תמונות בעמוד

the Gospel, as an everlasting rule of faith and of conduct. It has been the endeavour of the antichristian powers to corrupt, or secrete, this Gospel*, which is to lead all nations and languages to the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Creator. So the progress of the Reformation seems here to be prefigured, which, from its first dawnings, ever appealed to the everlasting Gospel as the sole rule of faith, and preached the restoration of Gospel worship in opposition to the reigning impurities and superstitions.

Ver. 7. Judgment.] See note, ch. xi. 18.

• Mahomet and his followers have corrupted,—the papal hierarchy have secreted it.



The second Angel proclaims.

CHIAP. xiv. VER. 8.

8 Και άλλος αγελος

ήχολέθησε, λέγων" *Επεσεν, έπεσε ΒαCuang Á góhis peyzin, [871] {x To oing rů duue της πορνείας αυ. της σεπότικε τσάνα @yna

8 And another angel fol

lowed, saying ; “ She
" is fallen! Babylon,
“ the great Babylon,
“ is fallen! (for) of
" the wine of the rage
" of her fornication
" she hath made all
"the nations to drink."

8 And there followed

another angel, saying: Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication,


Another angel follows, proclaiming the fall of “ Babylon, that great city,” which had intoxicated, seduced, and corrupted the nations with her impure religion. This city, and her fall, will be more particularly represented in chapters xvii. and xviii. It is sufficient in this place to observe, that this is one very formidable horn of the second antichristian beast, the false prophet; the fall of which is here prophetically anticipated, for the comfort and encouragement of the suffering Church, engaged in opposing her. And the progress of the Reformation seems still to be generally described : for, the purer Christians, the Albigenses and Valdenses, in the twelfth century, pronounced the church of Rome to be this very “Babylon ; the mother of harlots, and abomina“tions of the earth *." From this discovery is to be dated the beginning of her fall.

* See Mede's Works, pp. 517.722. &c. Thuan. Hist. lib. vi. cap. 16. Bp. Newton's Dissert. vol. iii. p. 258. 8vo.



The third Angel proclaims.

CHAP. xiv. VER. 9-12.

9 Kai Teitos dos 9 And a third angel fol. 9 And the third angel ηκολέθησεν αυτοίς, , lowed them, saying

fo Howed them, saying λέων έν φωνή μετά- with a loud voice: “If with a loud voice, If λη: Εί τις το θηρίον any one worship the

any man worship the τσροσκυνεί και την εί“ beast and his image,

beast and his image, κόνα αυτ8, και λαμ: " and receive a mark and receive his mark Gάνει χάραγμα επί upon his forehead,

in his forehead, or in


or upon

τα μελώπε αυτά, ,

his hand ; η επι την χείρα 10“ Eveu lie shall drink 10 αυτ8, Και αυτός

" of the wine of the oidlau x To ovo « wrath of God, of the το θυμό το Θεό, , “ imbittered powerful το κεκερασμένο α

“ wine, in the cup of κράτα, εν τω ποίη

“his anger, and shall ρίων της οργής αυτ8' “ be tormented with και βασανισθήσέlαιέν

“ fire and brimstone toupi z; Sriw iv-terior

" before the holy anτων αγίων αγέλανης “gels, and before the ενώπιον το αρνί. 11“ Lamb. And

tlie 11 Και ο καπνός τα 66 smoke of their torβασανισμό αυτών

“ ment ascendeth for αναβαίνει εις αιώνας “ ever and ever: and alwe xj éxixes

they have no rest, σιν ανάπαυσιν ημέ- “ day nor night, who σας και νυκτος οι

“worship the beast csgooxuvenes To S

" and his image, and ρίων και την εικόνα

“ if any one receive αυτό, και εί τις " the mark of his λαμβάνει το χά- | 12 name. Herein the

ραίμα τα ονόμα- “patience of the Saints 12 τoς αυτέ. Ωδε

“ is, they who keep υπομονή των αγίων " the commandments εφίν ώδε οι τηρώνες “ of God, and the τας ενίολας TO “ faith of Jesus." Θε3, και την τοίςιν 'lnog.

10 his hand, The same

shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture, into the cup of bis indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the pre

sence of the Lamb: 11 Aud the smoke of their

torment ascendeth up for ever and ever; and they bave no rest day nor night who worship the beast and his in mage, and whosoerer

receiveth the mark of 12 bis name.

Here is the patience of the saints : here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

A third angel proclaims just and eternal vengeance upon those who “worship the beast;" who knowing their duty and their allegiance to God, sacrifice them to their worldly interests. They are threatened with “ the wine of the wrath of God;" the wine, which is at first strong of itself, unmixed (cuparov), has no diluting liquor put to it, to reduce its strength, as was common in the eastern nations


of antiquity. But, secondly, it is zemegaG LLEVOY, rendered still stronger by the mixture of powerful, intoxicating ingredients. Compare Isaiah li. 17–29; Psalm lxxv. 8. “The Hebrew idea of which Saint John ex

presses in Greck, with the utmost precision, though “ with a seeming contradiction in terms, xexe PU OLEVOV " engelov, merum mixtum; pure wine made

yet stronger by a mixture of powerful ingredients. In “ the land of Jehovah, (saith the Psalmist,) there is a

cup, and the wine is turbid; it is full of mixed liquor, and he poureth out of it, (or rather he poureth it out of one vessel into another, to mix it

perfectly, according to the reading expressed by the "ancient versions,) all the ungodly shall wring them

out and drink them.” The expression in the Septuagint, Psalm lxxv. 8 : woługiou018 e zgzie winges

nepez specélos, which in the Chaldee is called a cup of “ malediction, throws additional light on this pas

sage. Compare also Psalm si. 6; 1x. : Jer. xxv. '15, 16, &c. : Lam. iv. 21: Ezek. xxii. 32, &c. : “ Hab. ii. 16: Zech. xii. 2: also Hom. Il. xxii. 527; “ Odyss. iv. 290*.” Such terms were used to express the anger of God, 'terrible by temporal punishments, but inost terrible by those torments beyond the grave, “ where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not

quenched;" which ideas are also forcibly expressed in the words now before us; “ the smoke of their “ torment ascendeth for ever and ever.” Thus the terror of the greater evil is exhibited, to enable Christians to undergo the less with patient courage dlescribed in the twelfth verse.

Bp. Lowth, on Isaiab li.


SECTION V. The Blessedness of those who die in the Lord, pro


CHAP. xiv. VER. 13.

13 Και ήκεσα φωνής

Xx TË épave, 28gsons. Γράψον" Μακάριοι οι νεκροί οι εν Κυρίω αποθνήσκονίες απάρλι. . Ναι, λέγει το σνευрх,

να αναπαύσωνίαι εκ των κόπων αυτών· τα δε έργα αυτών ακολεθεί με αυτών. .

13 And I heard a voice

from heaven, saying;
" Write; Blessed are
“ the dead, who die
“ in the Lord, hence-
“ forth, even so, saith
" the Spirit, that they

may rest from their
“ labours, but their
66 works follow with

13 And I heard a voice

from heaven, saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord, from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

The voices of the angels had pronounced the punishments of those who, for worldly purposes receiving the antichristian mark, deny their Lord. A voice from heaven, from the throne itself, confirms their denunciations, adding thereto this consolation; that if the fiery trial proceed to its last stage, even to temporal death, this death shall be blessed; shall introduce the martyr to an eternal freedom from pain and trouble; his sufferings on earth shall be recompensed with everlasting rest and glory.

These four proclamations are plain in their meaning. and of easy solution to those who are versed in Scriptural language. They seem intended to be so, in order that all Christians may be encouraged in time of trial to preserve their allegiance to their Lord, the Lamb; whose banner is unfolded in this chapter.


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