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13. Και εδoθη αυτω δεναι πνευμα τη εικονι τ8 θηριε, ένα
και λαληση ή ακων τ8
όσοι αν μη προσκυνή-
μεγαλες, και τες αλέσιές και τις αγω-
επι της χειρος αυλων
Chap. xix. 20. Και έπιασθη το θηριον,
είς την λιμνην τ8 συρος την καιομένην
Ον ο Κυριος Ιησες αναλωσει τω
σνευμαι το σομάθος αύλα, και
21. σι λοιποι επεκίανθησαν εν τη ρομ
φαια το καθημεν8 επι τε ίππε, τη εξελθεση εκ τ8 σομαίος αυτ8.
In comparing these descriptions of Antichrist we must observe, that the prophecy of Daniel is the most general, and the most obscure of the three. This is agreeable to the analogy of prophetical Scripture, which is found to afford additional information, as it approaches nearer to the times foretold * The prophecy of the Apocalypse exhibits a vearer view of the common subject, and discovers objects which had not been discerned before; while the words of Saint Paul may be taken as a comment on those of Daniel; and, being the comnient of an inspired writer, may be considered at the same time as illustrating, by the Holy Spirit, the prophecy of the Apocalypse. The little horn, which, in the vision of Daniel, had appeared somewhat more than a common horn, (for it had eyes, and a mouth, and spake, and fought, and conquered,) upon a nearer view, as presented to the Apocalytic Prophet, becomes a separate wild-beast; and yet, between him and the other wild beast there is, as in the prophecy of Daniel, a very close connection and resemblance. Ile exerciseth all the power of the first least ; renders him an object of worship; becomes great through his intluence; partakes all liis fortunes; and perishes with him at the last.
This nearer view discovers to is also the two-fold ecclesiastical power which Antichrist was to establish, and which did not appear distinctly at the distance at which it was shewni to Daniel ti This method of sacred prophecy, wherein one vision, under the same or different imagery, enlarges upon another vision, and refers to and illustrates the same original archetype, may be frequently observed. Instances occur continually in the visions of Daniel, “ which,” as Sir Isaac Newton remarks, "all relate to one another,
Bp. Lowth's Prælect. xx. p. 197. | Yet it is remarkable, that the three horns rooted up, the three kingdonis destroyed by the little born, though represented by Daniel, are not at all noticed in the vision seen by Saint Johu. This part of the prophecy of Daniel appears to me to be of difficult solution. The three kingdums, which by modern expositors are assigned for this
every following prophecy adding somewhat new “ to the former*.” The vision of the Beasts is only that of the Image enlarged; yet represented under other symbols. And thus the vision of Antichrist, in the Apocalypse, is no more different from those of Daniel, than those of Daniel are from each other. All look to the same times; all are from the same sacred inspiration; and unfold and confirm each other. Now as these several prophecies, of Daniel, of Saint Paul, and of Saint John, seem all to belong “ to the latter times," and to point to the same object, supporting and explaining each other; so, they appear to have been evidently fulfilled, or to be now fulfilling in the world.
1. The church of Rome can point out to us the grand apostacy of the Mahometans, accomplished principally by religious artifice; a blasphemous, destructive usurpation, set up in a form the least suspected, because it had the apparent sanctions of
purpose, “the exarchate of Ravenna, the kingdom of the Lom" bards, the state of Rome," (Bishop Newton, &c. &c.) taken all together, make so petty a territory, that they seem to compose only a part of one of those ten kingdoms into which the Roman empire, (whether we consider either the whole of it, or the western part only) was divided. Yet if these be the kingdoms, they belong to one born only, of the second apocalyptic beast, and to that horn which is to be viewed more particularly in ch. xvii: and thus perhaps in some degree the omission is to be accounted for. * Sir Isaac Newton on Daniel, part i. ch. 3. 5
Religion; Religion ; of fire brought down from heaven *. No wild-beast of the ancient monarchies, has been more tyrannous than this.
It is indeed the image of the ancient oppression, moulded by the hand of a false prophet, who seized and delivered to successors enormous civil and ecclesiastical power, obtained under the apparent sanction of heaven, and under this monstrous domination, thus artfully and blasphemously produced, the pure Religion of the meek and heavenly Jesus has been superseded, and its saints persecuted and
worn out.” But, secondly, the reformed Churches have discovered as manifestly, and in colours equally strong and glaring, another apostacy from the truth of Christianity; another erection of corrupt, worldly, oppressive, and blasphemous dominion, established by ecclesiastical artifices, and by pretended miracles, under the direction of another false prophet, who likewise is seen sitting in the Temple of God; in the sacred centre of the Christian Communion. There he has been seen exercising, by inquisitorial powers, the tyrannous domination of the first beast, persecuting even unto death, and denying the common privileges of life to those who, true to their Lord, refuse to receive the badge of his usurpation t. But these, it will be said, cannot, both of them, be the same wild-beast, the same false prophet. Observe then, that the second beast, called also the false prophet, bas two horns. He branches out into two divisions of power; two separate kingdoms; and both of an ecclesiastical description * They both aposta, tize from and corrupt the same faith : both are established by lying wonders ; and both promote the reign
these, * See note, ch. viji. 5.
+ I have judged it unnecessary, to shew, by a deduction of particulars as they arise in history, the agreement between Popery, and the emblems of the beast; because this has been done copiously by almost all the Protestant writers on this subject. The reader will find much information of this kind in some late publications; in Campbell on Ecclesiastical History; in Whitaker on the Revelation; in Kett on Prophecy. But I will beg leave to add in bebalf of us all, that, when Protestant writers attribute such descriptions to the papal church, they must not be understood, as uttering a censure on tbe
individuals of that body; numbers of whom are known to have been as pious and good Christians, as perhaps may be found in any other community. Nor yet are all ages of the papal church to be equally branded with the same black character. The restoration of letters in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and yet more the Reformation of Religion which followed, have occasioned considerable retrenchment of abuses in this corrupt hierarchy. The power of papal Rome has declined, and with it her means of extensive and domineering violence. But it is to be feared, that the seeds and principles of such antichristian domination yet remain in her. And she is ever to be regarded with a jealous eye, till she solemnly renounces them in profession and in practice. Her beginnings were gentle, as, it seems, are in some degree her latter times: but how many centuries does history hold up to view, rendered dreadful by her enormities, such as correspond with the description of this second beast !
Kings and kingdoms are the same; and so explained by the angel, Dan. vii. 17. 23, 24; Rev. xvii. 12. And by the same divine interpreter it appears, that two horns are two kings, or kingdoms, of the same empire, viz. Media and Persia: Dan. viii. 20.-Some interpreters, following Joseph Mede, endeavour to account for the two horns by a division of the clergy in the papal communion into regular and secular. But the horns are kings or kingdoms, that is, so many distinct governments ; and so will be found in Daniel, and in the Apocalypse universally. If seren horps had been attributed to this beast, or even four, these numbers, being indefinite, might have been interpreted to signify great power ; power in general; and without respect to particular number: but not so here. They are two powers, both derived from the same origin; at the same time; of the same nature; acting upon the same principles; and against the same pure Religion.