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Ib. In the space between heaven and earth.] The petegevyjece appears to have been one of the cardinal points in the Chaldean astronomy, opposed to the hypogæum*: but in this passage, it seems simply to mean the intermediate space between heaven and earth, as they appeared in this vision; the one extended above, the other below t:

- Ib. Woe! woe! woe!] The Divine messenger, at the command of God, leaving heaven, and hovering over the earth, proclaims three woes, or dreadful calamities, to happen to its inhabitants, under the three remaining Trumpets. No greater calamity can happen to the sons of inen, than the corruption, the rejection, the loss of true Religion. Under the four preceding Trumpets, an hostile invasion of the whole Christian Church, in its fourfold division, had taken place; but the view of its effects had been hitherto general, and representative of few particulars. The warfare s now exhibited more plainly and openly; and Antichrist will soon stand confessed.

In the apostolic times, in the times when this vision was exhibited (and the four first Trumpets seem to have their date from those times, ch. i.), Antichrist already was said to be come $; the mystery of iniquity did then work $, " and waxed

worse and worse l.” So, under the four first Trumpets, the storm seems increasing; but the calamity is as yet described only in general terms, previous to a more particular exhibition. Now it advances to its maturity, and most desolating effects, by three distinct and particular explosions, under the three last Trumpets, het Brucker, Hist. Crit. Philos. i. 139. + See note, ch vij. 1. Si John ii. 18, 22. iv. 3. 2 John 7.

$ 2 Thess. ii. 7. :) y 2 Tim. iii. 13. What is thus expressed by the Sacred writers, has always been understood to signify the beginnings of Antichristian power.





The fifth Trumpet, and

first IVoe. .

CHAP, ix. VER. 1–12.

1 Kæió niunia än 1 And the fifth angel

γελG- εσάλπισε, και sounded :. and I saw a είδον αγέρα εκ το star from heaven fall sçavê berlwxótce

to the earth: and to kis Thymn id- him was given the key θη αυτώ ή κλείς το of the pit of the botOgéalos tñs cbvoor.

2 tomless deep. And he 9 Και ήνοιξε το φρέας opened the pit of the

της αβύσσε" και α- bottomless deep. And νέβη καπνός εκ το there arose smoke out osizio., ás xanyos of the pit, as the smoke καμίνε μεγάλης και of a great furnace. And έσκολίσθη ο ήλιος και the sun was darkened, ο αής έκ τα καπνά

and the air, by the 3 Tð opiatos. Kai 3 smoke of the pit. And

εκ τε καπν8 εξήλ- out of the smoke came θον ακρίδες εις την fortb locusts upon the γήν, και εδόθη αυταίς

earth. And to them εξασία, ως έχεσιν was given power, as εξεσίαν οι σκορπίοι

the scorpions of the 4 oñs yrs. Kai iphé- 4 earth have power. And On aitais, ita un


commanded αδικήσωσι τον χός

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them, that they should Toy rñs yñs, de

not injure the grass of σαν χλωρών, έδε

the earth, nor any wây dévoqov " : แท

green thing, nor any της ανθρώπες, οί

tree; but only the men τιγες έκ έχεσι την

whosoever have not σφραγίδα τα Θεο

the seal of God upon επί των μετώπων

5 their foreheads. And 5 αυτών, Kai idó

it was given them not

1 And the fifth angel

sounded, and I saw a
star fall from heaven
unto the earth: and to
him was given the key

of the bottomless pit.
2 And he opened the

bottomless pit, and
there arose a smoke
out of the pit, as the
smoke of a great fur-
nace; and the sun and
the air were darkened,

by reason of the smoke
3 of the pit. And there
came out of the smoke

the earth; and unto them was given power, as the

scorpions of the earth 4 have power. And it

was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the

seal of God in their 5 foreheads,

And to them it was given that

locusts upon


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θη αυταίς, ίνα μη to kill them, but that they should not kill αποκλείνωσιν αυτές, they should be tor- them, but ihat they αλλ' ίνα βασανισ- mented five months : should be tormented Θώσι μήνας σέντε and the torment of five months: and their και ο βασανισμός them is as the torment torment was as the torαυτών ως βασανισ- of a scorpion, when it ment of a scorpion, μός σκορπία, όταν | 6 striketh a man. And when he striketh

σαίση άνθρωπον in those days shall the 6 man. And in those 6 Και εν ταις ημέραις men seek death, and days shall men seek εκείναις ζητήσεσιν οι shall not find it;


death, and shall not άνθρωποι τον θάνα

shall desire to die, and find it; and shall deτον, και ε μη ευρή- death shall flee from sire to die, and death σεσιν αυτόν και έπι- 7 them. And the ap

shall Alce from them. θυμήσεσιν αποθα

pearances of the lo- 17 And the shapes of the είν, και φεύξεται και custs were like horses

locusts were like unto 9άνιαίος απ' αυτών:

prepared for battle : horses prepared unto 7 Και τα ομοιώματα

and upon their heads, battle; and on their των ακρίδων όμοια as it were, crowns of

heads were as it were ίπποις ήτοιμασμέ

gold; and their faces crowns like gold, and τοις εις πόλεμος και as the faces of men :

their faces were as the επί τας κεφαλάς 8 And they had hair, as

8 faces of men. And αυτών ως τέφανοι

it were, the hair of they had hair as the χρυσοί, και τα πρόwomen; and their teeth

hair of women,

and αυτό, ως

9 were as of lions. And their teeth were as the πρόσωπα ανθρώ

they had breast-plates, 9 teeth of lions. And 8 των.

as it were, breast- they had breast-plates, τρίχας ως τρίχας

plates of iron. And as it were breast-plates γυναικών, και οδόνες

the sound of their of iron; and the αυτών ως λεόλων ή

wings as the sound of sound of their wings 9 σαν. Και είχον θώ

chariots of many horses was as the sound of ρακας σιδηρές και

10 rushing to battle. And chariots of many horses και φωνή των στερύ

they have tails like to 10 running to battle. And γων αυτών ως φωνή

scorpious; and stings they had tails like unto αρμάτων, ππων

were in their tails. And scorpions, and there σολλών τρεχόντων

their power was to were stings in their 10 εις σόλεμον. Και injure the men five

tails: and their power έχεσιν έράς ομοίας

11 months. They have was to hurt men five σκορπίοις, και κέντρα

over them a king, the 11 months. And they had my lv tais épais a' των και η εξεσία

angel of the bottomless a king over them,

deep; his name in He- which is the angel of αυτών αδικήσαι τυς



Και είχαν

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ανθρώπες urvas 11 wible. "Exhow ip

αυτων βασιλέα τον άγγελος της αβύσoyi όνομα αυτό “Εβραϊς'Αβαδδών, και εν τη Ελληνική

όνομα έχει 'Απολ19 λύων. Η και η

μία απήλθεν ιδε, , έρχονlαι έτι δύο και μετα ταύτα. .

brew is Abaddon; and
in the Greek he hath

name, Apollyon.
12 The first woe is past;

behold there come yet
two woes after these

the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the

Greek tongue hath his 12 name Apollyon. One

wo is past, and behold there come two woes more hereafter.

'Verses 1-11. And the fifth angel sounded; &c.] In these eleven verses is contained a very particular description (and indeed the first particular description occurring in the Apocalypse) of the prevalence of Anti-Christianity. For, the prophecies of the six Seals do not descend to any minute delineation; and those of the four first Trumpets are, each of them, comprized in a very narrow compass; in one, or at the most, two short verses. Now the prospect enlarges into a more exact display of the warfare.

Upon the blast of this Trumpet, which is woeful to the inhabitants of the earth, a star is seen to fall, or just to complete its fall, from heaven to earth: for, such seems to be the sense of DETTWMOTC T. The descent of such a star was seen under the third Trumpet I; this leader of iniquity had begun his evil ininistry by embittering, by corrupting the Waters of Life. This corruption, in which we have seen him

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Ch, viii. 13.

Præsens-perfectum. Annot. S. Clarke, S.T. P. in Hom. Iliad. lib. i. lin. 37. | Ch. viii. 10, consult the note.


successfully employed, produced those beginnings of darkness, ignorance, and superstition, which were disclosed under the fourth Trumpet. Upon the blast of the fifth Trumpet, this evil increases. To these beginnings of darkness, he is permitted to add the smoke and machinations of hell*. It is by permission, that he opens this source of infinite mischief: for, the keys of death, and of hell, belong to another power, even to the Lord of Life f. But “ the Spirit of God will

not always strive with man.” The wilful and reprobate are at length given up to the just consequences of their wilfulness. The key of the great infernal deep, (whence are the Bubñ 78 odlævã, the depths of Satan ġ, those black corruptive doctrines, which destroy the purity and splendour of the Church.) is given to the fallen star, to the fallen angel; to “ the

prince of the power of the air; the power of dark

ness; that spirit which worketh in the children of disobedience ll.” He is an angel, for so he is expressly called, (v. 11.) the angel of the bottomless

deep,” and surely an evil angel : and in this description, as also in his fall from heaven, his evil character will be found to correspond with that of the chief of our internal enemies, called Satan in the twelfth chapter: who, under the symbol of a fiery dragon, is there described as having fallen from heaven. There can be little or no doubt therefore, but that the Prince of Darkness, Satan, or, which

* For å voros is certainly used to signify that part of 'Aons, or hell, which is to be the place of punishment to the wicked. Compare ch. xx, 1-3. and 2 Pet. ii. 4. + Ch. i. 18. 1 Gen vi. 3.

See note, ch. ii. 24. || Eph. ii. 2. Luke xxii. 53. Col. ii. 15. See also John xii. 31. 46. xiy. 30. Acts xxvi. 18. Eph. vi. 12. Heb. ii. 14.

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