 5; iii. 13, &c. 1 Cor, ini. 9.
idolatrous city, which has been destroyed. They are both of them exhibited, first as women, then as cities; which symbols are convertible*. But the first woman is an impure harlot. The second is a virgin bride, fit for her Lord. The first city is idolatrous, and wicked, a very Babylon; the second is “the holy city,” the new Jerusalemt, under which symbol she is more especially represented in the remaining part of this chapter.
Ib. And the sea is no more.] Some of the commentators have perplexed themselves to find a particular representation signified in this passage, under the emblem of the sea. It seems to me, that none such is to be looked for. The Heaven, the Earth, and the Sea, (with, sometimes, the rivers and fountains,) in Scriptural idea, compose the world f. These all
the world I. These all pass away; "all “things are made new.' The old translation stands corrected so as to accord with this notion; yet not for that reason; but because the language of the original seemed evidently to require it.
Ver. 3. And I heard a loud voice out of heaven, saying-] Preparatory to almost every change which has taken place in this prophecy, for the advancement of Religion and the consequent happiness of man, songs of joy, from the sacred chorus in heaven, have proclaimad the revolution, before it has been exhibited in the scenery. The Heavenly Jerusalem is descending, and soon will be seen from a nearer point of view. Meanwhile, the happy change is sublimely described : the heavenly voice expresses most eloquently that divine state of felicity, to which redeemed man may, by the grace of God, attain. It is beyond the power of human imagination to comprehend the particulars in which it consists. It is therefore described only by negatives. There shall be no sorrow, no pain, no death; -none of those evils which embitter this mortal life. And this description is confirmed by the great Judge and Creator, who sitteth upon the throne ;—“behold," says he, “I make all things new.”
* See notes, ch, xvii. 1; xix. 7, 8. + See note, ch. iii. 12.
I See note, ch. viii. 7. “ In six days, the Lord made heaven and It earth, the sea, and all that in them is :" Exod. xx. As these component parts are mentioned at the creation, so again at the dissolution, of the world.
Ver. 5. Write : for, these words are true and worthy of belief.] At the conclusion of the vision which contained the judgment of Babylon*, the angel, who accompanied the prophet during that vision, had addressed him in nearly the same wordst. But the present scene is that, in which the Son of God, who had appeared at the commencement of the prophecy, addresses the prophet for the last time. He addresses him from his glorious throne; where, having judged the dead, and caused the old heavens and earth to vanish
away, he creates a new heaven and a new earth, and therein a new and heavenly city, to be the blissful habitation of his servants. He now therefore renews his command to the prophet, to write what he had seen 5. And he assures him, and through him, the Church, that these visions are to be believed, and to be relied upon as the words of God. He then declares the prophecy to be brought to its conclusion. It concludes with the new creation. The enemies of Christ are now finally subdued. Their opposition was the grand argument of the book. It ends when this resistance is no more. The triumphant Messiah concludes
* Ch. xix. 9. + See the note, wbich is intended to shew their purport.
As in ch. i. 19.