תמונות בעמוד

Messiah for his Saints, will be sudden, decisive, and c mplete. This warning, delivered in the fifteenth verse, is to be read as in parenthesis, after which the narrative seems to be resumed. And the verb singular, συνηγαγεν, agrees with the neuter plural ακαθαρία πνευματα, whose office it was to collect the kings: (ver. 14). This is observed by Daubuz.

Ver. 17. And the seventh poured out his Vial on the air; &c.] The seven Vials are called the seven last plagues *, “because in them will be completed the “ wrath of God.” And this wrath could not be fully complete until the last of the seven should be poured out. This period is now arrived; and appears to be the same with that of the sixth Seal t, and of the seventh Trumpet; both of which exhibit a similar earthquake and hail: these are dreadful chiefly, if not wholly, to the enemies of Christ; for, at the sound of the seventh Trumpet, the heavenly chorus aunounces joy and happiness to the servants of God; who are sealed, and preserved from the calamity of the sixth Seal. The particulars of the conflict will be revealed more copiously in ch. xix. &c. In the present scene, it is represented under the character of a Vial of wrath poured out, of a plague and punishment inflicted on the antichristian powers. Hience the sufferings of these men enter more especially into the description.

This Vial is poured out upon the air; upon that element which pervades, or envelopes, all the other divisions of the world;—of the antichristian world, on which the preceding Vials had been discharged;—the Land, the Sea, the Rivers, and Heavenly Luminaries; and consequently affects them all. It is the region of

. Ch. xv, i.
+ See ch. vi, 12-17; ch. xi. 15–19; and the notes,


the air, of which satan, as Mede observes, has been denominated the prince *. Antichristianity, therefore, is now attacked in her strongest holds, and in every part. The discharge of this Vial is accompanied by a voice from the throne in heaven, proclaiming by the emphatical expression, reyove, the final completion, the perfect victory

Throughout the whole of this prophetical book, expectation is fixed upon this great event; which however, for reasons above assigned, is not yet exhibited in all its particulars. But the earthquake so dreadful, and unparalleled t; the removal of mountains and of islands ; the hail $; afford the same kind of general display of the tremendous judgments of an offended God, as we have seen exhibited under the sixth Seal, and the seventh Trumpet. All three appear to predict the same period and events, and in like language. Any variation to be observed in each, may be sufficiently accounted for, by adverting to the object, which each had more especially in view. For instance; (1.) the sixth Seal, containing the first opening of this dreadful scenery, , would properly present it in a general style of imagery, such as had been already seen in other parts of prophetic Scripturell

, such as might serve as a basis, whereon to build the additional information, which would more fitly come forward in the subsequent parts of the prophecy C. (2.) When the same period, attended by the * Eph. ii. 2. + See notes, ch. vi. 12, &c. See note, ch. vi. 14.

See note, ch. viii. 7. U See note, ch. vi. 16.

The sixth Seal seems also to extend to the final Day of Judgment and retribution, at the consummation of the world ; which the seventh Trumpet and Vial perhaps do pot. This, like other prophecies, may have a primary and secondary completion; the first, so far as it agrees and cotemporizes with the seventh Trumpet and Vial; the last, at the latest period of time.


same kind of scenery, was to be exhibited under the seventh Trumpet; joy, triumph, and thanksgiving, would naturally predominate in the description : for, the preceding Trumpets, which had announced a long and mournful warfare to the Church, were now come to their end; but in the back-ground of the scenery, the same dreadful apparatus, which appeared under the sixth Seal, is still displayed: "lightnings and voices, “and thunders, and earthquake, and great hail.” And it is observable, that these commotions proceed from the Temple, and Throne in Heaven; from the very same quarter, whence the angels had brought the Vials filled with the wrath of God; and from which, at the pouring out of the last Vial, the emphatic leyove likewise had proceeded.

(3.) Under the seventh Vial, the same kind of apparatus appears, as under the sixth Seal and under the seventh Trumpet; but with this additional information; that “the great city became divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell; and the

great Babylon was remembered before God, to give her “the cup of the wine of the fury of his anger.” This particular description is the proper subject of the Vials ; in which the wrath of God is represented as poured out on his enemies. The great city is the same which we find mentioned in chi. xi. composed of

many people, tribes, nations, and languages * ;” and scems to be the universal assemblage, or combined power, of the wicked and worldly, who at the instigation of satan, and under the expectation of earthly reward, or fear of the beast, shall have set themselves in opposition to the God of Heaven, and to the reign of his

See note, ch, xi. 8. 13.


Anointed. The division of this community into three parts, must be explained by the event, when the prophecy shall be fulfilled. The cities of the nations may perhaps be associations for worship, pagan and idolatrous, beyond the pale of the great city, of the corrupt Christian-antichristian Church. All such are to fall at this time, before the great Lord and Conqueror, " whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all “ dominions shall serve and obey Him*.” But of all the cities, or communities of Religion, which are opposed to the city of God and of Christ,—to the heavenly Jerusalem, the great Babylon is especially remembered. For her, (the harlot, the adulteress, the apostate Church,) the


of God's anger, the vial of his wrath, is especially prepared. “For it is not an open enemy “ that hath done me this dishonour; for then I could “ have borne it;- but it was even thou, my companion,

my guide, and my own familiar friend t.” The description therefore of this city, of her domination, and of her fall, is related ; and becomes the especial subject of the two ensuing chapters; where we shall be enabled to unveil hier, and to expose her abominations.

* Dan, vii. 27.

Psalm ly. 12, 14.




The great Harlot, or Babylon.


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1 Kaik8v is ix Tây 1 And there came one of

Απλά αγγέλων των the seven angels who εχόντων τας επλα had the seven vials, φιάλας, και ελάλησε and spake with me, μετ' εμέ, λέγων· saying;“Come hither; Δεύρο, δείξω σοι “I will shew thee the το κρίμα της πόρ- “ judgement of the νης της μεγάλης

great harlot, who της καθημένης επι

“ sitteth upon

the Tv υδάτων των

2 mapy


With 9 σολλών Μεθ' ης

“ whom the kings of επόρνευσαν οι βα

“ the earth have comσιλείς της γης, και “ mitted fornication ; έμεθύσθησαν εκ τα

“ and the inhabitants oire riñs wognias

.66 of the earth have αυτής οι κατοικίν

“ been made drunken 3 TES The gav. Kai

« with the wine of her απήνεκέ με εις έρη

3 “ fornication." And he μον εν πνεύμαι» και

carried me away into a είδον γυναίκα καθη. .

wilderness in the Spiμένην επί θηρίον

rit. And I saw a woκόκκινο», γέμον όνο

man seated upon a μάτων βλασφημί

scarlet-coloured wildας, έχουν κεφαλας inla xiy xipala dixa.

beast, which was full 4 Kain yon no wepro

of names of blasphe

my ; having seven βεβλημένη πορφυρών

heads and ten horns. και κοκκίνον, και κεχρυσωμένη χρυσώ | 4 And the woman was και λίθω τιμίω και arrayed in purple and mapyagitais, ixya scarlet, and richly ad

1 And there came one of

the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither, I will shew unto thee the judgement of the great whore,

that sitteth upon many 2 waters: With whom

the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabiters of the earth have been made drunk with

the wine of her forni3 cation,

So he car. ried me away in the Spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a wo. man sit upon a scarletcoloured beast, full of names of blasphemy,

having seven heads, 4 and ten horns. And

th woman was array. ed in purple, and scare let-colour, and decked with gold, and precious stone, and pearls,

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