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Ib. In the space between heaven and rarth.]

. The JETEPHvilce appears to have been one of the cardinal points in the Chaldean astronomy, opposed to the hypogæum*: but in this passage, it seems simply to mean the intermediate space between heaven and earth, as they appeared in this vision; the one extended above, the other below tio,

- Ib. Woe! woe! woe!] The Divine messenger, at the command of God, leaving heaven, and hovering over the earth, proclaims three woes, or dreadful calamities, to happen to its inhabitants, under the three remaining Trumpets. No greater calamity can happen to the sons of inen, than the corruption, the rejection, the loss of true Religion. Under the four preceding Trumpets, an hostile invasion of the whole Christian Church, in its fourfold division, had taken place; but the view of its effects had been hitherto general, and representative of few particulars. The warfare s now exhibited more plainly and openly; and Antichrist will soon stand confessed. In the apostolic times, in the times when this vision was exhibited (and the four first Trumpets seem to have their date from those times, ch. i.), Antichrist already was said to be come f; the mystery of iniquity did then work §, “and waxed

worse and worse ||.” So, under the four first Trumpets, the storm seems increasing; but the calamity is as yet described only in general terms, previous to a more particular exhibition. Now it advances to its maturity, and most desolating effects, by three distinct and particular explosions, under the three last Trumpets. hati Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos.'i. 139. + See note, chi viici. i John ii. 18, 22. iv. 3. 2 John 7.

$ 2 Thess.ji.7. :) 2 Tim. iii. 13. What is thus expressed by the Sacred writers, has always been understood to signify the beginnings of Antichristian power.

PART

BB

PART III.

SECTION IV.

The fifth Trumpet, and first IVoe.

CHAP. ix. VER. 1–12.

1 Kæió siunla äge | 1 And the fifth angel

γελG- εσάλπισε, και sounded:, and I saw a είδον αςέρα εκ το star from heaven fall Βρανά σεπτωκότα to the earth: and to iis Thomine ridó- him was given the key θη αυτώ ή κλείς το of the pit of the botOstalos tās avoor.

2 tomless deep. And be 9 Και ήνοιξε το φρέας opened the pit of the

της αβύσσε" και α- bottomless deep. And έβη καπνός εκ το there arose smoke out Qgizlo, ás anyos of the pit, as the smoke καμίνε μεγάλης και of a great furnace. And έσκολίσθη ο ήλιος και the sun was darkened,

ο αης έκ τε καπνό and the air, by the 3 të opiatos. Kai 3 smoke of the pit. And

έκ τα καπνά εξήλ- out of the smoke came θον ακρίδες εις την

fortb locusts upon the γήν, και εδόθη αυταίς

earth. And to them εξεσία, ως έχεσιν was given power, as

εξεσίαν οι σκορπίοι the scorpions of the 4 oñs gais. Kai špfé- 4 earth have power. And θη αυταίς, ίνα μη

it commanded αδικήσωσι τον χόρ

them, that they should Toy tñs yñs, de

not injure the grass of σαν χλωρόν, έδε the earth, nor any war dirogoro si un

green thing, nor any της ανθρώπες, οί

tree; but only the men τιγες εκ έχεσι την

whosoever have not σφραγίδα τω Θεέ

the seal of God upon επί των μετώπων

5 their foreheads. And 5 αυτών. Και εδό

it was given them not

1 And the fifth angel

sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key

of the bottomless pit. 2 And he opened the

bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened,

by reason of the smoke 3 of the pit. And there

came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth; and unto them was given power, as the

scorpions of the earth 4 have power. And it

was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the

seal of God in their 5 foreheads. And to

them it was given that

was

a

ap

θη αυταίς, ίνα μη to kill them, but that they should not kill αποκλείνωσιν αυτές, they should be tor- them, but ihat they άλλ’ να βασανισ- mented five months : should be tormented θωσι μήνας σέντε and the torment of five months: and their και ο βασανισμός them is as the torment torment was as the torαυτών ως βασανισ- of a scorpion, when it ment of a scorpion, μός σκορπία, όταν | 6 striketh a man. And when he striketh

σαίση ανθρωπον in those days shall the 6 man. And in those 6 Και εν ταις ημέραις men seek death, and days shall men seek

εκείναις ζηήσεσιν οι shall not find it; and death, and shall not άνθρωποι τον θάνα

shall desire to die, and find it; and shall deToy, xai š reina supra death shall flee from sire to die, and death oron aŭTóvo rj ÉTO- 7 them. And the

shall flee from them. θυμήσεσιν αποθα

pearances of the lo-7 And the shapes of the είν, και φεύξεται και

custs were like horses locusts were like unto θάναλος απ' αυτών prepared for battle :

horses prepared unto 7 Και τα ομοιώματα

and upon their heads, battle; and on their των ακρίδων όμοια as it were, crowns of

heads were as it were ίπποις ήτοιμασμέ

gold; and their faces crowns like gold, and νοις εις πόλεμον και as the faces of men : their faces were as the rås repara's 8 And they had hair, as

8 faces of men. “And αυτών ως τέφανοι !

it were, the hair of they had hair as the χρυσού, και τα πρό

women; and their teeth hair of women, and αυτών ως

9 were as of lions. And their teeth were as the πρόσωπα ανθρώ

they had breast-plates, 9 teeth of lions. And

as it were, breast- they had breast-plates, τρίχας ως τρίχας

plates of iron. And as it were breast-plates gorairāv, rý bóles

the sound of their of iron ; and the αυτών ως λεόνlων ή

wings as the sound of sound of their wings 9 sav. Kai sigor Das

chariots of many horses was as the sound of caxa: Giồnger xa

10 rushing to battle. And chariots of many horses i pari tão algu

they have tails like to 10 running to battle. And γων αυτών ώς φωνή

scorpions; and stings they had tails like unto αρμάτων, ίππων

were in their tails. And scorpions, and there σολλών τρεχόντων

their power was to were stings in their 10 είς σόλεμον. Και

injure the men five tails: and their power ίχεσιν έράς ομοίας

11 months. They have was to hurt men five σκορπίοις, και κέιρα hy in Tais égais ain

over them a king, the 11 months. And they had

angel of the bottomless à king over them, τών και η εξεσία

deep; his name in He- which is the angel of αυτών αδικήσαι τες

BB 2

Gura

8 sw.

Kai ixoy

a

ανθρώπες

prvas 11 σέλθε. "Εχεσιν εφ'

αυτών βασιλέα τον αγελος της ασύσσε όνομα αυτά 'Epaisi 'A6, και εν τη Ελληνική

όνομα έχει 'Απολ12 λύων. Η και η

μία απήλθεν ιδε, , έρχονlαι έτι δύο μαι μετά ταύτα. .

brew is Abaddon; and
in the Greek he hath

name, Apollyon.
12 The first woe is past;

behold there come yet
two woes after these
things.

the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the

Greek tongue bath his 12 name Apollyon. One

wo is past, and behold there come two woes more hereafter.

'Verses 1–11. And the fifth angel sounded; &c.] In these eleven verses is contained a very particular description (and indeed the first particular description occurring in the Apocalypse) of the prevalence of Anti-Christianity. For, the prophecies of the six Seals do not descend to any minute delineation; and those of the four first Trumpets are, each of them, comprized in a very narrow compass; in one, or at the most, two short verses. Now the prospect enlarges into a more exact display of the warfare.

Upon the blast of this Trumpet, which is woeful to the inhabitants of the earth *, a star is seen to fall, or just to complete its fall, from heaven to earth : for, such seems to be the sense of WETTWMOTC t. The descent of such a star was seen under the third Trumpet f; this leader of iniquity had begun his evil ministry by embittering, by corrupting the Waters of Life. This corruption, in which we have seen him

* Ch. viii. 13.

+ Præsens-perfectum. Annot. S. Clarke, S.T.P. in Hom. Iliad. lib. i. lin. 37. 1 Ch. viii. 10. consult the note.

successfully

successfully employed, produced those beginnings of darkness, ignorance, and superstition, which were disclosed under the fourth Trumpet. Upon the blast of the fifth Trumpet, this evil increases. To these beginnings of darkness, he is permitted to add the smoke and machinations of hell*. It is by permission, that he opens this source of infinite mischief: for, the keys of death, and of hell, belong to another power, even to the Lord of Life t. But “ the Spirit of God will “ not always strive with man 1.” The wilful and re. probate are at length given up to the just consequences of their wilfulness. The key of the great infernal deep, (whence are the Babi TË oxiævã, the depths of Satan s, those black corruptive doctrines, which destroy the purity and splendour of the Church,) is given to the fallen star, to the fallen angel; to "the "prince of the power of the air; the power of dark

ness; that spirit which worketh in the children of “ disobedience l.” He is an angel, for so he is expressly called, (v. 11.) the angel of the bottomless

deep,” and surely an evil angel : and in this description, as also in his fall from heaven, his evil character will be found to correspond with that of the chief of our internal enemies, called Satan in the twelfth chapter: who, under the symbol of a fiery dragon, is there described as having fallen from heaven. There can be little or no doubt therefore, but tbat the Prince of Darkness, Satan, or, which

* For ábyroos is certainly used to signify that part of 'Ains, or hell, which is to be the place of punishment to the wicked. Compare ch. xx. 1-3, and 2 Pet. ii. 4. + Ch. i. 18. 1 Gen vi. 3.

See note, ch. ii. 24. || Eph. ii. 2. Luke xxii. 53. Col. ii. 15. See also John xii. 31. 46. xiy. 30. Acts xxvi. 18. Eph. vi. 12. Heb. ii. 14.

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