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that dwelt the 11 ear:h. And after three

days and an half, the Spirit of life from God entered into them: and they stood up

their feet, and great fear fell upon

them which saw them. 12 And they heard a

great voice from heaven, saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud, and

their enemies beheld 13 them. And the same

hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand : and the remnant were affrighted, and gave

glory to the God of 14 heaven. The second

woe is past, and behold, the third woe cometh quickly


αυτοίς, και ευφραν- “ not permit to be laid θήσονίαι, και δώρα | 10in a sepulchre. And σέμψεσιν αλλή

they who inhabit the λοις, ότι δτοι οι

" earth rejoice over δύο προφήται έβα- 16 them and shall exσάνισαν τις καλοι- « ult: and shall send κείας επί της γης.

“ gifts one to another; 1 Και μετά τας τρείς " because these two ημέρας και ήμισυ, “ prophets tormented πνεύμα ζωης έκ το “ those who dwelled Θε8 εισηλθεν επ'


the earth. And, αυτές και έστησαν “ after the three days επι τες σόδας αυ- « and half, a spirit of τών και φόβος μέγας « life from God enterέπεσεν επί τες θεω

« ed into them ; and 12ρονlας αυτές. Και

they stood upon their ήκεσαν φωνήν με- “ feet; and great fear γάλης έκ τε έρανε,

fell upon those beλέγεσαν αυτοίς: 'Α

12“ holding them. And νάς ηλε ώδε και

they heard a loud ανέςησαν εις τον “ voice from heaven, έρανόν εν τη νεφέλη" saying unto them, και έθεώρησαν αυ

"Ascend hither;' and τές οι εχθροί αυτών.

they ascended into 13Και εν εκείνη τη “ heaven in the cloud; ώρα έγέλο σεισμός

" and their enemies μέγας, και το δέ

13“ beheld them.” And καίου της πόλεως

in that same hour there έπεσε, και απε

great earthκλανθησαν εν τω

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quake; and the tenth σεισμό ονόματα

part of the city fell; ανθρώπων χιλιάδες

and there were slain Επία και οι λοιποι

in the earthquake έμφος οι εγένονθο, και

names of men seven έδωκαν δόξαν τα

thousand. And the 1+Θεώ τα έρανε. Η

remnant became και η δεύτερα από

fraid, and gave glory ήλθεν Ιδε, η έαι

to the God of heaven. η τρίτη έσχέλαι 14The second woe is ταχύ.

past: behold, the third woe cometh soon.


Ver. 1. A reed like unto a rod.] A reed *, being both straight and light, became a fit instrument for measuring; and, like our rood, rod, or pole, had its definite measure.

The Hebrew rod or reed was, according to Michaelis, of six ells, each ell being five or six hand-breadths. Such a measuring instrument is now placed in the hands of the prophet, who, on receiving his new commission, is ordered “to measure “the Temple of God, and the altar, and those who worship therein."

The commission extends not only to the temple and altar, but to the worshippers who frequent them; and, compared with Ezek. xl. Zech. ii. Hab. iii. 6, will appear to authorize an examination into the state of divine worship in the times of this Trumpet, and an estimate of the number and kind of the worshippers. Concerning the first part of the commission, which respects the temple and altar, and the worship of those who are admitted to the nearest presence of the Deity, no account is returned. In those times of ignorance and superstition, under the beginnings of the sixth Trumpet, few they were, who worshipped“ in spirit and in truth,” But the outer court of the Temple is particularly mentioned ; and it is not to be measured, for the God of the Temple will not acknowledge such worship as, under the times of this Trumpet, was performed there; it is ordered not to be measured, but to be cast out; and the Gentiles are to take possession of it; and at the same time they are to possess themselves of the holy city surrounding it, during a period of fortytwo months. And during this period (the length of

* In the Hebrew, 13p--whence the Greek xavav, and the English cane.

* »

which will be explained) we have no mention of the inner temple; till, at the sound of the seventh Trumpet, " the Temple of God is opened in Heaven, and

the Ark of his covenant is seen Then is restored a purer worship; then men draw nearer unto God, “ in the beauty of holiness.”

Ver. 2. The holy city shall they tread.] The Holy City is the Christian Church, which, after the rejection and destruction of the sacred Jerusalem, was received in its stead : which will appear clearly from this instance, that the Christian Church in its renovated and purer state is called, “the New Jerusalem t;" and Jerusalem is certainly “the Holy City I.” The Temple was at Jerusalem with its altar, and holy place, and Holy of Holies : but these, at least the inner and more sacred places, are not given to the Gentiles, but the outer court only, with the city surrounding, which they are to occupy during the period assigned to them.

It is said in the received translation, that “they " shall tread under foot the holy city;" &c. -And the commentators, who have generally admitted this translation, have explained it to signify, that “they “- shall trample upon, and tyrannize over, the Church " of Christ.” I have translated the Greek (which is wa170801) simply by the word tread; because I entertain doubts whether either the Greek expression, or the context, will require or indeed admit of any other meaning. The verb weieu signifies simply to tread; and to tread the courts of the temple, is synonymous, in Scriptural language, to worshipping therein. Thus God,

• Ver. 19.

+ Gal. iy. 25, 26. Rev. iii, 12. note xxi. 2. 10.

Matt, v. 35. xxvii. 53.


by the mouth of his prophet, rejecting the worship of the polluted Israelites, says, “who hath required " this at your hands, to tread my courts?? where the Greek is, welety TYY cuanu MB, and has the same siguification as in Psalm 1xv. 4, to frequent, or dwell in, my courts * To tread under foot, to trample upon indignantly, is commonly expressed by selectew, neTutuleouell, of which many instances may be seen in the concordances. Or, if wetery is ever used in this sense, to express indignant trampling, a preposition generally follows, (as walEt ÉTuYW ODEwv) which brings it to express the same sense as καλαπατεω, Παλειν is indeed employed to express the treading grapes in a winepress; but that action is simply treading; and, excepting in its metaphorical sense, implies ng iudignation. Metaphorically, it expresses indignation; because, in that borrowed sense, the treading seems to be destruction attended with blood. It may indeed be used in that borrowed sense in this passage ; but I am inclined to think that it is not, for the reasons assigned above; and also, because the history of the times, hereby signified, agrees better with the notion of the Gentiles being the occupiers of the Christian Church, (not of its holy interior, but of its exterior courts and surrounding streets,) than with that, of their trampling under foot, and tyrannizing over it, during the long period assigned to them. From the time when the Gentiles took possession of the Church, and began to tread its courts; from the time that Constantine, by adopting Christianity, inade it the Religion of the nations ;;" Kings became her nursing

• Mlati, optvec: Hesych. The vulgate, and the Æthiopic'tersion, as given in Latin, have calcabunt not conculcabunt : Walton's Polyglot.

“ fathers,

“ fathers, and Queens her nursing mothers *," and persecution of the Church, by the civil powers, has only raged at some certain periods, arising from the ignorance of the kings, who worshipped only in the outward courts, and were not admitted to see the truth and purity of Religion in the inner Temple t.

Ver. 2. Forty-two months.] The period assigned for this Gentile worship in the courts of the Temple, is forty-two months. It is the very same duration of time, which we shall afterwards see described under the name of 1260 days. Forty-two months, of thirty days each, (such undoubtedly was the ineasure of time in the East .,) amount exactly to 1260 days. But a day, in the prophetic language of Scripture, has been shewn to signify a year Ş.

The exact commencement, and consequently the end of this period of 1260 years, shall be afterwards discussed ||. But certainly there appears exhibited in

# Isa. xlix. 23.
+ The note of the ancient commentator Arethias upon

this passage deserves attention :-Πολιν άγιαν την εκκλησιαν εκαλεσεν, ήν εσμεν πατεισθαι υπο έθνων, οίς εδoθη οιονει εν αυτη ανατρεφεσθαι, υπο μεν Χριστιανων θεοφιλος, υπο δε απισων καλαφρονητικως και ολεθριως. . And it may be questioned wbether 'legegaange waloner, x. 7. a. in Luke xxi. 24, should not he translated, “ Jerusalem shall be trodden (not trodden down) by the Gentiles,” and whether that prophecy does not belong to the same period as this?

See Louth, on Hos. vi. 6. Prideaux, Con. i. 380, &c. Wintle's Prelim. Dissert. on Daniel ; where Gen. vii. 24. viii. 3. 6. vii. 11; 1 Kings vii. 4 ; 1 Chron. xxvii. 1; are quoted, to shew that the ancient year was composed of 360 days, or of 12 months of 30 days each: aud the learned writer refers to Sir John Marsham, Bishop Beveridge, Strauchius, &c., for proofs of other nations beside the Jews using the same method of computation. This may be seen also fully proved in Playfair's Chronology, p. 11. Note, ch. ii. 10.

!! See note, ch. xiii. 5. F F


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