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Jeader of the Saracens, and could indeed be no other than, as he strongly expresses it, ipsissimus Draco

et Satanas *.” But his followers, Daubuz, Bishop Newton, &c. &c. have incautiously fallen into' this

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2. The preceding observation will be confirmed by another; namely, that the darkness which overspread the East in the time of Mahomet, was not occasioned by him; he made use of it for his purposes, but it had long been collecting, during preceding heresies and corruptions, such as I suppose to be prefigured under the four first Trumpets, and which are assigned, by all historians, as the means of his success. This will be shewn in the sequel of these annotations. But under this Trumpet, the clouds of darkness and the locusts ascend together.

S. The darkness, and locusts, of the fifth Trumpet invade the whole Christian world; for the Sun and the air which they invade, extend every-where ; no third or fourth part is mentioned, as under other Trumpets. But the Mahometan arms and superstition ravaged only a part. The nations of Europe, (except Spain for a season, and some islands in the Mediterranean,) were in general free from them. In their grand attempt on Europe, they were repulsed early by Charles Martel.

4. But the regions which escaped the sword and destructive doctrines of Mahomet, are said (in order to accommodate them to this interpretation) to have contained the sealed; how improperly, will soon be acknowledged, when it is considered, that the parts which thus escaped, will be found to be principally

• Clavis, pars üi. Syn. iv.


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those many kingdoms of the western world, which at that very time, on account of their ignorance and superstition, were submitting themselves to the papal yoke. The sealed are to be found in all Christian countries, mingled with the unsealed; and the invasion which could hurt the one, and not the other, may easily be understood to be that of an universally extended heresy, but not that of a partial invasion by arms *. The good Christian who continued stedfast in the primitive faith, did not submit to the Gnostical teachers, and thus remained unhurt. But how could he escape unhurt from the sword and plunder and domination of the Mahometans?

5. A period is assigned for the continuance of this woe; five months, or 150 years. The progressive conquests of the Saracene Mahometans continued more than double the length of this period; have been renewed by other nations professing the same creed; and the Mahometans have at this day possession of the greater part of their acquired dominions, after a lapse of nearly 1200 years !

6. To accommodate the Saracens to the symbols of this Trumpet, the commentators have been obliged to apply the prophetic characters sometimes in a borrowed, sometimes in a literal sense, which I suppose to be unwarranted. They ought all to be applied in the same sense.

7. Under the next Trumpet, we shall attempt to shew, that another prophecy belongs more appro

• Especially if a whole region be invaded; for, in the invasion of a particular city, the sealed might escape, as we are told they did, at the siege of Jerusalem under Titus, retiring timely to Pella, upon the warning given them by their Lord. Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. ii. . 5,

priately priately to the Mahometans. The application of the fifth Trumpet to them is of modern date :-Contenta in hâc visione omnes penè de hæreticis intelligunt*

8. The important period of 150 years, duriug which the infant Church was darkened and disfigured by the Gnostic heresies, and on that account exposed to scandal, and misrepresentation, and additional persecution, seems of magnitude to require the notice of Divine prophecy. Though but sparingly mentioned in history, because the records of it, which have survived the Diocletian destruction of manuscripts, are few; yet, its real consequence is not diminished by such accidental circumstance. The great and leading facts are fully established, and no doubt can be entertained of their extensive and powerful influence on the progress of Christianity. But this is its place in the Apocalyptic Visions, (and I hope clearly ascertained,) or it has none.

• Gagnæus apud Polum.



The sounding of the sixth Trumpet and beginning of

the second Woe.

CHAP. ix. VER, 13-to the end.

13 Kaibixia ya Q | 13 And the sixth angel | 13 And the sixth angel

εσάλπισε, και ήκεσα sounded; and I heard sounded, and I heard φωνήν μίαν εκ των one voice from the a voice from the four τεσσάρων κεράτων four horns of the horns of the golden το θυσιαςηρία τε golden altar, which is altar, which is before χρυσε τα ενώπιον

14 before God, Saying to 14 God, Saying to the

16 part

14 το Θεό, Λέγεσαν the sixth angel who Tħ ixlo alyénou, o had


sixth angel which had the trumpet Loose the four angels which

are bound in the great 15 river Euphrates. And

the four angels were loosed,

which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third


men. And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand : and I heard

the number of them. 17 And thus I saw the

horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinct, and brimstone: and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths

issued fire and smoak, 18 and brimstone. By

these three was the
third part of
killed, by the fire, and
by the smoak, and by
the brimstone, which


trumpet, έχων την σάλπιγγα “ Loose the four anΛυσον τες τέσσα

gels, who are boundpas áryénes


en at the great river deosuéves émi r 15“ Euphrates."

And πολαμώ τα μεγάλα the four angels were 15 Ευφράτη. .


loosed, who were preελύθησαν οι τέσ.

pared for the hour, σαρες αίγελοι οι η

and day, and month, τοιμασμένοι εις την

and year, for to slay ώραν, και ημέραν,

the third part of the wij uñoze, rj iraulòr, | 16 men. And the numένα αποκλείνωσι το

ber of the troops of τρίτον των ανθρώ

cavalry was two my16 πων. Και ο αριθ

riads of myriads : and μός των τραβευμά

I heard the number of των τε ιππικό, δύο

17 them. And thus I saw μυριάδες μυριάδων"

the horses in the viκαι ήκεσα τον αριθ

sion, and those who 17 μον αυτών. Και

sate on them having έτως είδος τες ιπ

breast-plates of the πες έν τη δράσει, και

colour of fire, of hyaτες καθημένες επ'

cinth, of brimstone. výräv, igorlas Ju

And the heads of the ρακας συρίνες, και

horses like heads of ianubives, rj Jesú

lions; and out of their δεις και αι κεφαλαι :

mouths issueth fire, των ίππων ως κε

and smoke, and brimφαλαί λεόντων, και

18 stone. By these three εκ των δομάτων αυτων εκπορεύεται σύρ

plagues were slain the

third part of the men, rý xatros y Señor, 18 'Απο των τριών

by the fire, and the

smoke, and the brimπληγών τέτων απεκτάνθησαν To

stone issuing from Triton Tür aybşca | 19 their mouths. For the wwr, éx to wugos, power of the horses και έκ τε καπνό, και

is in their mouth, and ri dein të ixro

in their tails; for, their

tails are like serpents, γειομένα εκ των 5

issued out of their 19 mouths. For their

in their mouth, and in their tails: for their tails

like unto ser.

power is


19 μάτων αυτών. Η

having heads: and with γας εξεσία των them they injure. εππων εν τω σόμαλ. 20 And the remainder of αυτών εςιν, και εν the men, who were not ταϊς έραις αυτών slain by these plagues, αι γαρ έραι αυτών repented not of the όμοιαι άφεσιν, έχο- works of their hands, σαι κεφαλάς" και so that they should εν αυταίς αδικίσι:

not worship the dæ20 Και οι λοιποί των

mons, and the idols ανθρώπων οι άκ ατε of gold, and of silver, Χλάνθησαν εν ταις and of brass, and of πληγαϊς ταύταις, stone, and of wood, & μελενόησαν εκ των which can neither see, , έργων των χειρών nor hear, nor walk. αυτων, ίνα μη προ- | 21 And they repented σκυνήσωσι τα δαι. not of their murders, μόνια, και τα είδωλα nor of their sorceries, τα χρυσά, και τα

of their forni. αρτυρά, και τα χαλ- cation, nor of their κά, και τα λίθινα, thefts. . και τα ξύλινα, και έτε βλέπειν δύναται,

έτε ακέειν, ότε 21 περιπαθεί. Και ο

μετενόησαν εκ των φονών αυτών, άτε εκ των φαρμακειών αυτών, ότε εκ της σορνείας αυτών, ότε έκ των κλεμμάτων αυτών.

pents, and bad beads,

and with them they 20 do burt. And the rest

of the men which were not killed by these plagues, yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood ; which nei

ther can see, nor hear, 21 nor walk; Neither

repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication,

of their thefts.



Ver. 13, &c.] Upon the sound of the sixth Trumpet, a voice, proceeding froin the four horns of the altar, and addressed to the angel, commands that he should “ Toose the four angels, then bounden at the great river Euphrates," who were appointed for this


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