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the Gospel, as an everlasting rule of faith and of conduct. It has been the endeavour of the antichristian powers to corrupt, or secrete, this Gospel*, which is to lead all nations and languages to the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Creator. So the progress of the Reformation seems here to be prefigured, which, from its first dawnings, ever appealed to the everlasting Gospel as the sole rule of faith, and preached the restoration of Gospel worship in opposition to the reigning impurities and superstitions.
Ver. 7. Judgment.] See note, ch. si. 18.
* Mahomet and his followers have corrupted,—the papal hierarchy have secreted it.
The second Angel proclaims.
CHAP. xiv. ver. 8.
8 Kzi ännas a yedos 1 8 And another angel fol- | 8 And there followed
hxonólnoe, zerya'yo lowed, saying ; “ She another angel, saying: *E53:y, 360: B1
“is fallen! Babylon, Babylon is fallen, is SuÀàu s G5A-5 % “ the great Babylon, fallen, that great city, paiyaan, [őzı] ix “ is fallen! (for) of because she made all tä oirs Tg Jous “ the wine of the rage nations drink of the της πορνείας αυ. “ of her fornication wine of the wrath of tñs werótize tárla “ she hath made all her fornication, ilma
" the nations to drink." |
Another angel follows, proclaiming the fall of “ Babylon, that great city,” which had intoxicated, seduced, and corrupted the nations with her impure religion. This city, and her fall, will be more particularly represented in chapters xvii. and xviii. It is sufficient in this place to observe, that this is one very formidable horn of the second antichristian beast, the false prophet; the fall of which is here prophetically anticipated, for the comfort and encouragement of the suffering Church, engaged in opposing her. And the progress of the Reformation seems still to be generally described : for, the purer Christians, the Albigenses and Valdenses, in the twelfth century, pronounced the church of Rome to be this very “ Babylon ; the mother of harlots, and abomina“tions of the earth *.” From this discovery is to be dated the beginning of her fall.
* See Mede's Works, pp. 517.722. &c. Thuan. Hist. lib. vi. cap. 16. Bp. Newton's Dissert. vol. iii. p. 288. 8vo.
The third Angel proclaims.
CHAP. xiv. VER. 9-12. 9 Kai Tgitos á pedos 9 And a third angel fol- 1 9 And the third angel
ήχολέθησεν αυτοίς, lowed them, saying followed them, saying allwr sy ourñ pzás with a loud voice:“ If with a loud voice, If Ap" Eỉ Tis Tô Sngiay “ any one worship the any man worship the προσκυνεί και την εί “ beast and his image, beast and his image, xóva aits, rj Aqua “ and receive a mark and receive his mark Cáveu xágayua ini l " upon his forehead,l in his forehead, or in tē pilóme auto, “or upon his hand ; | 10 his hand, The same
ñ imi main xsięx | 10“ Eveu lie shall drink shall drink of the wine 10 aútg, Kai ajtós " of the wine of the of the wrath of God,
σίείαι εκ τε οίνα “ wrath of God, of the , wlrich is poured out τα θυμώ το Θεό, " imbittered powerful without mixture, into τα κεκερασμένα α “ wine, in the cup of the cup of his indig. κράτε, εν τω πόλη “ his anger, and shall nation; and he shall be piøs tās ógyms autą. “ be tormented with tormented with fire και βασανισθήσειαιέν “ fire and brimstone and brimstone, in the τυρί και θείω ενώπιον
“ before the holy an presence of the holy των αγίων αγέλων και “ gels, and before the angels, and in the pre
ενώπιον το αρνίε. 11“ Lamb. And tlie sence of the Lamb: 11 Και ο καπνός τα « smoke of their tor- | 11 And the smoke of their
βασανισμό αυτών “ment ascendeth for torment ascendeth up αναβαίνει εις αιώνας “ ever and ever: and for ever and ever; and aiwvwnrj éxixes “they have no rest, they have no rest day σιν ανάπαυσιν ημέ “ day nor night, who nor night who worship gxs xxi vextòs os “ worship the beast the beast and bis in wgoo xuvēslss to Inn “ and his image, and mage, and whosoerer ρίων και την εικόνα “ if any one receive receiveth the mark of airë, xai iš tos “the mark of his 12 his name. Here is λαμβάνει το χά 12" name. Herein the the patience of the
paellase tã óvów.com “patience of the Saints saints: here are they 12 tos aútē. *nde “ is, they who keep that keep the comυπομονή των αγίων " the commandments mandments of God, isivo de oi mmpērles “ of God, and the and the faith of Jesus. τας εντολάς τα “ faith of Jesus.” Qis, xj the wisoy 'Ingó.
A third angel proclaims just and eternal vengeance upon those who “ worship the beast;" who knowing their duty and their allegiance to God, sacrifice them to their worldly interests. They are threatened with “ the wine of the wrath of God;" the wine, which is at first strong of itself, unmixed (aupalov), has no diluting liquor put to it, to reduce its strength, as was common in the eastern nations
of antiquity. But, secondly, it is nem egULO LLEVOV, rendered still stronger by the mixture of powerful, intoxicating ingredients. Compare Isaiah li. 17–23; Psalm lxxv. 8. “The Hebrew idea of which Saint John ex“presses in Greek, with the utmost precision, though " with a seeming contradiction in terms, nenePROMEvov " a'rcezior, merum mixtum; pure wine made yet “stronger by a mixture of powerful ingredients. In " the hand of Jehovah, (saith the Psalmist,) there is a “cup, and the wine is turbid; it is full of mixed “ liquor, and he poureth out of it, (or rather he “poureth it out of one vessel into another, to mix it “ perfectly, according to the reading expressed by the “ ancient versions,) all the ungodly shall wring them s out and drink them.” The expression in the Sep“ tuagint, Psalm lxxv. 8: woługiov-0118 e aquele winges "o meguguelos, which in the Chaldee is called a cup of “ malediction, throws additional light on this pas“ sage. Compare also Psalm xi. 6; 1x. 3: Jer. xxv. " 15, 16, &c. : Lam. iv. 21: Ezek. xxiii. 39, &c. : “ Hab. ii. 16: Zech. xii. 2: also Hon. Il. xxii. 527; • Odyss. iv. 290*.” Such terms were used to express the anger of God, 'terrible by temporal punishments, but must terrible by those torments beyond the grave, " where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not “ quenched ;" which ideas are also forcibly expressed in the words now before us; “ the smoke of their “ torment ascendeth for ever and ever.” Thus the terror of the greater evil is exhibited, to enable Christians to undergo the less with patient courage described in the twelfth verse.
* Bp. Lowth, on Isaiab li.
PART PART V.
SECTION V. The Blessedness of those who die in the Lord, pro
CHAP. xiv. ver. 13. 13 Kai “xusu parñs | 13 And I heard a voice | 13 And I heard a voice
éx tê spavē, 28 from heaven, saying; from heaven, saying gsons. Ipáfor “ Write; Blessed are unto me, Write, BlesΜακάριοι οι νεκροί “ the dead, who die sed are the dead which oi in Kuçia &To “ in the Lord, hence die in the Lord, from θνήσκονίες απάρλι. “ forth, even so, saith henceforth: Yea, saith Nai, Ay Tò mơU “the Spirit, that they the Spirit, that they fex, isce ávænav “may rest from their may rest from their συνίαι εκ των κόπων “ labours, but their labours; and their αυτών» τα δε έργα “ works follow with works do follow them. aútão axonobei mir “ them.” ajtür.
The voices of the angels had pronounced the punishments of those who, for worldly purposes receiving the antichristian mark, deny their Lord. A voice from heaven, from the throne itself, confirms their denunciations, adding thereto this consolation; that if the fiery trial proceed to its last stage, even to temporal death, this death shall be blessed ; shall introduce the martyr to an eternal frecdom from pain and trouble; his sufferings on earth shall be recompensed with everlasting rest and glory.
These four proclamations are plain in their meaning, and of easy solution to those who are versed in Scrip. tural language. They seem intended to be so, in order that all Christians may be encouraged in time of trial to preserve their allegiance to their Lord, the Lamb; whose banner is unfolded in this chapter.