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are more closely connected than in the tical facts, in the number of men, or prosperity of human tribes with the that of the heads of each race of dosoil and climate, and the physical mestic animals, as the most important features of the country which they in- productions of the vegetable or animal habit ; the fact is contained in the his- kingdoms, and the value of these protory of former nations, in the contem- duets compared with the price of laplation of present countries, and in the bour and the value of money, nothing probabilities which the progressive fu- would be more easy, at the present ture holds out to us in places where the day, than to trace the regular and the change has already begun.
irregular movement which the proPerhaps there is no science of ductive forces of Great Britain or of greater importance to the happiness of France have followed. Unfortunately, mankind, than that which is involved. we are very far from being in possesin the third consideration, and which sion of such observations on the es. indicates the means of creating, of sential elements of national prosperity, keeping, and of increasing the pro- and incomplete in the present time, perty of each family ; such is, indeed, they are still more rare and imperfect the aim of political economy to which for times past. descriptive geography and statistics By taking, for a guide nevertheless, attach themselves as sources of know- the law of continuity, whieh acts upon ledge, and as collections of facts des- the developement of social, as well as tined to serve as a basis to the cal- upon physical order, more satisfactory culations necessary for practical re- results have been obtained than might sults.
at first have been anticipated in these “ Have," says the liberal and enlight- researches. When we consider atter ened Baron Dupin the riches of the tively, the social state in a civilized two most opulent nations of Europe in- people, we may remark on the one creased, froin the sixteenth to the nine- hand general causes of regularity of preteenth century, by chance, and without servation and of progress, on the other, any assignable reason, or have they, a crowd of disturbing causes ; many of on the contrary, been developed ac- the latter belong to physical nature, to cording to a certain rule, and with a the intemperance of seasons, and epidegree of rapidity which can be ap- demical or epizootical disorders; to preciated by calculation ?"
want as to superabundance of nutritive It is evident that researches of this products. Many other causes are atkind, both by their nature and their tached to the passions of men, to rioconsequences, interest in the same de- lence, dissatisfaction,' turbulence, and gree the people and the government. immorality, to theft, fraud, ignorance, They indicate to individuals the pro- error, and, in one word, to the folies, portions of their charges, and to the and crimes, deeds or attempts, which administration, the extent of its resour are or are not defined by the laws.ces,—They allow the constant and the In a nation that is on its decline, the disvariable part which may be remarked turbing causes exceed the causes of prein the riches of a whole people to be servation of production, till society gets distinctly valued, they lead to a poorer and poorer and disorganises itvery near determination, for the pre- self. Yet amid the vicissitudes of sent time and for years to come, of the war and misfortune which terrify our extent or power of increase in riches; imagination to look upon, Great Briand they offer, in consequence, the tain and France have advanced, for the means of enlightening and of guiding three last centuries, in the road of sothe operations of individuals or of pub- cial perfection, more than in any other lic economy, by calculating for a spe- time of which history has preserved the cific time, the results equally necessary memory. and equally proved, of a progess which It must be confessed,” says Mr. has taken place in the economies of Bell, to whose pages we shall turn on the treasury of the State, in the resour- this interesting subject, “that there is ces of the natural products and in the a tendency in our ancient laws and powell being of the inhabitants. If from litical organization, favourable to the the sixteenth century to the present accumulation of property in the hands day, well conducted observations had of a comparatively small number of established the most essential statise individuals ; and it has resulted from
this :—that while in no country is the don merchant. A lineal ancestor of soil better cultivated, the arts more the Marquis of Cornwallis, was sheriff advanced, manufactures more flourish- of London in 1878. The noble house ing—while no where is a nobler and of Wentworth was founded by a Lonmore skilful use made of human don Alderman. Laurence de Boustrength, and while no where is there viers, married the daughter of a Gerso much opulence and luxury-yet, at man silk mercer and settling in England, the smallest commercial derangement, laid the foundation of the house of Radcries of distress are heard in every nor. An ancestor of the Earl of Dartquarter.” ** There exists,” says Mr. mouth, was a skinner; the Earl of Passay, “ between England and other Craven, is lineally descended from a countries in which wealth is equally merchant tailor ; and the Earl of Warill shared, a difference which ought wick, from the "flower of the wool to be kept constantly in view. In staplers." The nobility of Britain, these countries, if the people suffer have been often charged with hauteur ; without murmuring, it is because hav- but, it is the boast of our constitution, ing only the ideas and the habits na- that there is nothing to prevent the tural to their condition ; they do not humblest citizen, who shall be found experience the evils of retrogradation, sufficiently meritorious, from rising to and enjoy even the advantages result, the highest rank which a British subing from the gradual melioration of ject can enjoy. The sentiment imtheir industry. In England, on the plied in this principle, is worthy of a other hand, the people have declined, free people, and deserves the imitation from the effects of laws too favourable of every government which wishes to to large properties ; and hence there walk in the path of national prosis a discontent with regard to so- perity.
We do not exactly agree cial order which it would be dangerous here with the opinion given to the to allow to break out. The destinies causes of discontent, with regard to of England have been delivered by social order as originating in a degraher institutions into the hands of a ter- dation of the labouring classes, from ritorial aristocracy. A small number of a previous comparative affluence. The families excessively rich, and a multi- condition of the operatives in Britain, tude of poor have supplanted the cannot be said to have ever declined; classes of which the graduated pro- but the writing and the sayings of perty preserved harmony in all parts wilful men, have taken from them that of the body politic.” At the same contentment, with their lot, and robbed time it has been observed by Mr. Du- them of that tranquillity of disposition, pin, “ that there is another principle, which was, before, their hereditary claim the combination of capitalists, which to peace and happiness. Those light establishes a salutary check on the and exquisite notions, which exercise tendency of wealth to concentrate in acknowledged authority over the frametoo small a number of hands; and that work of life, are the gifts of a sensibility in practice, great proprietors are not transmitted to our offspring—a refineusually found the enemies of improve- ment of temperament and intellect, ments, and inventions propitious to in- that is undoubtedly hereditarily produstry and favourable to commerce. pagated. “ In the delicate faculties of The great families of Britain-of Eng. the mind,"—it has been remarked, by a land especially-have often themselves most gifted writer,—" in its gentlest descended into the ranks of industry, pleasures-in its subtlest workings— and there acquired new claims to po- in even its morbid sensibilities, we pularity, to esteem, and to honour, in are to look for the principles which that path, where, perhaps, their ances- govern with power the social conditors first acquired them. If a Duke of tion of the higher classes." That, inBridgewater, a Duke of Portland, a deed, which characterizes the higher Cavendish, or a Bedford, have con- classes of a long civilized society, and structed canals and bridges and streets, which cannot be obtained by the upit ought not to be forgotten that start, in a cultivated sensibility-a culBritish nobility owes much to the in- tivation which is continually going on, dustry and enterprise of British mer- by being undisturbed by intermixture chants. The Duke of Leeds is a des- of those who are strangers to their cendant of Edward Osborne, a Lon- own refinement. VOL. I.
You deserted me, and left me
You know, my eyes,
will not love me,
Does love like mine inflame your breast ?
Love me! for God ordain'd affection ;
Ah, woe is me! how much I love you!
When you deserted me, and left
only-none had pow'r
HINTS FROM HIGH PLACES.
Davus.- Nescio qui senex modò venit: ellum, confidens, catus ;
Cum faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti :
Tristis severitas inest in voltu, atque in verbis fides
Ter. And. 5. 2. 14.
The first is composed of anxiousThere are in every large town, I looking folk, well-appointed in all parbelieve, more or less detinitely portion- ticulars but the upper story, who are ed off from the rest, regions sacred to prying in at the windows as they move particular crafts, in each of which the slowly along, evidently considering one calling so predominates, that it which of the labelled articles, from the would be considered presumptuous as “plain gentleman's” to the “ top-sawwell as impolitic for one of another yer's,” will suit their features or characvocation to establish himself within its ter best. While you watch for the precincts, and where the unlucky in- result of the inspection, you are shoultruder would expose himself to the dered by one of the other class, a feldanger of the same fate, as, in days of low who has fairly made the choice, yore, met many an officer of executive and is strutting away with the article justice, that is, bailiff, within the sacred of his selection glowing upon his head, bounds of Alsatia. Within such limits like the helmet of Diomede, beneath the whole business of life appears to the last smooth of the foreman's brush, run in one channel, and man might be a slight contraction of brow alone defined, according as you enter Pater- shewing that his forehead is not prenoster-row or Lombard-street in Lon- cisely of the same oval with the extredon, or Wood-quay or George's-street, mity of the hat-stick, and being a suffiin Dublin, as, here a shoe-making or cient indication of the extra price he brush-making—there a money-making pays for the gratification of his vanity. or book-making animal.
Take the But perhaps there are few regions rounds of this metropolis, and enter that are more exclusive, and certainly New-row for instance. Trimming is none more likely to be known by the there so exclusive and universal, that readers of your Magazine, or more you might almost fancy yourself with- proper to be celebrated by the contriin the walls of St. Stephen's. Stroll butor to it, than that which, consisting into Temple-bar any week day, and of one straight, cold, gloomy-looking the predominant business forces itself alley, first meets the gownsman of our upon you at once. If you proceed University, as he sallies forth from unfrom the Essex-street side, be cautious der its low-brow'd portal, and passes how you enter the ground consecrate the Bank on his progress into College to tea-cups, or you may chance to be- green, diverting him to the right along come an involuntary victim to the ge- its dark and dismal length in the direcnius of the place, and suffer immola- tion of that stream of Lucilian flow, tion beneath the ponderous wheels of which creeps through our city with its a Juggernaut of china crates. As you accustomed load of everything “ quod move onward towards Westmoreland- tollere velles." There he becomes at street, the bowl yields to the beaver, once aware that he is on classic ground. and you soon become sensible of a -Every window is crowded with the classification of the street passengers literary worthies of ancient and mointo two distinct species, as regards the dern times--Hence stares old Homer, outward man.
in a somewhat worn leathern jerkin,