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one article to another, till it rises to the bodies, and then tothe souls of men.Can we avoid recalling to memory the purgatory, the penances, the commutations, the indulgences, made saleable in the corrupt papal church?

Ver. 12. Fine linen.] It is not necessary, respecting this passage, to determine the contested point, whether Burgos was used to signify linen, or cotton. It is plain from the context, as also from Luke xvi. 19, that it was the apparel only of the rich; and so it is here coupled with purple, scarlet, silk, &c. which were certainly the distinguishing habits of the opulent. Silk, at the time this Revelation was delivered, was a very rare and dear commodity, being then the produce only of China *.

Ver. 17. Every pilot-&c.] Here is presented a third company of mourners, of the same kind with those who lamented over the ancient maritime Tyre t. That these should be so affected, shews the extent of influence which the mystical Babylon had acquired in distant nations; for she corrupts wheresoever her baneful commerce can be extended. The reading ési TOTOV, restored by Griesbach, seems to be of great authority; in confirmation of which it is observed, that in the Vulgate, the word locum was antiently read, which has been clranged to lacum £ It does not however appear to afford an appropriate sense; and therefore, many attempts have been made to amend the reading; but it is not very inaterial; for the context shews how it is to be generally understood, namely, of those who sail in ships. I suspect ÉTI TOFOV to be a technical, maritime phrase; but have translated it as if writ

* See Gibbon, llist, ch. xl, where the history of silk is collected. + Ezek, xxvii. 32.

Father Simon.

ten

ten ÊTI TOV TOROV: in the sense in which the Æthiopic version seems to have rendered it.

Ver. 20. Rejoice over her, O heaven ; &c.] The same rejoicing is announced upon the prophesied fall of the ancient Babylon *; and her eternal desolation is represented under the same imagery t.

" But what reason had the Christians to rejoice over the calami“ ties brought on Rome by Alaric or Totilas; in which

they themselves were the principal sufferers? And “how were these calamities any viudication of their cause, or of the cause of true Religion #?”

Ver. 21. A stone-&c.] Thus also the ancient Babylon, condemned never to rise again, is described as sinking, like a stone, in Euphrates g.

Ver. 22. The voice of harpers.] Here, the cheerful noise heard in a populous city, “the busy hum of " men,” is poetically described.

There is resemblance to the great poet's description of a joyous city ||. But so entire and final is the destruction of Babylon, that these shall be heard in her no more for

The prototype of this description is to be seen in Jer. vii. 34; xvi. 9; xxv. 10; xxxiii. 2. But Rome, as Bishop Newton observes, has never suffered this utter desolation. She has often been captured and plundered by the enemy; but she still remains (says he) a joyous city, the resort of strangers, delighting Europe with her music, and her arts 1. I shall not pursue the learned Prelate in his endeavours to prove that modern Rome' is to be destroyed by fire, literally understood. Fire, in prophetic language, implies utter destruction; and it is the corruption, the * Jer. li. 48.

+ Jer. li. 64. Bishop Newton, Dissert. on Proph. vol, iii, p. 317. § Jer, li. 63, 64.

|| llom. Iliad. lib. xviii. 490
Dissert, iii. 317.
Qe2

superstition,

ever.

superstition, and usurped dominion of Rome, which are to be utterly destroyed, not her buildings. She is Babylon in a spiritual sense ; and in a spiritual sense it is, that she is to be burned and consumed, “even unto the end.”

Ver. 23–24. Sorcery-blood of prophets.] We have here two distinguishing marks of this corrupt Church, which have been before noticed :-). The arts of deception, like the sorceries and incantations of the heathen priests, by which she has beguiled the nations and their kings :--2. Her tyranny, by which she has persecuted, even to tortures and death, those who refuse her yoke. And as the blood of the prophets was required of the ancient Jerusalemn ; so is the blood of the Christian Saints and Martyrs, from this corrupt city*.

The denunciation of the judgement of Babylon, contained in this speech of the angel, seems principally intended for the support and comfort of the poor, persecuted Christian Church, during the high zenith of the Antichristian usurpation. To answer this purpose the more effectually, almost every part of the prophecy is taken from the prophetical denunciations of the Old Testament, against Babylon, Tyre, &c. which were known to have been literally fulfilled. No other method could afford such perfect confidence to those, who, in the new Babylon, clearly discovered the tyranny and wickedness of the old one. And from the time that Papal Rome was acknowledged to be this new Babylon, (and this discovery was made early in the twelfth century t,) great must have been the encouragement derived to the Reformers from this chapter of the Apocalypse.

* Luke xi. 50, 51, + See Mede, p. 517.792, &c. Thuani Hist. lib. vi. c. 16.

PART VI.

SECTION V.

Exultation in Heaven over the fallen Babylon, and upon

the approach of the new Jerusalem.

CHAP. XIX. VER. 1-10.

“ the glory, and the

1 Μεία ταύτα ήκεσα 1 After these things, I

ως φωνήν όχλο σολ- heard, as it were, a λέμεγάλην εν τω ε- loud voice of a great ρανώ, λέγονων: 'Αλ- multitude in heaven, ληλεία και σωτηρία, saying, “ Allelujah! naindo&a, nain “ the salvation, and

δύναμις τέ Θεέ ή2 μών: "Οτι αληθιναι

power of our God! rj dixarxı aixgions 2“ for, true and righteαυτά ότι έκρινε την ous are his judge πόρνην την μεγά- ments; for, he hath λην, ήτις έφθειρε την “ judged the great γήν εν τη πορνεία “ harlot, which did αυτής, και εξεδίκησε

corrupt the earth το αίμα των δέλων “ with her fornication;

αυτά εκ χειρός αυ- “ and hath avenged 3 της. Και δεύτερον “ the blood of his ser

είρηκαν''Αλληλεια: << vants at her hand.” και ο καπνός αυτής 3 And again they said, αναβαίνει εις τες "Allelujah!" And the

aiwras Tür wiórwy. smoke of her 4 Και έπεσον οι πρεσ

cendeth for ever and Gύτεροι οι είκοσι 4 ever. And the twentyτέσσαρες, και τα four elders, and the τέσσαρα ζώα, και

four living-creatures προσεκύνησαν το fell down, and wor. Θεώ τω καθημένω shipped God who sitεπί το θρόνα, λέ- teth on the throne,

goules• 'Ausivo 'AN- saying, “ Amen! Al5 ληλεια. Και φωνή 5 “lelujab!"And a voice

1 And after these things

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying; Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and pow

er unto the Lord our 2 God: For, true and

righteous are his judgements; for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornica. tion; and hath avenged the blood of his ser

vants at her hand. 3 And again they said,

Alleluia. And her

smoke rose up for ever 4 and ever.

And the four-and-lwenty elders, and the four beasts, fell down and worshipped God that sat on the

throne, saying; Amen; 5 Alleluia. And a voice

came out of the throne, saying; Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear

as

εκ τ8 θρόνα εξηλθε,

from the throne bim, both small and λέχυσα Αινείτε τον came forth, saying; 6 great. And I heard Θεόν ημών τσάνιες « Praise our God, all as it were the voice of οι δελοι αυτά, οι « ye his servants, ye a great multitude, and φοβέμενοι αυτόν οι " who fear him, both

as the voice of many μικροί και οι μεγάλοι.

« small and great.” waters, and as the 6 Και ήκεσα ως φω- | 6 And I heard as it were, voice of mighty thun

νην όχλα πολλά, και a voice of a great mul- derings, saying; Alle. ως φωνήν υδάτων titude, and as a voice luia: for the Lord God πολλών, και ως of many waters, and Omnipotent reigneth, φωνής βρονών ισ

as a voice of miglity 7 Let us be glad and reχυρών, λέγουλας thunderings, saying; joice, and give honour 'Αλληλεια ότι έ- “ Allelujah! for, the to him: for, the mar. βασίλευσε Κύριο.

“ Lord our God the riage of the Lamb is ο Θεός ημών ο σαν»

“ Omnipotent reign- come, and his wife bath 7 τοκράτωρ. Χαίρω-7 “ eth. Let us be glad,

made herself ready. μεν και αγαλλιά

«« and rejoice, and give | 8 And to her was grantμεθα, και δώμεν την

« the glory to him; ed, that she should be δόξαν αυτά ότι ήλ

“ for the marriage of arrayed in fine linen, θεν ο γάμου το “ the Lamb is comé,

clean and white: for, αρνίε, και η γυνή αυ

« and his wife hath the fine linen is the τα ητοίμασεν

herself. ,

righteousness of saints. 8 αυλήν. Και εδόθη | S « And it bath been 9 And he saith unto me;

αυτή, ένα σεριβά- “ given to her, that Write, Blessed are they ληλαι βύσσινον κα

" she should be ar- which are called unto θαρόν και λαμπρόν: “rayed in fine linen, the marriage-supfer of το γαρ βύσσινον, "pure and bright: for, the Lamb. And he τα δικαιώμαλα έξι

“ the fine linen is the saith unto me, These 9 των αγίων. Και righteousness of the

are the true sayings of λέγει μοι· Γρά

9

«« saints.” And he 10God. And I fell at ψον Μακάριοι οι

“ prepared

saith unto me,“ Write; his feet to worship εις το δείπνον τα

« Blessed are they who him: And be said unto γάμε τα αρνίε κεare called to the

me; See thou do it not: κλημένοι. Και λέ- “ marriage - supper of I am thy fellow-ser.

" the Lamb." And vant, and of thy breλόγοι αληθινοί εισι he saith

thren that have the 10 τύ Θεά. Και επε- “ These are the true

testimony of Jesus: σον έμπροσθεν των 10“ words of God.” And worship God: for the

I fell down before his testimony of Jesus is κυνήσαι αυτό και feet to worship 'him: the spirit of prophecy. λέγει μ: : "Oρα μή. and he saith unto me,

γ. μοιΟύτοι οι

unto me,

ποδών αυτά προσ.

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