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The four first Trumpets.
CHAP. viii. ver. 6-12.
6 Rai ot taldrулон 6 And the seven angels,
οι έχονlες τας επτα who had the seven σάλπιγγας, ήτοίμα- trumpets, prepared
** iaurės, va themselves to sound. 7 orazítwoli. Kai 17 And the first sounded;
και πρώτο. εσάλ- and there were hail πισι, και εγέθο χά- and fire mingled with λαζα και πώς μεμιγ
blood; and they were μένα εν αίματι, και cast upon the land;
Canon is in gar and the third part of και το τρίτος της the land was burnt γης κατικάη, και το up; and the third part τρίτος των δένδρων of the trees was burnt xarrán, xai was up; and all green grass χωρίς χλωρός κα- 8 was burnt up.
And 8 πκάη. Και ο δεύ- the second angel sound
πρ. αγγελΘ- ed; and, as it were, a σάλπισε, και ως όρος great mountain, burnμέγα συρί καιόμε- ing with fire, was cast voy Canon is no into the sea; and the θάλασσα και εγέ- third part of the sea ετο το τρίτος της 9 became blood: And
θαλάσσης, αίμα the third part of the 9 Καίάπίθανε το τρί- creatures in the sea,
τον των κλισμάτων which had life, died; των εν τη θαλάσ- and the third part of ση, τα έχοντα ψυ
the ships was destroyxás rý rò tgítor 10 ed. And the third των πλοίων διεφθά
angel sounded ; and 10ρη. Και ο τρίτος there fell from heaven
αγελα εσάλπισι, , a great star, burning και έπεσεν εκ τε ί- like a meteor; and it
6 And the seven angels
which had the seven
themselves to sound.
ed; and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood; and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt
up, and all green gras3
second angel sounded,
of the sea became
part of the creatures
ships were destroyed.
sounded, and there fell
garë asnę migas fell
the third part καιόμενο ως λαμ
of the rivers, and upon πας, και έπεσεν επι the springs of waters. το τρίτος των σολα- 11 And the name of the
μών, και επί τας ση- star is called the Worm11 γας υδάτων. Και wood; and the third το όνομα το ασέρος
part of the waters beλέγεθαι ο "Αψινθος: comes wormwood; and και γίνεται το τρί
many of the men died τον των υδάτων εις
of the waters, because άψινθον, και πολλοί
they were made bitter. Tüv krogám we aimé 12 And the fourth angel θανον εκ των υδάτων,
sounded; and the third ότι επικράνθησαν. . part of the sun was 12 Και ο τέταρτο
smitten, and the third άγγελς εσάλπισε,
part of the moon, and και επλήγη το τρίτον
the third part of the τα ηλία, και το τρί
stars; so that a third τον των ατέρων να
part of them should σκόλισθη το τρίτον
be darkened, and the αυτών, και η ημέρα
day might not shine, μη φαίνη το τρίτον
as to the third part of αυτής, και η νυξ ο
it, and the night like. μοίως. .
fountains of waters : 11 And the name of the
star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the
waters, because they 12 were made bitter. And
the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.
Ver. 6. And the seven angels, who had the seven trumpets, prepared themselves to sound.] The former part of this chapter having prepared us for a new kind of representation, in which we may expect to find the history of those commotions which followed the descent of Christianity upon earth; we will in the next place observe, with what propriety they are severally introduced by the sound of Trumpets. Trumpets were in ușe among the Israelites for several purposes : first, for assembling the people *, or their leaders t; or,
* Numb, x. 2, 3.
Ib. x. 4.
secondly, to express joy and exultation on solemn festivals * ; or, lastly, to give signal when the camp was to move, or the host to go forth to battle t; on which occasion, the trumpets were to “sound an alarm, after a manner not used on other occasions. It was the signal of hostile invasion $; it was fearful :-“Shall " the trumpet be blown in the city, and the people " not be afraid | !" Of such kind we may account the seven trumpets of the angels. They are not the trumpets
of the new moons and feast days T; there is no joy and festivity in them; they are not for the quiet and peaceful calling of the assembly; they sound an alarm; an alarm of war; and woe! woe! woe! accompanies their notes (ver. 13.): they foretel to the Church of Christ the invasions of its enemies, and are so many signals on the approach of each antichristian foe. And from the preparatory vision, in which incense and fire from the altar in heaven, are cast down to earth, produeing violent commotions, we have reason to expect that Religion, or the pretence and abuse of it, is intimately counected with this warfare. This expectation will be confirmed by our observing, that the representation under every trumpet appears to have some reference to, or connection with, the preparatory vision. At the sounding of almost every one of which, somewhat is seen to fall from heaven to earth, as the incense and fire had fallen, and to occasion the commotions which ensue.
Ver. 7. And the first sounded.] The prophetic history of the four first trumpets is dispatched in few words, containing few images; so that much particular information cannot be safely collected from them. Like the first four vials, they seem to have a general character. The attack, whose alarm is sounded, falls in a fourfold division : first, on the land; for, thus it seems to me that ü yu should be translated ; not in its general signification of the earth, as containing the land, sea, rivers, &c.; but in its particular sense, as opposed to the sea, &c. * : secondly, on the sea : shirdly, on the rivers and springs : fourthly, on the heavenly luminaries,-the sun, moon, and stars; that is, on the whole of God's creation. For in the xivth chapter of this book, verse the seventh, God is described as the Creator of all things, under these divisions : “ the heaven; and the earth; and the sea; "and the springs of waters.” The same divisions of the visible world (tlıree of them often, sometimes four,) are to be seen in other passages of Scripturet. This mode of division is ancient,' and passed to the Greek and Roman poets. Virgil, after his Greek masters, describing the creation; says:
Numb. X. 10.
Principio cælum et terras, camposque liquentes,
Lucentemque globum lune, titaniaque astra, .:. Spiritus intùs alit.
ÆNEID. vi. 724. * In confirmation of which we may observe, that in ch. xvi. all the seven angels are ordered to pour their vials on the earth, as rão gar: and yet only one of them obeys the order literally and specially, as th you: because, in pouring their vials on the sea, rivers, &c. they fulf! the order in the general sense in which the word carth was applied. The word is first used, generally, to signify the whole extent of the earth, as containing the land, sea, rivers, &c.; then particularly to mear that part of it only which we call the land.
+ See Isaiah li. 15, 16. Hosea iv. 3. Nahum i. 4, 5. Hab. iii. 8, 11. Zeph, i. 3. Hagg. ii. 6. Phil. ii, 10.
Know, first, that heav'n and earth's compacted frame,
- In the fourfold enumeration before us, the rivers and springs are kept separate from the other waters, for a particular purpose of, iļlustration, which will be
Hereby also is inade that fourfold division, which, containing every part of the square, implies universality and completion *.. For, as the vision of the four horses, at the voices of the four Cherubim, passing completely around every side, or angle of the throne, is seen to exhibit a-şketch of the Christian. degeneracy in all its parts, from its first purity to its utmost corruption ; 70:ss , S.
"92.5 White-Jarse, ac
Black Horse, ho
Third Cherub, ----s0, the four first trumpets seem to compose a whole, and, under a fourfold division, to represent all the parts of the Christian world as affected by the commotionst:
Fourth Trumpet, Heavenly Luminaries.
Rivers, &ca * See note, ch. iy. 6.
+ I say the Ckristian world; for thus appear to me, those“ new “ heavens,” and that new earth,"described by the Prophets, and the Apostles, to be;" created after God in righteousness." Isaiah li. 16. Ephi ir. 24. A A