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the glory of the Father, to preside at the general judgment*.

They who have pierced him," are not only the Jews, who demanded his crucifixion of Pilate, but likewise all those who wound him by their transgressions, who "

crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to open shamef.”

Ver. 8. In the same spirit of exultation he continues to set forth the supreme dignity of the Son of God, ascribing to him, as our Lord had done to himself in the visiont, those sublime attributes of the Father by which he fills all eternity, and exercises all powerg. This application of the attributes of the Father to the Son, pervades all the sacred writings of the New Tes. tament, and is represented to be by communication, or inheritance. “ As the Father has life in himself, “so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself. "I and my Father are one. I am in the Father and " the Father in me. All things that the Father hath

Whatsoever things the Father doeth, " these also doeth the Son likewise. The Father judg*. eth no man, but hath committed all judgment to " the Son." These are our Lord's words, as recorded by Saint John, according to whom he was in the

are mine.

See Dan. vii. 13. Mat. xxix, 30. Mar. xiii. 26. xiv. 62. but more particularly Zech. xii, 10. where these images occur.

+ Ileb. vi. 6.In confirmation of the received opinion, that St. John the Evangelist was the author of the Apocalypse, we may observe, that ežexsymoar is the very word used by that Apostle in his Gospel, (xix. 37,) and is a word used by no other writer of the New Testament.

- C. i. ii. 13.
$ See Is, xliv. 6. lvi. 15. Mic. v. 2.

beginning," beginning," and "from the beginning with God*." The apostle to the Hebrews enforces the same notion of our Lord's eternity, when he calls him “ Jesus “ Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and for evert." He is Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the original Creator, and the final Judge, of the world; to whose illustrious advent, and final triumph over his enemies (as being the grand catastrophe of the Apocalypse) the prophet, who had already seen it exhibited in vision, exultingly adverts, even before he begins his narration. This was natural, in one who had seen such a vision, but it would not easily have occurred in a work of mere imagination and art.

• John i. 1. 13. v. 26. 19. 22. xiv. 11. xvi, 15, also Col. i. 16. 17. Heb. i. 2, 3, 8. i John v. 20,

† Heb, xiii. 8,

PART I

SECTION JII.

The Appearance of the Lord Jesus with the Symbols of

his Power; and the Commission given by him to Saint John to write what he beholds.

CHAP, I. Ver. Ito the end.

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9 'Egà 'Iwawns, ó, 9 I John, your brother, 19 I John, who also am

αδελφός υμών, και and fellow-sharer in your brother, and comσυγκοινωνος εν τη the tribulation and panion in tribulation, θλίψει και βασιλεία kingdom and patience and in the kingdom and και υπομονη Ιησέ

of Jesus Christ, was in patience of JesusChrist, Χρισέ, εγενόμην εν the Island called Pat- was in the isle that is τη γήσω τη καλα- mos, for the word of called Patmos, for the

a loud

μένη Πάτμο, δια

God, and for the word of God, and for τον λόγον τε Θεέ, , testimony of Jesus the testimony of Jexai dien th Maph-10 [Christ]. I was in the 10 sus Christ. I was in

glæv Inoš (X2158]. Spirit on the Lord's the Spirit on the 10 Έγενόμην εν σεύ- day; and I heard Lord's day, and heard μαλι εν τη κυριακή behind me

behind me a great ημέρα" και ήκεσα voice, as of a trum- voice, as of a trum. οπίσω με φωνής 11 pet, Saying, “ That 11 pet, Saying, I am

μεγάλην ως σαλ- “ which thou seest Alpha and Omega, 11 πιίγει, λεγέσης" * write in a book, the first and the last;

ο βλέπεις, γρά- « and send unto the apd, What thou seest, ψαν εις βιβλίου,

seven churches; to write in a book, and και σέμψον ταϊς “ Ephesus; and to send it unto the seven έπλα εκκλησίαις, εις " Smyrna; and to Churches which are "Εφισον, και εις

“ Pergamos; and to in Asią; unto EpheΣμύρναν, και εις

" Thyatira; and to sus, and unto Smyr. Πέραμον, και εις “ Sardis; and to Phi- na, and unto PergaΘυάτειρα, και εις

“ ladelphia; and to mos, and unto ThyaΣάρδεις, και εις Φι- 12 “ Laodicea." And I tira, and unto Sardis,

λαδέλφειαν, και εις turned to see what and unto Philadel. 12 Λαοδίκειαν. Και the voice was which phia, and unto Lao. επέσρεψα βλέπεις

spake with me; and 12 dicea. And I turned Tin Purina nitis being turned, I saw to see the voice that ελάλησε με εμά seven golden lamp- spake with me. And και επιςρέψας είδος

13 bearers; And in the being turned, I saw

midst of the seven seven golden candle. 19 σας, Και εν μέσω lamp-bearers one like 13 sticks; And in the των επία λυχιών the Son of inan,

nidst of the seven όμοιον υιώ ένθρώπε, , clothed with a long candlesticks one like ενδεδυμένων ποδήρη, garment down to the

unto the Son of man, και σεριεζωσμένον feet, and girt about

cloathed with a gar. agus ross masos

the breasts with a ment down to the 14 ζώνην χεναών. Η

14 golden girdle; His foot, and girt about δε κεφαλή αυτή head and his hair

the paps with a golden και αι τρίχες λευ

white, as white wool, | 14 girdle. His head and inai, kari gor

as snow; and his eyes his hairs were white Rouxor, us your

as a flame of fire; like wool, as white Bij si iç yol aj 15 And his feet like as snow; and his eyes της ώς φλόξ αυρός, smelting brass, as if

were as a flame of 15 Και οι σόδες αυτε

burned brightly in a 15 fire ; And his feet Suosos xalxaaba

furnace; and his like upto fine brass,

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ω, ώς εν καμίνη voice as the voice of as if they burned in BITugwipe xai 16 many waters; And a furnace: and his ที่ i pun arts as having in his right voice as the sound of

φωνή υδάτων σολ. hand seyen stars, and 16 many waters. And 16 λών Και έχων εν from his mouth a two. be bad in his right

tri dokogi airë zeigen edged sharp sword hand seren stars : Giga; xa lx

coming forth; and his and out of his mouth τα τόματος αυτά countenance as the weut a sharp twoρομφαία δίτομος Sun shineth in his edged sword, and his εξει εκπορευομένη" 17 power. And when I countenance was as xai bebis aute,

saw him, I fell at his the sun shineth in só doos paivas

feet, as dead; and 17 his strength, And யோகக் ke laid his right hand when I saw him, I 17 Kaioreidon aytis, upon me, saying to

fell at his feet as έπεσα προς τις 18 me] “ Fear not; I am dead: and he laid σόδας αυτά ως s the first and the his right hand upon νεκρός και επέθηκε

“ last, and he who me, saying uplo me, The detien avri “ liveth; and I was. Fear not; I am the επ' εμέ, λέγων · dead, and behold I 18 first and the last : I (mor] Mi Polo " am alive for ever am he that liveth, εγώ είμι και αρώτος " and ever; and I and was dead; and

xai iogalos, " have the keys of behold, I am alive 18 Kæi ó Ymr xai " Death and of hell. for evermore, Amen;

igeróun vexpòs, xai 19 " Write therefore and have the keys of. idd ywy si us Tes

" those things which hell and of death. alwas the aitrwy' " thou seest, even

19 Write

the things και έχω τας κλώς

" the things which which thou hast seen, To darato nai r8

s are present, and and the things which 19 άδε. Γράψον εν " which are about to are, and the things

å sides, xxi å gior, 20 " be after these : The which shall be hereκαι αμέλλει γίνεσ

" mystery of

of the 20 after, The mystery θαι μετά ταύτα. . “ seven stars which

of the seven stars 20 TÒ Musiquor by

po thou seest in my which thou sawest in irla åsigwy, v " right band, and niy right hand, and είδες επί της δεξιάς “ the seven golden the seven golden fes, vai tas inila

“ lamp-bearers. The candlesticks. The λυχνίας τας χεν- “ seven stars are the seven stars are the casos érlà åséges, " angels of the seven angels of the seven αγελοι των επlα έκ

« churches, and the churches : and the χλησιών είσι και • seven lamp-bearers

candlesticks κι έπια λυχνίαι,

the seven which lhou sawest are igla ixxindia, udi, , “ Churches,"

the seven churches,

seven

are

Ver. 9. I John, &c.] Who this John was, and why, and whither banished, may be seen in note, c. i. 1. His dignity, as an apostle, and as a prophet favoured with this vision, and honoured with this commission, was at all events considerable; but, in the spirit of the Gospel, he calls himself only a brother, as his Lord had called himself before him *, and a fellowsharer in the afflictions which the faithful were then suffering, under the persecution of Domitian. But to partake the sufferings of Christ, is to partake also his kingdomt, which are here therefore empliatically united.

For the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus.] The sense of this expression becomes clear, by comparing it with chap. vi. 9, where the Martyrs are represented as having suffered δια τον λογον τε Θε8 και δια peplugiæv Ýy Eixov," for the word of God, and for the “ testimony which they bare.” John was, like them, a persecuted sufferer and confessor, in the Island of Patmos, to which he was banished for his adherence to the faith, and where he was favoured with this vision 1.

Ver. 10. I was in the Spirit.] It is in vain to inquire the exact manner in which these sacred visions were coinmunicated. The Jewish writers have said much upon the subject, but nothing which can satisfy a rational and sober mind. So far however iş plain from Ezek. ï. 2. iii. 24. 2 Cor. xii. 2. and other passages of Scripture, that the prophet commonly perceived the impulse of the Spirit acting upon him in a sudden and extraordinary manner; yet so mysteriously, that

+ 2 Tim. ii. 12. Euseb. Eccl. Hist. lib. iii. cap. 18.

* John xx. 17.

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