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one article to another, till it rises to the bodies, and then to“ the souls of men.Can we avoid recalling to memory the purgatory, the penances, the commutations, the indulgences, made saleable in the corrupt papal church?

Ver. 12. Fine linen.] It is not necessary, respecting this passage, to determine the contested point, whether Buogos was used to signify linen, or cotton. It is plain from the context, as also from Luke xvi. 19, that it was the apparel only of the rich; and so it is here coupled with purple, scarlet, silk, &c. which were certainly the distinguishing habits of the opulent. Silk, at the time this Revelation was delivered, was a very rare and dear commodity, being then the produce only of China *.

Ver. 17. Every pilot-&c.] Here is presented a third company of mourners, of the same kind with those who lamented over the ancient maritime Tyre f. That these should be so affected, shews the extent of influence which the mystical Babylon had acquired in distant nations; for she corrupts wheresoever her baneful commerce can be extended. The reading & FI TOTOV, restored by Griesbach, seems to be of great authority; in confirmation of which it is observed, that in the Vulgate, the word locum was antiently read, which has been changed to lacum. It does not however appear to afford an appropriate sense; and therefore, many attempts have been made to amend the reading; but it is not very inaterial; for the context shews how it is to be generally understood, namely, of those who sail in ships. I suspect ÉTL Tomov to be a technical, maritime phrase; but have translated it as if writ

* See Gibbon, Ilist. ch. xl, where the history of silk is collected. + Ezek, xxvii. 32.

Father Simon.

ten

ten émi TOV TOTOV: in the sense in which the Æthiopic version seems to have rendered it.

Ver. 20. Rejoice over her, O heaven ; &c.] The same rejoicing is announced upon the prophesied fall of the ancient Babylon * ; and her eternal desolation is represented under the same imagery t. " But what

reason had the Christians to rejoice over the calami“ ties brought on Rome by Alaric or Totilas; in which

they themselves were the principal sufferers ? And how were these calamities any vindication of their cause, or of the cause of true Religion 1 ?”

Ver. 21. A stonem&c.] Thus also the ancient Babylon, condemned never to rise again, is described as sinking, like a stone, in Euphrates g.

Ver. 22. The voice of harpers.] Here, the cheerful noise heard in a populous city, “the busy hum of men, is poetically described.

There is resemblance to the great poet's description of a joyous city ||. But so entire and final is the destruction of Babylon, that these shall be heard in her no more for

The prototype of this description is to be seen in Jer. vii. 34; xvi. 9; xxv. 10; xxxiii. 2. But Rome, as Bishop Newton observes, has never suffered this utter desolation. She has often been captured and plundered by the enemy ; but she still remains (says he) a joyous city, the resort of strangers, delighting Europe with her music, and her arts 1. I shall not pursue the learned Prelate in his endeavours to prove that modern Rome is to be destroyed by fire, literally understood. Fire, in prophetic language, implies utter destruction; and it is the corruption, the # Jer. li. 48.

+ Jer. li. 64.
Bishop Newton, Dissert. on Proph. vol, iii. p. 317.
Jerli. 63, 64.

ll llom. Iliad. lib. xviii. 490
Dissert. iii. 317.
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superstition,

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superstition, and usurped dominion of Rome, which are to be utterly destroyed, not her buildings. She is Babylon in a spiritual sense; and in a spiritual sense it is, that she is to be burned and consumed, even unto the end.”

Ver. 23–24. Sorceryblood of prophets.] We have here two distinguishing marks of this corrupt Church, which have been before noticed :-). The arts of deception, like the sorceries and incantations of the heathen priests, by which she has beguiled the nations and their kings :--2. Her tyranny, by which she has persecuted, even to tortures and death, those who refuse her yoke. And as the blood of the prophets was required of the ancient Jerusalem ; so is the blood of the Christian Saints and Martyrs, from this corrupt city*

The denunciation of the judgement of Babylon, contained in this speech of the angel, seems principally intended for the support and comfort of the poor, persecuted Christian Church, during the high zenith of the Antichristian usurpation. To answer this purpose the more effectually, almost every part of the prophecy is taken from the prophetical denunciations of the Old Testament, against Babylon, Tyre, &c. which were known to have been literally fulfilled. No other method could afford such perfect confidence to those, who, in the new Babylon, clearly discovered the tyranny and wickedness of the old one. And from the time that Papal Rome was acknowledged to be this new Babylon, (and this discovery was made early in the twelfth century t.) great must have been the encouragement derived to the Reformers from this chapter of the Apocalypse.

• Luke xi. 50, 51.
+ See Mede, p. 517.722, &c. Thuani Hist. lib. vi. c. 16.

PART VI.

SECTION V.

Exultation in Heaven over the fallen Babylon, and upon

the approach of the new Jerusalem.

CHAP. XIX. VER. 1-10.

1 Μετα ταύτα ήκεσα 1 After these things, I

ως φωνήν όχλο σολ- heard, as it were, a λε μεγάλης εν τω ε- loud voice of a great ρανώ, λέγονιων 'Αλ multitude in heaven, , ληλεϊα: η σωτηρία, saying, “ Allelujah! και η δόξα, και η " the salvation, and δύναμις τε Θε8 η

“ the glory, and the 2 μών: "Οτι αληθιναι

power of our God! και δίκαιαι αι κρίσεις | 2 « for, true and righteαυτό• ότι έκρινε την ous are his judge πόρνην την μεγά- ments; for, he bath λην, ήτις έφθειρε την

“ judged the great γήν εν τη πορνεία “harlot, which did αυτής, και εξεδίκησε corrupt the earth το αίμα των δέλων “ with her fornication;

αυτά εκ χειρός αυ- " and hath avenged 3 της. Και δεύτερον

« the blood of his serεύρηκαν''Αλληλέικ “ vants at her hand.” και ο καπνός αυτής 3 And again they said, αναβαίνει εις τες “ Allelujah!" And the

αιώνας των αιώνων. smoke of her 4 Και έπεσον οι σεισ

cendeth for ever and Sύτεροι οι είκοσι 4 ever. And the twentyτέσσαρες, και τα four elders, and the τέσσαρα ζώα, και four living-creatures προσεκύνησαν το fell down, and woro Θεώ τω καθημείνω shipped God who sitεπί το θρόνε, λέ- teth on the throne,

γονες: 'Αμήν'Αλ saying, “ Amen! Al5 ληλεία, Και φωνή

5 “lelujab!"And a voice

1 And after these things

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying; Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and powe

er unto the Lord our 2 God: For, true and

righteous are his judgements; for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornica. tion; and hath avenged the blood of his ser

vants at her hand. 3 And again they said,

Alleluia. And her

snjoke rose up for ever 4 and ever.

And the four-and-twenty elders, and the four beasts, fell down and worshipped God that sat on the

throne, saying; Amen; 5 Alleluia. And a voice

came out of the throne, saying; Praise our God, all ye his ser vants, and ye that fear

as

ye

as

έκ τ8 θρόνο εξήλθε,

from the throne bim, both small and λέχασα Αινείτε τον came forth, saying; | 6 great.. And I heard Θεόν ημών τσάνιες « Praise our God, all as it were the voice of οι δελοι αυτά, οι

his servants, ye

a great multitude, and φοβέμενοι αυτόν οι

us who fear him, both as the voice of many μικροί και οι μεγάλοι. « small and great.”

waters, and the 6 Και ήκεσα ως φω- | 6 And I heard as it were, voice of mighty thun

νην όχλα πολλέ, και a voice of a great mul. derings, saying; Alle. ως φωνήν υδάτων titude, and as a voice luia; for the Lord God πολλών, και ως of many waters, and Omnipotent reigneth. φωνής βρονίων ισ

as a voice of miglity 7 Let us be glad and reχυρών, λέγοντας: thunderings, saying; joice, and give honour 'Αλληλεια: ότι έ- « Allelujah! for, the to him: for, the mar. βασίλευσε Κύριο.

« Lord our God the riage of the Lamb is ο Θεός ημών ο σαν»

“ Omnipotent reign- come, and his wife bath 7 τοκράτωρ. Χαίρω-7 “ eth. Let us be glad,

made herself ready. μεν και αγαλλιά- « and rejoice, and give | 8 And to her was grantμεθα, και δώμεν την “ the glory to him; ed, that she should be δόξαν αυτα ότι ήλ

“ for the marriage of arrayed in fine linen, θεν ο γάμο το

" the Lamb is come, clean and white: for, αρνία, και η γυνή αυ

66 and his Wife hath the fine linen is the τι ήτοίμασεν ε

“ prepared herself. , righteousness of saints. 8 αυλήν. Και εδόθη

S " And it hath been 9 And he saith unto me; αυτή, ένα περιβά- “ given to her, that Write, Blessed are they ληλαι βύσσινον κα

" she should be ar- wbich are called unto θαρόν και λαμπρόν: rayed in fine linen, the marriage-supper of το γαρ βύσσινο», pure and bright : for, the Lamb. And he τα δικαιώματα έξι

" the fine lineu is the saith unto me, These 9 των αγίων. Και « righteousness of the

are the true sayings of « saints.”

9 λίγει μοι· Γρά

And be 10 God. And I fell at ψον Μακάριοι οι

saith unto me,“ Write; bis feet to worship εις το δείπνον τα

« Blessed are they who him: And be said unto γάμε το αρνίε κε

calleci to the me; See thun do it not: κλημένοι. Και λέ“ marriage- supper of

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are

I am thy fellow-ser. " the Lamb." And

vant, and of thy breλόγοι αληθινοί εισι be saith

unto me,

thren that bave the 10 τύ Θεά. Και επε- “ These are the true

testimony of Jesus: σον έμπροσθεν των 10“ words of God." Aud worship God for the ποδων αιτε αξοσ.

I fell down before his testimony of Jesus is κυνήσαι αυτό και feet to worship 'him: the spirit of prophecy. λέγει μ:: "Oρα μή. and he saith unto me,

για μοιΟύτοι οι

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