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the glory of the Father, to preside at the general judgment*.

They who have pierced him," are not only the Jews, who demanded his crucifixion of Pilate, but likewise all those who wound him by their transgressions, who “ crucify to themselves the Son of God “ afresh, and put him to open shamet.”

Ver. 8. In the same spirit of exultation he continues to set forth the supreme dignity of the Son of God, ascribing to him, as our Lord had done to himself in the visiont, those sublime attributes of the Father by which he fills all eternity, and exercises all powerg. This application of the attributes of the Father to the Son, pervades all the sacred writings of the New Testament, and is represented to be by communication, or inheritance. " As the Father has life in himself, “so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself, I and my Father are one. I am in the Father and " the Father in me. All things that the Father hath are mine.

Whatsoever things the Father doeth, " these also doeth the Son likewise. The Father judg“. eth no mian, but hath committed all judgment to " the Son." These are our Lord's words, as recorded by Saint John, according to whom he was "in the

See Dan. vii. 13. Mat. xxis, 30. Mar. xiii. 26. xiv. 62. but more particularly Zech. xii. 10. where these images occur.

+ lleb. vi. 6.-In confirmation of the received opinion, that St. John the Evangelist was the author of the Apocalypse, we may observe, that exsulmony is the very word used by that Apostle in his Gospel, (xix. 37,) and is a word used by no other writer of the New Testament.

: C. i. ii. 13.
§ See Is, xliv. 6. lvi. 15. Mic. v. 2.


' beginning," and "from the beginning with God*." The apostle to the Hebrews enforces the same notion of our Lord's eternity, when he calls him “ Jesus

Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for evert." He is Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the original Creator, and the final Judge, of the world; to whose illustrious advent, and final triumph over his enemies (as being the grand catastrophe of the Apocalypse) the prophet, who had already seen it exhibited in vision, exultingly adverts, even before he begins his narration. This was natural, in one who had seen such a vision, but it would not easily have occurred in a work of mere imagination and art.

* John i. 1. 13. v. 26. 19. 22. xiv. 11. xvi, 15, also Col. i. 16. 17. Heb. i. 2, 3, 8. i John y. 20,

+ Heb, xiii. 8,



The Appearance of the Lord Jesus with the Symbols of

his Power; and the Commission given by him to Saint John to write what he beholds.

CHAP, I. ver. 9-to the end.

9 'Eyà 'Iwans, 9 I John, your brother, 9 I John, who also am

αδελφός υμών, και and fellow-sharer in your brother, and comσυικοινωνος εν τη the tribulation and panion in tribulation, θλίψει και βασιλεία kingdom and patience and in the kingdom and και υπομονη Ιησή of Jesus Christ, was in patience of JesusChrist, Χρισέ, εγενόμην εν the Island called Pat- was in the isle that is τη γήσω τη καλα- mos, for the word of called Patmos, for the

οπίσω με

μένη Πάτμω, δια God, and for the word of God, and for τον λόγον τε Θεέ, , testimony of Jesus the testimony of Jeκαι διά την μαρία

10 [Christ]. I was in the 10 sus Christ. I was in giay *I98 [X;8]. Spirit on the Lord's

the Spirit on tlie 10 'Εγενόμην εν σιεύ- day; and I beard Lord's day, and heard μαλι εν τη κυριακή

behind me
a loud

behind me a great ημέρα" και ήκεσα voice, as of a trum- voice, as of a trum. Qwrny 11 pet, Saying,

" That

11 pet, Saying, I am μεγάλην ως σαλ- « which thou seest Alpha and Omega, 11 Toys, Asyéonse ft write in a book, the first and the last; ο βλέπεις, γρά- " and send unto the apd, What thou seest, ψαν εις βιβλίου, ,

seven churches; to write in a book, and και σέμψον ταϊς “ Ephesus; and to send it unto the seven επlα εκκλησίαις, εις “ Smyrna; and to Churches which are "Εφισον, και εις “ Pergamos; and to

in Asia; unto Ephe. Enuguay, xai sis

" Thyatira ; and to sus, and unto Smyr. Πέραμον, και εις “ Sardis; and to Phi- na, and unto PergaΘυάτειρα, και εις "ladelphia; and to mos, and unto ThyaΣάρδεις, και εις Φι- 12 “ Laodicea." And I tira, and unto Sardis,

λαδέλφειαν, και εις turned to see what and unto Philadel. 12 Λαοδίκειαν. Και the voice was which phia, and unto Lao.

επέσρεψα βλέπεις spake with me; and 12 dicea. And I turned την φωνήν, ήτις being turned, I saw to see the voice that ελάλησε με εμά seven golden lamp- spake with me. And και επιςρέψας είδος 13 bearers; And in the being turned, I saw

midst of the seven seven golden çandle, 13 σας, Και εν μέσω lamp-bearers one like 13 sticks; And in the των επτά λυχνιών the Son of inan,

midst of the seven όμοιον υιώ ανθρώπε, clothed with a long candlesticks one like ενδεδυμένων ποδήρη, garment down to the

unto the Son of man, και σεριεζωσμένον feet, and gift about

cloaihed with a gar. agus Tois pasois

the breasts with a ment down to the 14 Saime xevañue 'H 14 golden girdle; His foot, and girt about δε κεφαλή αυτο

head and bis hair the paps with a golden και αι τρίχες λευ

white, as white wool, | 14 girdle, His head and main woui egrov

as snow; and his eyes his hairs were white λευκών, ώς χιών as a flame of fire; like wool, as white saj si iç@saya aid 15 And his feet like as snow; and his eyes τα ώς φλόξ αυρός, , smelting brass, as if

as a flame of 15 Kai oi wóðas aŭrs

burned brightly in a 15 fire; And his feet όμοιοι χαλκολικά

furnace; and his like upto fine brass,

επία λυχνίας χρυ


as the

voice as the voice of 16 many waters; And

having in his right
hand seyen stars, and
from his mouth atwo.
edged: sharp sword
coming forth; and his

Sun shineth in his 17 power.

And when I saw him, I fell at his feet, as dead; and ke laid his right hand

upon me, saying [to 18 me] “Fear not; I am

" the first and the " last, and he who “ liveth; and I was “dead, and behold I

am alive for ever " and ever; and I " have the keys of

« Death and of hell. 19 “ Write

therefore " those thiogs which " thou seest, " the things which s are present, and

" which are about to 20 be after these ; The

mystery of the

seven stars which " thou seest in my " right band, and " the seven golden "lamp-bearers, The

seven stars are the " angels of the seven " churches, and the • seven lamp-bearers

“ Churches,"


ω, ώς εν καμίνα σιπυρωμένρι» και ที่ s porn arts as

φωνή υδάτων σολ. 16 λών Και έχων εν

TF deb z avro xongi εσέρας έπια και εκ τα στόματος αυτο ρομφαία δίτομος εξεία εκπορευομένη" mai bis aute, wis ó mhoos paire

ranius காக். 37 Kaior toon aytis,

έπισα προς τις πόδας αυτά

ws νεκρός και επίθηκε Thy data, aiti επ' εμέ, λέγων (nos]: Mi Dobi εγώ είμι ο πρώτος

και ο έσχαίος, 18 Kai • Yar xai

εγενόμην νεκρός, και ίδα ζων είμι εις τες awes Twy aisrwy' και έχω τας κλώς

To daváre azi r8 19 άδε. Γράψον αν

å sides, xxi å sjov, και 4 μέλλει γίνεσ

θαι μετά ταύτα, 20 Το μυστήριον των irla

ατέρων, ών sides ini rñs dečias μο, και τας επτα λυχνίας τας χενcäs oi étla åséges, Εγελοι των επlα έκχλησιών εισι» και κι έπλα λυχνίαι, , Επία εκκλησίαι εισί.

as if they burned in a furnace: and his

voice as the sound of 16 many waters. And

be bad in his right hand seren stars : and out of his mouth weut a sharp twoedged sword, and his countenance was as

the sun shineth ia 17 his strength. And

when I saw him, I fell at his feet 23 dead: and he laid his right hand upon me, saying uplo me,

Fear not; I am ile 18 first and the last : I

am he that liveth, and was dead; and behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of.

hell and of death. 19 Write

the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things

which shall be here20 after, The mystery

of the seven
which thou sawest in
my right hand, and
the Seven golden
candlesticks. The
seven stars are the
angels of the seven
churches : and the

candlesticks which thou savest are the seven churches,





l'er. 9. I John, &c.] Who this John was, arid why, and whither banished, may be seen in note, c. 1. 1. His dignity, as an apostle, and as a prophet favoured with this vision, and honoured with this commission, was at all events considerable; but, in the spirit of the Gospel, he calls himself only a brother, as his Lord had called himself before him *, and a fellowsharer in the afflictions which the faithful were then suffering, under the persecution of Domitian. But to partake the sufferings of Christ, is to partake also his kingdomt, which are here therefore emphatically united.

For the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus.] The sense of this expression becomes clear, by comparing it with chap. vi. 9, where the Martyrs are represented as having suffered δια τον λογον τε Θες και δια uzplugiær Eixov, " for the word of God, and for the "testimony which they bare.” John was, like them, a persecuted sufferer and confessor, in the Island of Patmos, to which he was banished for his adherence to the faith, and where he was favoured with this vision I.

Ver. 10. I was in the Spirit.] It is in vain to inquire the exact manner in which these sacred visions were coinmunicated. The Jewish writers have said much upon the subject, but nothing which can satisfy a rational and sober mind. So far however is plain from Ezek. ï. 9. jii. 24. 2 Cor. xii. 2. and other passages of Scripture, that the prophet commonly perceived the impulse of the Spirit acting upon him in a sudden and extraordinary manner; yet so mysteriously, that

+ 2 Tim. ii. 12. | Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. iii. cap. 18.

* John xs. 17.

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