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armies of the Gentiles, marching against the people of God, are figuratively represented by the stormy waves of the sea*. Thus the ascent of the will-beast out of the sea seems to signify his rise in worldly power, and probably also from the western gentilcs, who are more especially represented under this symbol. The four wild-beasts of the prophet Daniel, representing so many successive tyrannies which overran tlie earth, are described, all of them, as ascending from the sea. There is a very striking resemblance between the wild-beast of the Apocalypse and those of this Prophet. It will be useful to exhibit them togсther: and it will be done most effectually in the Greek. The translation of Daniel into that language appears to be very close to the original, as given in Mr. Wintle's version.
DAN. vii. 2-15. Θηρια μεγαλα 'Ανεβαινον εκ της θαλασσης 1. Ως λεαινα» τομα λαλεν
(orig. a lion.) S μεγαλα.
ρισσως, φοβερον και
αυγα σιδηροι: κ. τ.λ)
REν. xiii. 1–18. xix. 20. Xx. 4,
Θηριον –έδωκεν αυγω δρα) κων την δυναμιν αύτε και και τον θρονος και έξεσιαν
• Is. xvii. 12, 13. Jer. vi. 23; 15. 42. 55. Psalms 1xν.7; Ixxsix. 9, 10; xciii. 3, 4. Ezek. xxvi. 3. Zech. Χ. 11. See also note, ch. 1, 14, 15.
Κερας έτερον μικρον: Αλλο θηριον. Οφθαλμοι ωσα ανθρωπο) Κεράλα,-ομοια αρνιω" εν τω κερα]
Ποια σημεα μεγαλα.
Στομα λαλέν μεγαλα, και Στομα λαλέν μεγαλα
βλασφημίας, έλαλα ως
1 δρακων. Έως καιρό και καιρών και Μηνας τεσσαρακονία δυο.
γε ήμισυ καιρό Έποιει πολεμον μεία των Πολεμον ποιήσαι μέλα των
αγιων, και ίσχυσε προς αγιων, και νικήσαι αυτες. αύτες
Έπιασθη το θηριον, και μένα 'Ανηρεθη το θηριον, και απω
τελω και λέω και το σώμα αύ78
εβλήθησαν οι δυο εις την εδοθη εις καυσιν συρος λιμνην τέ συρος. (ch. xix. 20.) Ο θρονοι έτεθησαν-κρι- Και ιδον θρονες, και έκαθισαν τηριον έκαθισε"
επ' αυλών, και κριμα έδoθη
αυτοις. Ως υιος αθρωπε έρχομενες, Και έβασιλευσαν μέγα τα Χρισέ. και αυτό έδoθη η αρχη" (chap. ΧΧ. 4.) κ. τ. λ.
From this comparison, it must appear, that the Beast of the Apocalypse (including the second beast, the false prophet, who is cotemporary with him, exercises liis power, and exalts him to universal worship) bears striking resemblance to the beast of Daniel; to all four of them in some respects; but more especially to the fourth; which, like the beast of the Apocalypse, has the same period of continuance allotted to himn, at the end of which he is to be destroyed in like manner; and the destruction of both is followed by the establishment of the Messiah's reign. It will further appear, by a similar comparison, that the visions of the Apoca
lyptic beast, and of this of the prophet Daniel, have a nearer resemblance to each other: than the two famous visions of Daniel (of the beasts and of the image), yet these two visions of Daniel, on very satisfactory grounds, and by report of the best ancient and modern cominentators, are supposed to represent the saine history * The three first beasts of Daniel resemble those which appear to have been most formidable to the ancient world; the lion, the bear, the leopard; and which are enumerated as such by Hoseat; but the fourth beast is a non-descript. He was diverse from the other beast; exceedingly terrible; had iron teeth, and ten horns; and, among the ten, one more dreadful than the rest, which sprang up after them. The beast of the Apocalypse is described as possessing the most terrible parts and properties of all the beasts of Daniel. He is in his general shape like a leopard; uniting uncommon agility with ferocious strength; he has the mouth of the lion f; the paw of the bear Ş. But his resemblance is much nearer to the fourth beast, whose more dreadful power he seems to possess. He has bis ten horcs, his ten kings, or kingdoms. He has the “ mouth, “ speaking great things and blasphemies,” which is seen upon the little additional horn of the fourth beast of Daniel. To which little horn, the second beast of the Apocalypse, (intimately connected with the first, rising up after him to exercise his power and to increase his dominion) will be found to bear strong resemblance, when we proceed to consider them together, and
** See particulars in Bp. Newton's Diss. on Prophecy, vol. 1, 45. Svo. Keit on Prophecy, vol. i. p. 320, &c. 4th ed.
t.Ch. xii. 7,8. Psalm xxii. 13; 2 Tim. iv. 17. :: $: 1 Sam. xvii. 54, 38.
'to apply Saint Paul's comment to them both. This will be done in the succeeding section, where the second beast becomes the object of more particular attention. It is enough at present to observe, that this resemblance will be shown. But sufficient evidence appears, already, to enable us to conclude, that since the beasts of Daniel, and especially the fourth, bear strong resem blance to the beast of the Apocalypse; their time of continuance being the same, as also their office (" to make “ war upon the Saints, and to overcome them"); their destruction by fire, preceding and making way for the reign of the Messiah and his Saints; -the interpretation of one will lead us nearly to that of the other. Now the four beasts of Daniel appear by Divine interpretation* to be four successive empires, established in worldly power, administered with tyranny and oppression, and hostile to true Religion. And the fourth empire is the most cruel, and the most oppressive to the Saints; principally by producing “the little horn,” a power of an extraordinary nature, divers from the rest; which, from a slender beginning, usurping the power of all the preceding empires, converts it to the establishment of a blasphemous religion, and of persecution for righteousness' sake.
Commentators seem generally agreed, that the fourth beast of the prophet Daniel represents the Roman'empire t. This beast continued 'till the times of the Messiah; and was the basis on which the ten horns,
** Dan. vii. 17, 23.
+ See the arguments which are weighty, and the authorities, which are of the first antiquity, clearly stated by Bp. Newton. (Dissert, on Proph. vol. i. p. 451, &c. 8vo edit.) Archbishop Secker, who, with his usual accuracy and diligence, hud studied this prophecy, as ex. or kingdonis, into which the Roman power was after? wards divided, had their foundation. The same horns appear upon the Apocalyptical beast; denoting that he belongs to the same period, and indeed that he is the same. The difference which may be found in the description of the two beasts, first by Daniel, secondly by St. John, may perhaps be fully accounted for, in the three following circumstances: 1. that the description of Daniel was to be accommodated in such a manner as to take in the type contained in his prophecy, which is supposed to be fulfilled in Antiochus Epiphanes; while that of St. John (the type having been fulfilled before his times) had to look only to the latter days, to the later accomplishment. 2. That the beast of the Apocalypse, though most like the fourth beast of Daniel, is of a more general universal character, bearing some resemblance also to the three preceding beasts. 3. That Saint John's prophecy, being the latest, must be expected (according to the general tenour of Scriptural prophecy) to afford a nearer and more exact view of the objects described, by revealing intelligence not yet communicated. It is sufficient at present, before we have examined more particulars, and the additional beast united with him, to observe, that this first beast of the Apocalypse appears to be that worldly tyrannical domination, which, for many ages, even from the times of the Babylonish captivity, (for then the first beast of Daniel begins to oppress,) had been hostile to the Church; but more especially under the fourth beast of Daniel, the Roman usurpation, which, prior to the
pounded pounded by Joseph Mede tò signify the Roman empire, exclaimed with his author,“ Tantum non articulus fidei! Wintle on Daniel, notesa p. 35. Mede's Works, p. 7.36.