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dragon is upon the scene long after these times, and continues in action even at the end of another long period, a period of a thousand years *,

He there pursues his ancient artifices, “ deceiving the nations," even till his final catastrophe; in ch. xx. 10, when the warfare of the Church is finished. Can this dragon then be an emperor of Rome? or any race or dynasty of emperors ? Can he be any other than that ancient and eternal enemy of the Christian Church, who in this, as in all other. Scriptural accounts, is represented as the original contriver of all the mischief which shall befall it? In this drama, he acts. the same consistent part, from beginning to end. He is introduced to early notice, as warring againstthe Churchf; as possessing a seat, or throne of power, in a great city inimical to the Christians I; as the author of doctrines corruptive of Religion, which are: called “ the depths of Satan.The evils ; brought on the Church under the Trumpets, particularly the third and fifth, are ascribed to him.

In the succeeding conflicts, the Church is attacked by his agents; by the wild-beast and false prophet ġ, who derive their power from him; and at length he himself is described, as leading the nations against the camp of the Saints ll. Nothing appears. more plain than the meaning of this symbol.

The only appearances which may seem to favour the application of it to Imperial Rome are, the seven crowned heads, and the ten horns of the dragon. But the number seven is of great universality; and although seven heads, or seven mountains, are in another prophecy

Ch. ii, 24.

* Ch. xx. 7.

Ch. xiii.

+ Ch. ii. 10. 13. ll Ch. xx. 9.

applied applied to Rome in a particular sense, which may properly designate that city ; yet, they have a much more extended and general signification, expressive of the immense influence of Satan in the councils of this world. In a particular sense also, the seven moun. tains and ten horns of the latter Roman empire are fitly attributed to Satan, because during the period of 1260 years, and perhaps beyond it, he makes use of the Roman empire, its capital city, and ten kings or kingdoms, as the instruments of his successful attack on the Christian Church. Juseph Mede, when he had no favourite hypothesis immediately in view, clearly saw and acknowledged the obvious interpretation of this symbol; and, in one of his learned sermons, has justly described the parties engaged in this spiritual conflict: 1. Satan, and his angels ; 2. the woman and her seed *. If the Roman emperors are at all concerned in this warfare, it is only as subministrant agents of this arch-enemy of the Church, The dragon therefore appears to me, as he did to Venerable Bede, eleven centuries ago, to be " Dia“bolus, potentiâ terreni regni armatus t." The worldly agents, whom he principally employs to carry on the warfare thus begun, will be described in the ensuing chapter.

* Mede's Works, p. 236.

+ Bedæ Com. in loc. ;-" the Devil, armed with the power of "worldly dominion,"

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The IVild-beast from the Sea.
.CIIAP. xii, 18.

CHAP. xii. I-11. 18Και εξάθην επί την 18 And I was stationed | And I stood upon the άμμος της θαλάσ- on the sand of the sea. sand of the sea, and

Kaisidor ix tās | And I saw a wild-beast saw a beast rise up out θαλάσσης θηρίον α- rising up out of the

of the sea, having seven 2@ziyou, ixos xiga

sea, having ten horns heads and ten horns, τα δέκα και κεφαλάς and seven heads, and and upon his horns. Επία και επί των κεupon his ten horns

ten crowns, and upon ράτων αυτε δέκα diadems, and upon his

his heads the name of διαδήμαλα, και επί heads names of blas- 2 blasphemy. And the τας κεφαλάς αυτά 2 phemy. And the wild- beast which I saw was όνομαλα βλασφημί- beast, which I saw, was

like unto a leopard, 2 ας. Και το θηρίον και like a leopard; and

and his feet were as είδον, ήν όμοιον παρ

his feet as those of a the feet of a bear, and δάλει, και οι σόδες bear; and his mouth his mouth as the mouth αυτά ώς άρκία, και το as the mouth of a lion: of a lion: and the dra. τόμα αυτ8 ως τόμα and the dragon gave gon gave bim his powλέον και έδωκεν him his power, and his er, and his seat, and αυτω δράκων την throne, and great au- 3 great authority. And δύναμιν αυτά, και

3 thority. And I saw I saw one of his heads, τον θρόνον αυτ8, και

one of his heads as as it were wounded to εξεσίαν μεγάλην. .

having been smitten dcuth; and bis deadly 3 Και μίαν εκ των unto death, and his wound healed: κεφαλών αυτ8 ως deadly wound

and all the world won. ισραημένην εις θά

healed. And the whole dered after the beast. valor nain blog earth wondered after 4 And they worshipped τα θανάτε αυτό

* the wild-beast. And the dragon which gave θεραπεύθη» και θαυthey worshipped the

power untu the beast: μάσεν όλη η γη

dragon, because he had and they worshipped οπίσω τα θηρία. . given the power to the the beast, saying, Who 4 Και προσεκύνησαν

beast, and they wor- is like unto the beast? το δράκονλι, ότι έδω

sbipped the beast, say- who is able to make κει την εξεσίαν τα

ing; 16 Who is like 5 war with him? And slain with the sword. μαχαιρα αποκλενεί,

was

was

war

θηρίω, και προσε

« unto the beast, and there was given unto κύνησαν τα θηρίων,

“ who is able to make him a mouth speaking λέγοντες· Τίς όμοιος | 5 with him?" And

great things, and blasτα θηρίω; και Τις

there was given to him phemies; and power δύναται τσολεμήσαι a mouth speaking great was given unto him to 5 μετ' αυτό και Και things and blasphe- continue forty and two

εδόθη αυτώ τόμα mies: and there was 6 months. And be opena λαλαν μεγάλα και given to him power [ιο ed his mouth in blasβλασφημίας, και continue in action]

phemy against God, to έδοθη αυτώ εξεσία

forty - two

months. blaspheme his name, [σοιήσαι] μήνας 6 And he opened his and his tabernacle, and

τεσσαράκουλα δύο. mouth for blasphemy them that dwell in heaa 6 Και ήνοιξε το σώμα against God, to blas- 7 ven. And it was given αυτ8 εις βλασφηphere his name, and

unto bim to make war μίαν προς τον Θεόν, his tabernacle, [and] with the saints, and to βλασφημήσαι το 3

those who dwell in overcome them: and νομα αυτά, και την 7 heaven. And it was

power was given him σκηνήν αυτ8,[κ]τες

given him to make war over all kindreds, and εν τω έρανώ σκηνών- with the saints, and to tongues, and nations. 7 τας. Και εδόθη αυ- overcome them. And

8 And all that dwell upτω πόλεμον ποιήσαι power was given to

on the earth shall wore μεία των αγίων, him over every tribe, ship him, whose names νικήσαι αυτές και and people, and lan- are not written in the εδύθη αυτώ εξεσία guage, and nation:

book of life of the ini wãoar Çunis xj | 8 And all who dwell on Lamb, slain from the 8 λαών και γλώσσας

the earth shall wor- foundation the και έθνος. Και ship him; they whose 9 world. If any man προσκυνήσεσιν αυ- name is not written in

have an ear, let him τον πάνlες οι καλοι- the book of life of the 10 hear. He that leadeth κενλες επί της γης,

Lamb, which was sa- into captivity, shall go ών και γέγραπται το crificed from the foun- into captivity: he that ονόμα εν τω βίβλιων dation of the world. killeth with the sword, της ζωής το αρνίe 9 If any one have an ear, must be killed with τα έσφαγμένε, από 10 let him hear. If any the Sword. . Here is

καλαβολής κόσμο. one leadeth into cap- the patience and the 9 Ε' τις έχει ές, ακο- ivity, into captivity faith of saints.

If

any one μαλωσίαν συνάγει, shall slay with the είς αιχμαλωσίαν sword, he must be υπάγει εί τις εν

Herein is the patience

of

10 σάτω. Εί τις αιχ

he goes.

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Ver. 1. And I was stationed on the sand of the sea.] ’Esæ@nu, not ésæbn, appears to be the true reading*. The scene is now changed, and the Prophet is so stationed as to behold it. It had been removed from the earth and sea, where the angel of the tenth chapter had begun to disclose the fortunes of the Church in the western kingdoms of the Gentiles; it had been removed to Heaven, to shew the prime mover of all the warfare. Both the combatants were of, heavenly extraction, and had fought in Heaven. These conflicts therefore were first described; and the scene was changed to accommodate to them. But the battle, which had been begun in Heaven, is now continued on earth; and is to be brought to its conclusion under the seventh Trumpet. Therefore before the final conflict, wherein the heavenly Leader will again appear, the combatants on earth are also to be exhibited; first, those who continue the warfare on behalf of the dragon; then, those who : engage on the part of the woman, or Church. Accordingly, the scene is again opened upon earth, and at the brink of the sea; because a formidable agent of the dragon, or satan, is to arise from that quartert.

Ib. And I saw a wild-beast rising up out of the sea.] The sea, in prophetic language, signifies in general the heathen world #; numerous and powerful

f Ch. xi. 7.

# See the lect. var. in Griesbach.

See note, ch. viii. 7. 8.

arinies

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