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Ib. In the space between heaven and earth.] The Me oggevojice appears to have been one of the cardinal points in the Chaldean astronomy, opposed to the hypogæum *: but in this passage, it seems simply to mean the intermediate space, between heaven and earth, as they appeared in this vision; the one extended above, the other below to

Ib. Woe! woe! woe!] The Divine messenger, at the command of God, leaving heaven, and hovering over the earth, proclaims three woes, or dreadful calamities, to happen to its inhabitants, under the three remaining Trumpets. No greater calamity can happen to the sons of inen, than the corruption, the rejection, the loss of true Religion. Under the four preceding Trumpets, an hostile invasion of the whole Christian Church, in its fourfold division, had taken place; but the view of its effects had been hitherto general, and representative of few particulars. The warfare 's now exhibited more plainly and openly; and Antichrist will soon stand confessed. In the apostolic times, in the times when this vision was exhibited (and the four first Trumpets seem to have their date from those times, ch. i.), Antichrist already was said to be come fin the mystery of iniquity did then work §, “and waxed * worse and worse l.” So, under the four first Trumpets, the storm seems increasing ; but the calamity is as yet described only in general terms, previous to a more particular exhibition. Now it advances to its maturity, and most desolating effects, by three distinct and particular explosions, under the three last, Trumpets, hati Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos. i. 139. + See note, ch vijci.

i John ii. 18, 22. iv. 3. 2 John 7. ... $2 Thess.ji. 7.57 N 2 Tim. iii. 13. What is thus expressed by the Sacred writers, has always been understood to signify the beginnings of Antichristian power,


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The fifth Trumpet, and first IVoe. ;

CHAP. ix. VER. 1–12. 1 Kaió méuniQ åą | 1 And the fifth angel | 1 And the fifth angel

yea@ irántice, rj sounded : and I saw a sounded, and I saw a είδον ασέρα εκ το star from heaven fall star fall from heaven sçavê wedłwxóta to the earth: and to unto the earth: and to sis the gove rj édó him was given the key him was given the key 8x airõ % xAus T8 of the pit of the bot of the bottomless pit.

Getalos tñs cibioos. 2 tomless deep. And be | 2 And he opened the 2 Και ήνοιξε το φρέας opened the pit of the bottomless pit, and

tñs cilvorto vejen bottomless deep. And there arose a smoke rébn xamvòs åx rê there arose smoke out out of the pit, as the φείαις, ως καπνός of the pit, as the smoke smoke of a great fursapávo ferycanso rij of a great furnace. And nace; and the sun and έσκολίσθη ο ήλιος και the sun was darkened, the air were darkened,

ο αής έκ τα καπνά and the air, by the by reason of the smoke 3 rð opiatos. Kai 3 smoke of the pit. And 3 of the pit. And there

ix TŐ xotivē ikina out of the smoke came came out of the smoke θον ακρίδες εις την forth locusts upon the locusts upon the earth; vñv, zjisoon attais earth. And to them and unto them was

Escia, às 178on was given power, as given power, as the εξεσίαν οι σκορπίοι the scorpions of the scorpions of the earth 4 rñs gñso Kaišppés 4 earth have power. And 4 have power. And it On aurais, era un

it was commanded was commanded them αδικήσωσι τον χόρ

them, that they should that they should not Toy tñs yñs, és

not injure the grass of hurt the grass of the war Xawęur, en the earth, nor any

earth, neither any green war dévàgore si un

green thing, nor any thing, neither any tree; Tes & Opømes, o

tree; but only the men but only those men Tives óx izvor rain

whosoever have not which have not the σφραγίδα το Θεό

the seal of God upon seal of God in their ini Tür METÚTWN 5 their foreheads. And | 5 foreheads. And 5 aitūr, Kai idó

it was given them not them it was given that θη αυταίς, ίνα μη | to kill them, but that they should not kill αποκλείνωσιν αυτές, | they should be tor them, but ihat they αλλ' ίνα βασανισ mented five months : should be tormented θώσι μήνας σέντε and the torment of five months: and their και ο βασανισμός them is as the torment torment was as the torαυτών ως βασανισ of a scorpion, when it ment of a scorpion, μός σκορπία, όταν 6 striketh a man. And | when he striketh a

σταίση άνθρωπος in those days shall the 6 man. And in those 6 Και εν ταις ημέραις | men seek death, and I days shall men seek

εκείναις ζητήσεσιν οι shall not find it; and death, and shall not άνθρωποι τον θάνα shall desire to die, and find it; and shall deτον, και ε μη ευρή death shall flee from sire to die, and death σεσιν αυτόν και επι- 7 them. And the ap shall flee from them. θυμήσεσιν αποθα pearances of the lo- ' 7 And the shapes of the είν, και φεύξεται και custs were like horses locusts were like unto θάναλος απ' αυτών

prepared for battle : horses prepared unto 7 Και τα ομοιώμαία

and upon their heads, battle; and on their των ακρίδων όμοια

as it were, crowns of heads were as it were ίπποις ήτοιμασμέ

gold; and their faces crowns like gold, and νοις εις πόλεμον και

as the faces of men : their faces were as the επί τας κεφαλας

| 8 And they had hair, as | 8 faces of men. And αυτών ως τέφανου

it were, the hair of they had hair as the χρυσοί, και τα πρό

women; and their teeth I hair of women, and σωπα αυτών ως

9 were as of lions. And their teeth were as the σεόσωπα ανθρώ

they had breast-plates, / 9 teeth of lions. And 8 σων. Και είχαν

as it were, breast- | they had breast-plates, τρίχας ως τρίχας

plates of iron. And as it were breast-plates γυναικών, και οδόνες

the sound of their of iron; and the αυτών ως λεόνlων ή

wings as the sound of sound of their wings 9 σαν. Και είχον θώ

chariots,of many horses was as the sound of ρακας σιδηρές και

10 rushing to battle. And chariots of many horses και φωνή των στερύ

they have tails like to 10 running to battle. And γων αυτών ως φωνή

scorpions; and stings they had tails like unto αρμάτων, ίππων

were in their tails. And scorpions, and there σολλών τρεχόντων

their power was to were stings in their 10 εις πόλεμον. Και

injure the men five tails : and their power έχεσιν έράς ομοίας

11 months. They have was to hurt men five σκορπίοις, και κένθρα

over them a king, the ] 11 months. And they had ήν εν ταϊς εραϊς αυ

angel of the bottomless a king over them, τών και η εξεσία αυτών αδικήσαι τις

which is the angel of deep; his name in He

B B 2

ar@gumus teñves | 11 wirle. "Exron im αυτών βασιλέα τον złychoy tñs übóooyu ovopece airão 'Ebçaisi 'Abeidar, xzi év tñ 'Examex

όνομα έχει 'Απολ12 rów. 'H šai

míce åtöabere iden i'sxovlae éto dúo dai μετά ταύτα.

brew is Abaddon; and the bottomless pit, in the Greek he hath whose name in the

a name, Apollyon. Hebrew tongue is A12 The first woe is past; baddon, but in the

behold there come yet Greek tongue bath his two woes after these | 12 name Apollyon. One

wo is past, and behold there come two woes more hereafter.


'Verses 1-11. And the fifth angel sounded ; &c.] In these eleven verses is contained a very particular description (and indeed the first particular description occurring in the Apocalypse) of the prevalence of Anti-Christianity. For, the prophecies of the six Seals do not descend to any minute delineation; and those of the four first Trumpets are, each of them, comprized in a very narrow compass; in one, or at the most, two short verses. Now the prospect enlarges into a more exact display of the warfare.

Upon the blast of this Trumpet, which is woeful to the inhabitants of the earth *, a star is seen to fall, or just to complete its fall, from heaven to earth: for, such seems to be the sense of DETTWHOTO f. The des scent of such a star was seen under the third Trumpetf; this leader of iniquity had begun his evil ministry by embittering, by corrupting the Waters of Life. This corruption, in which we have seen him

* Ch. viii. 13.

+ Præsens-perfectum. Annot. S. Clarke, S.T. P. in Hom. Iliad, lib. i. lin. 37. 1 Ch. viii. 10, consult the note.


successfully employed, produced those beginnings of darkness, ignorance, and superstition, which were disclosed under the fourth Trumpet. Upon the blast of the fifth Trumpet, this evil increases. To these beginnings of darkness, he is permitted to add the smoke and machinations of hell *. It is by permission, that he opens this source of infinite mischief: for, the keys of death, and of hell, belong to another power, even to the Lord of Life f. But “the Spirit of God will “not always strive with man.” The wilful and re. probate are at length given up to the just consequences of their wilfulness. The key of the great infernal deep, (whence are the Baby Tð oalevã, the depths of Satan g, those black corruptive doctrines, which destroy the purity and splendour of the Church,) is given to the fallen star, to the fallen angel ; to " the prince of the power of the air ; the power of darkness; that spirit which worketh in the children of “ disobedience ll.” He is an angel, for so he is expressly called, (v. 11.) the angel of the bottomless “ deep,” and surely an evil angel: and in this description, as also in his fall from heaven, his evil character will be found to correspond with that of the chief of our internal enemies, called Satan in the twelfth chapter: who, under the symbol of a fiery dragon, is there described as having fallen from heaven. There can be little or no doubt therefore, but that the Prince of Darkness, Satan, or, which

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* For å uogos is certainly used to signify that part of 'Adns, or hell, which is to be the place of punishment to the wicked. Compare ch. xx. 1-3. and 2 Pet. ii. 4. + Ch. i. 18. 1 Gen vi. 3.

See note, ch. ii. 24. ll Eph. ii. 2. Luke xxii. 53. Col. ii. 15. See also John xii. 31. 46. xiy. 30. Acts xxvi. 18. Eph. vi. 12. Heb. ii. 14.

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