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dragon is upon the scene long after these times, and continues in action even at the end of another long period, a period of a thousand years *. He there, pursues his ancient artifices, “ deceiving the nations, even till his final catastrophe, in ch. xx. 10, when the warfare of the Church is finished. Can this dragon then be an emperor of Rome? or any race or dynasty of emperors ? Can he be any other than that ancient and eternal enemy of the Christian Church, who in this, as in all other Scriptural accounts, is represented as the original contriver of all the mis. chief which shall befall it? In this drama, he acts the same consistent part, from beginning to end. He is introduced to early notice, as warring against the Churcht; as possessing a seat, or throne of power, in a great city inimical to the ChristiansI; as the author of doctrines corruptive of Religion, which are: called “ the depths of Satan.The evils: brought on the Church under the Trumpets, particularly the third and fifth, are ascribed to him,

In the succeeding conflicts, the Church is attacked by his agents; by the wild-beast and false prophet ġ, who derive their power from him; and at length he himself is described, as leading the nations against the camp of the Saints . Nothing appears more plain than the meaning of this symbol.

The only appearances which may seem to favour the application of it to Iinperial Rome are, the seven crowned heads, and the ten horns of the dragon. But the number seren is of great universality: and although seven heads, or seven mountains, are in another prophecy

1 Ch. ii. 24.

* Ch. 88.7.

Ch. xiii.

+ Ch. ii. 10. 13. ll Ch. xx. 9.

applied applied to Rome in a particular sense, which may properly designate that city; yet, they have a much more extended and general signification, expressive of the immense influence of Satan in the councils of this world. In a particular sense also, the seven moun. tains and ten horns of the latter Roman empire are fitly attributed to Satan, because during the period of 1260 years, and perhaps beyond it, he makes use of the Roman empire, its capital city, and ten kings or kingdoms, as the instruments of his successful attack on the Christian Church. Juseph Mede, when he had no favourite hypothesis immediately in view, clearly saw and acknowledged the obvious interpretation of this symbol; and, in one of his learned sermons, has justly described the parties engaged in this spiritual conflict: 1. Satan, and his angels; 2. the woman and her sced. If the Roman emperors are at all concerned in this warfare, it is only as subministrant agents of this arch-enemy of the Church, The dragon therefore appears to me, as he did to Venerable Bede, eleven centuries ago, to be “ Dia“ bolus, potentià terreni regni armatust." The worldly agents, whom he principally employs to carry on the warfare thus begun, will be described in the ensuing chapter.

* Mede's Works, p. 236.

+ Bedæ Com. in loc. ;-" the Devil, armed with the power of "worldly dominion."




The IVild-beast from the Sea.
CII AP. xii, 18.

CHAP. xiii. I-11. 18Kzi isálny érti Thy 18 And I was stationed | And I stood upon the

αμμον της θαλάσ- . on the sand of the sea. sund of the sea, and 1 σης. Και είδον έκ της | And I saw a wild-beast saw a beast rise


out θαλάσσης θηρίονα- rising up out of the of the sea, having seven ταβαίνον, έχον κέρα- sea, having ten horns heads and teu horns, τα δέκα και κεφαλάς and seven heads, and


his horns. inlao xj éri tão xaupon his ten horns

ten crowns, and upon ράτων αυτα δέκα diadems, and upon his his heads the name of διαθήματα, και επί heads names of blas. 2 blasphemy. And the τας κεφαλάς αυτά 2 phemy. And the wild

beast which I saw was orolezlo Bazoomania beast, which I saw, was

like unto a leopard, ? us. Kai tò Ingiov ö like a leopard; and

and his feet were as . είδον, ήν όμοιον παρ

his feet as those of a the feet of a bear, and δάλει, και οι σόδες bear; and his mouth his mouth as the mouth αυτά ώς άρκία, και το as the mouth of a lion : of a lion: and the draτόμα αυτ8 ως τόμα and the dragon gave

gon gave bim his powλέονle: και έδωκεν

him his power, and his er, and his seat, and αυτα ο δράκων την

throne, and great au- 3 great authority. And δύναμιν αυτά, και

3 thority. And I saw I saw one of his heads, τον θρόνον αυτό, και one of his heads

as it were wounded to εξεσίαν μεγάλην. .

having been smitten death; and bis deadly 3 Και μίαν εκ των unto death, and his wound

healed: κεφαλών αυτ8 ως deadly wound

and all the world wonέσφαγμένην εις θά

healed. And the whole dered alter the beast. ralov uxinologi earth wondered after 4 And they worshipped το θανάτν αυτά

* the wild-beast. And the dragon which gave εθεραπεύθη και έθαυ

they worshipped the power untu the beast: μάσιν όλη η γη

dragon, because he had and they worshipped οπίσω τα θηρία. .

given the power to the the beast, saying, Who 4 Και προσεκύνησαν beast, and they wos- is like unto the beast? το δράκονλι, ότι έδωνshipped the beast, say

who is able to make κει την εξεσίαν τα

ing; " Who is like 5 war with him? And θηρίω, και προσε



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there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things, and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to

continue forty and two 6 months. And he opena

ed his mouth in blaspheny against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and

them that dwell in leaa 7 ven. And it was given

unto bim to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: aud power was given him over all kindreds, and

tongues, and nations. 8 And all that dwell up

on the earth shall wor. ship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb, slain from the

foundation of 9 world. If any man


« unto the beast, and κύνησαν τα θηρίων, " who is able to make λέγοντες· Τίς όμοιος | 5 war with him ?” And τα θηρίω; και Τίς

there was given to him δύναlαι τσολεμήσαι

a mouth speaking great 5 μετ' αυτό και

Και things and blaspheεδόθη αυτώ τόμα

mies: and there was λαλαν μεγάλα και given to him power [10 βλασφημίας, και continue in action] εδοθη αυτώ εξεσία forty - tivo months. [σοιήσαι] μήνας | 6 And he opened his

τεσσαράκουλα δύο. mouth for blasphemy 6 Και ήνοιξε το σώμα against God, to blasαυτο εις βλασφη- phenne his name,

and μίαν προς τον Θεόν, his tabernacle, [and] βλασφημήσαι το 3- those wlio dwell in νομα αυτά, και την 7 heaven. And it was σκηνήν αυτ8,[]τες given him to make war

εν τω έρανών σκηνών- with the saints, and to 7 τας. Και εδόθη αυ- overcome them. And

τα πόλεμον ποιήσαι power was given to μεία των αγίων, και him over every tribe, νικήσαι αυτές και and people, and lanεδύθη αυτώ εξεσία


and nation: επί πάσαν φυλών και 8 And all who dwell on 8 λαών και γλώσσαν

the earth shall worκαι έθνος. Και ship him; they whose προσκυνήσεσιν αυ- name is not written in τον πάγιες οι καλοι- the book of life of the κανες επί της γης, Lamb, which was saών και γέγραπται το crificed from the founονόμα εν τω βίβλιω dation of the world. της ζωής τα αρνίε | 9 If any one have an ear, τα έσφαγμένα, από | 1o let him hear. If any

καλαβολής κόσμο. one leadeth into cap9 Ε' τις έχει ές, ακο- tivity, into captivity

he goes. If any one μαλωσίαν συνάγει, shall slay with the είς αιχμαλωσίαν sword, he must be υπάγει· ει τις εν

slain with the sword. μαχαίρα αποκλείνει,

Herein is the patience

have an ear, let him 10 hear. He that leadeth

into captivity, shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword, must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of saints.

10 σάτω. Εί τις αιχ

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Ver. 1. And I was stationed on the sand of the sea.] ’Esæbuv, not ésæby, appears to be the true reading * The scene is now changed, and the Prophet is so stationed as to behold it. It had been removed from the earth and sea, where the angel of the tenth chapter had begun to disclose the fortunes of the Church in the western kingdoms of the Gentiles; it had been removed to Heaven, to shew the prime mover of all the warfare. Both the combatants were of, heavenly extraction, and. had fought in Heaven. These conflicts therefore were first described; and the scene was changed to accommodate to them. But the battle, which had been begun in Heaven, is now continued on earth; and is to be brought to its conclusion under the seventh Trumpet. Therefore before the final conflict, wherein the heavenly Leader will again appear, the combatants on earth are also to be exhibited; first, those who continue the warfare on behalf of the dragon; then, those who engage on the part of the woman, or Church. Ac- : cordingly, the scene is again opened upon earth, and at the brink of the sea; because a formidable agent of the dragon, or satan, is to arise from that quartert.

Ib. And I saw a wild-beast rising up out of the sea.] The sea, in prophetic language, signifies in general the heathen world I; numerous and powerful

* Ch. xi. 7.

# See the lect. var. in Griesbach.

See note, ch, viii. 7. 8.


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