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αυτούς, και ευφραν- Ι « not permit to be laid that dwelt on the

10“ in a sepulchre. And | 11 earth. And after three σέμψεσιν αλλή “they who inhabit the days and an half, the λοις, ότι έτοι οι « earth rejoice over Spirit of life from δύο προφήται έβα “ them and shall ex God entered into them: σάνισαν τις καλοι « ult: and shall send and they stood up

κενίας επί της γης. “ gifts one to another; on their feet, and 11 Και μεία τας τρείς “ because these two great fear fell upon

ημέρας και ήμισυ, “ prophets torinented | them which saw them. πνεύμα ζωής έκ το “ those who dwelled | 12 And they heard a Θεά εισήλθεν επ' 11“ upon the earth. And, great voice from heaαυτές και έτησαν « after the three days ven, saying unto them, επι τες σόδας αυ « and half, a spirit of Come up hither. And τών και φόβος μέγας “ life from God enter they ascended up to

έπεσεν επί τες θεω “ ed into them; and heaven in a cloud, and 12ρένιας αυτές. Και “they stood upon their their enemies beheld

ήκεσαν φωνήν με “ feet; and great fear | 13 them. And the same γάλης έκ τε έρανε, “ fell upon those be hour was there a great λέγεσαν αυτοίς: Α 12“ holding them. And earthquake, and the νάς ηλε ώδες και | « they heard a loud tenth part of the city ανέβησαν εις τον “ voice from heaven, fell, and in the earthέρανόν εν τη νεφέλη" “ saying unto them, quake were slain of και έθεώρησαν αυ “ 'Ascend hither;' and men seven thousand :

τες οι εχθροί αυτών. “ they ascended into and the remnant were 13Και εν εκείνη τη “ heaven in the cloud; affrighted, and gave

ώρα έγένειο σεισμός - and their enemies glory to the God of μέγας, και το δέ

13“ beheld them.” And 14 heaven. The second καλον της πόλεως

in that same hour there woe is past, and beέπεσε, και απε

was a great earth hold, the third woe κλάνθησαν εν τω

quake; and the tenth cometh quickly. σεισμό ονόματα

part of the city fell; ανθρώπων χιλιάδες

and there were slain επιά και οι λοιποί

in the earthquake έμφοβοι εγένονθο, και

names of men seven έδωκαν δόξαν τα

thousand. And the 14Θεώ τε εξανά. Η

remnant became aκαι η δευτέρα από

fraid, and gave glory ήλθεν ιδε, η και

to the God of heaven. η τρίτη έρχείαι Ι Α

14 The second woe is ταχύ.

past: behold, the third woe cometh soon.

Ver. 1. A reed like unto a rod.] A reed*, being both straight and light, became a fit instrument for measuring; and, like our rood, rod, or pole, had its definite measure. The Hebrew rod or reed was, according to Michaelis, of six ells, each ell being five or six hand-breadths. Such a measuring instrument is now placed in the hands of the prophet, who, on receiving his new commission, is ordered "to measure “ the Temple of God, and the altar, and those who “ worship therein.” The commission extends not only to the temple and altar, but to the worshippers who frequent them; and, compared with Ezek. xl. Zech. ii. Hab. iii. 6, will appear to authorize an examination into the state of divine worship in the times of this Trumpet, and an estimate of the number and kind of the worshippers. Concerning the first part of the commission, which respects the temple and altar, and the worship of those who are admitted to the nearest presence of the Deity, no account is returned. In those times of ignorance and superstition, under the beginnings of the sixth Trumpet, few they were, who worshipped “in spirit and in truth.” But the outer court of the Temple is particularly mentioned ; and it is not to be measured, for the God of the Temple will not acknowledge such worship as, under the times of this Trumpet, was performed there; it is ordered not to be measured, but to be cast out; and the Gentiles are to take possession of it; and at the same time they are to possess themselves of the holy city surrounding it, during a period of fortytwo months. And during this period (the length of

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* In the Hebrew, 073p - whence the Greek xawy, and the English cane.

which will be explained) we have no mention of the inner temple; till, at the sound of the seventh Trumpet, “ the Temple of God is opened in Heaven, and " the Ark of his covenant is seen *.” Then is restored a purer worship; then men draw nearer unto God, “ in the beauty of holiness.”

Ver. 2. The holy city shall they tread.] The Holy City is the Christian Church, which, after the rejection and destruction of the sacred Jerusalem, was received in its stead : which will appear clearly from this instance, that the Christian Church in its renovated and purer state is called, "the New Jerusalem t;" and Jerusalem is certainly “the Holy City I.” The Temple was at Jerusalem with its altar, and holy place, and Holy of Holies : but these, at least the inner and more sacred places, are not given to the Gentiles, but the outer court only, with the city surrounding, which they are to occupy during the period assigned to them. . It is said in the received translation, that “they " shall tread under foot the holy city;" &c.-And the commentators, who have generally admitted this translation, have explained it to signify, that “they “ shall trample upon, and tyrannize over, the Church “ of Christ.” I have translated the Greek (which is WA110801) simply by the word tread; because I entertain doubts whether either the Greek expression, or the context, will require or indeed admit of any other meaning. The verb walety signifies simply to tread; and to tread the courts of the temple, is synonymous, in Scriptural language, to worshipping therein. Thus God,

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Ver. 19.
+ Gal. iv. 25, 26. Rev, iii, 12. note xxi. 2. 10.

Matt, v. 35, xxvii. 53.

es

by the mouth of his prophet, rejecting the worship of the polluted Israelites, says, “who hath required w this at your hands, to tread my courts?? where the Greek is, walaxy TYY QUAYU Me, and has the same siguification as in Psalm lxv. 4, to frequent; or dwell in, my courts * To tread under foot, to trample upon indignantly, is commonly expressed by scletelew, xeTandlequel, of which many instances may be seen in the concordances. Or, if walew is ever used in this sense, to express indignant trampling, a preposition generally follows, (as welet ÉTAYW OPEwv)which brings it to express the same sense as καλαπαλεω, Παλειν is indeed employed to express the treading grapes in a winepress; but that action is simply treading; and, exa cepting in its metaphorical sense, implies ng iudig. nation. Metaphorically, it expresses, iydignation; because, in that borrowed sense, the treading seems to be destruction attended with blood. It may indeed be used in that borrowed sense in this passage ; but I am inclined to think that it is not, for the reasons assigned above; and also, because the history of the times, hereby signified, agrees better with the notion of the Gentiles being the occupiers of the Christian Church, (not of its holy interior, but of its exterior courts and surrounding streets,) than with that of their trampling under foot, and tyrannizing over it, during the long period assigned to them. From the time when the Gentiles took possession of the Churchi, and began to tread its courts; from the time that Constantine, by adopting Christianity, inade it the Religion of the nations ; ". Kings became her gursing

* Mattīv, tvogturolo: Hesych. : 'The vulgate, and the Æthiopictter sion, as given in Latin, have calcab unt not conculcabunt :iWalton's en Polyglot."

3. Do,

o fathers,

OUTS

“fathers, and Queens her nursing mothers *,” and persecution of the Church, by the civil powers, has only raged at some certain periods, arising from the ignorance of the kings, who worshipped only in the outward courts, and were not admitted to see the truth and purity of Religion in the inner Temple f..

Ver. 2. Forty-two months.] The period assigned for this Gentile worship in the courts of the Temple, is forty-two months. It is the very same duration of time, which we shall afterwards see described under the name of 1260 days. Forty-two months, of thirty days each, (such undoubtedly was the ineasure of time in the East,) amount exactly to 1260 days. But a day, in the prophetic language of Scripture, has been shewn to signify a year Ş.

The exact commencement, and consequently the end of this period of 1260 years, shall be afterwards discussed ||. But certainly there appears exhibited in

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* Isa. xlix. 23.

+ The note of the ancient commentator Arethas upon this passage deserves attention :- Notu nyiar tu éxxanelay inadecky, sv iousy Warhobo υπο έθνων, οίς εδoθη οιονει εν αυτη ανατρεφεσθαι, υπο μεν Χριστιανων θεοφιλως, υπο δε απισων καίαφρονητικως και ολεθριως. And it may be questioned whether 'legsraanu toalouer, x. t. 2. in Luke xxi. 24, should not be translated, “ Jerusalem shall be trodden (not trodden down) by the Gentiles,” and whether that prophecy does not belong to the same period as this?

See Louth, on Hos. vi. 6. Prideaux, Con. i. 380, &c. Wintle's Prelim. Dissert. on Daniel ; where Gen. vii. 24. viii. 3. 6. vii. 11; 1 Kings vii. 4; 1 Chron. xxvii. 1; are quoted, to shew that the ancient year was composed of 360 days, or of 12 months of 30 days each: aud the learned writer refers to Sir John Marsham, Bishop Beveridge, Strauchius, &c., for proofs of other nations beside the Jews using the same method of computation. This may be seen also fully prored in Playfair's Chronology, p. 11. Note, ch. ii. 10.

Il See note, ch. xiii. 5.

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