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ties. His friends entertained the hope every theory, ancient or modern, by wo of that the chair of the London College which an explication, of mental pheno T would have been offered to his accept- mena has been attempted: and admirance; but they were disappointed: and ably calculated to seize upon the adhe resolved, in consequence, to bid missions, the deficiencies, and the adieu to England, and to remain, for incongruities of other writers, for the the remainder of his days, in quiet, purpose of shewing to advantage, the ele unambitious comfort, with the relatives superior consistency, and reasonable pe of his late wife, in Paris.
ness of his own and Dr. Gall's system. But he had scarcely settled in his But had not the lucky thought of the new abode, when pressing invitations latter led him into the track of discofrom America induced him to cross the very, there is nothing in his writings Atlantic. He arrived, full of hope, at from which we should be led to conjecNew York, and on the 17th September, ture that, by any other application of 1832, commenced a general course of his powers, he could arrive at eminence lectures at Boston. His class was ex or even at distinction. He was an ceedingly numerous and respectable, amiable man, and much beloved by and he conceived the most sanguine those who knew him, for the innocent expectations of spreading his doctrines hilarity of his disposition and the frankfrom one extremity to the other of the ness and honesty of his nature. It was new world, and of seeing it take per- quite impossible to be in his society manent root over the most civilized two hours without being convinced that leta portion of the habitable globe. But there was not a single particle of quackhis latter end was at hand. “Sudden ery or hypocrisy in his whole composichanges exposed him to cold, and an tion. He met every enquiry that was incautious transition from a warm lec- made, with modesty and fairness; and ture-room to the evening air was at- was rarely at a loss to give a plausible, tended with debilitating effects. This if not a cogent, answer to any objecvariety of causes brought on, at first, tions by which his favourite science was a slight indisposition, which, if it had assailed. Never was there a man less been attended to, might have been obnoxious to the charge of egotism in easily checked. Regarding his illness the little discussions which frequently of less consequence than the delivery took place respecting the merits of of his lectures, he exerted himself for phrenology. A quiet observer would several days; when prudence required be struck by the very little pains which an entire cessation from labour. "This he took to exhibit himself, and his was the fatal step. Cold produced intense desire to recommend his sysfever; and this imprudence settled the tem. He seemed to us capable of the fever in the system. He was averse bearing injury, insult, almost any indigto all active medical treatment from the nity, provided he could, by so doing beginning, and resorted to the simplest accelerate the progress of what he condrinks and mildest remedies. He was sidered, whether justly or not, the most confined to his room about fifteen days, important discovery that ever was made. during which time his disease assumed Indeed his labours in the cause sufficia more alarming appearance until the ently prove the perseverance and the 10th of November. At eleven o'clock devotedness of his attachment to it; at night the world was deprived of this and that he was disinterested is abanextraordinary man."
dantly manifest, as his gains from his Such is the sketch which Mr. Car- lectures were scarcely ever more than michael has given of the life and la- sufficient to defray his necessary exbours of Dr. Spurzheim. That he en- penses. Had he become stationary in tertains an exaggerated notion of his any principal town, the most ordinary powers of mind, we have already de success in his profession must have clared our conviction : and the very been far more lucrative than he could warmth of his admiration may induce ever hope to render the more irregular many to hesitate in receiving his testi- course which he had adopted. mony respecting the soundness of the That there is something in phrenonew philosophy. Spurzheim was a logy, we believe every one admits. At man of good capacity, and consider- least we have never met with any one able attainments. He was well ac- who professed that he would expect to quainted with the outlines of almost meet with exactly the same conform
ation of head in an idiot and in a New- and we are free to confess, that if the ton. The only difference, therefore, disciples of Spurzheim are only able to between Spurzheim and most others, is establish, upon ample and unexceptionthe difference between general acknow- able evidence, the position for which ledgment and particular description. they contend, no force of intellect or He gives the map of a country in the of ridicule can finally prevail against
existence of which they profess to be- them. =) lieve, while they call it “terra incog That individuals professing phreno
nita." Now the whole question at logy have been enabled to form very issue resolves itself into a question of accurate judgments respecting the chafact : namely, are the phrenologists racters of others, upon a mere inspecjustified in asserting that certain pecu- tion of their skulls, and without asking liarities of cerebral development are a single question by which a personal invariably accompanied by certain mo- knowledge of them might be elicited, ral or mental manifestations? If this cannot be denied ; and we give the be so, they are right ; if it be not so, following instance, for the correctness they are in error. We have already of which we can vouch, as one of the intimated that it is not our intention to most striking that occurred during Mr.
take either the one side or the other. Combe's late visit to Dublin. In visit• While we do not think that sufficient ing the Richmond Lunatic Asylum, a
inductional evidence has as yet been man was presented to him by Doctor ... adduced to justify an adhesion to the Crawford,' at that time the substitute
phrenologists, we are of opinion that physician, and, without holding a sins far too plausible a case has been made gle word of conversation with him, he
out to justify, for one moment, the wrote down the following remarks :a fleering ascerbity of their adversaries ; Amativeness,
very large. Combativeness,
do. Self esteem,
Veneration and Hope.
Intellectual organs, ditto, The patient was withdrawn, and Mr. of every crime. Considerable intelliCombe added ; “ This is the worst gence, ingenuity and plausibility ; a head I ever saw. The combination is scourge to his family from childhood ; worse than Hare's. Combativeness and turned out of the army as an incorrigidestructiveness are fearfully large, and ble villain; attempted the life of a solthe moral organs altogether deficient. dier; repeatedly fogged; has since ata Benevolence is the best developed of tempted to poison his father." them, but it is miserably small, com Now we do not say that this instance pared with the organs of combativeness alone ought to be sufficient to establish and destructiveness. I am surprised the truth of phrenology. But is it that man was not executed before he be possible to say of a system which enacame insane."
bles a mere observer, at a single glance, It appears that Dr. Crawford, who to form a judgment of character so was at that time, no phrenologist, had nearly approaching to correctness, that previously written down this man's cha- there is nothing in it? We think not. raeter, as he knew it from a long ac- We think, on the contrary, that a few quaintance with him. It is as fol. such instances entitle it to the greatest lows :
consideration ; and that, if many such Patient E. S., aged 34. Ten years can be as truly alledged, its adversaries since admission. Total want of moral will find it very difficult to contend feeling and principle ; great depravity against it. of character, leading to the indulgence It ought, however, to be impressed of every vice, and to the commission upon phrenologists, that they cannot
be too cautious, too patient, or too ex- think not. We only know body by act in their observations; and that a means of mind. We have no direct
, or proneness to precipitate theory, may immediate cognizance of matter. Reid greatly, retard, if not defeat their ob- says we have ; but his opinions are, at ject . "It owes whatever of plausibility present
, very little regarded
. The late at present belongs to it, to the fact, Dr. Thomas Brown says we have; that it arose without any reference to but, we believe, no individual worthy theory ; and the strongest prima facie of notice, himself excepted, ever objections to which it is liable are, un- adopted his peculiar view. The first doubtedly, those which have reference refers the cognizance of external nato the very great rapidity with which ture to a faculty which he denominates it has assumed its present shape, and common sense; the latter to the resisthe very minute subdivisions, each hav- tance occasioned by an interposing l»ing appropriate offices, into which the dy to the power of muscular contracbrain has been divided. If former tion. But, in both cases, obviously, philosophers have erred in supposing that which is immediately, present to that there were no original propensi- the mind, is the sensation, impression
, ties, but that all men came into the idea, or whatever else it may be called, world with equal powers and capaci- which is considered as intimating the ties, and only differed from each other presence of the extemal object ; not as their minds were formed by the the object itself, which is inferred, r. education they received, or the circum- ther than perceived ; which, as in the let stances by which they were surrounded, case of dreams, may be perceived when so it is to be suspected that phrenolo- it is not present, and, as in the case of gists have erred by passing into an op- the heavenly bodies, may be perceived in posite extreme, and multiplying the to be in one place, when it is known to primitive faculties to an extent that is be in another. unphilosophical and needless.
The most vivid perceptions, thereThat phrenology leads to material- fore, do not of necessity argue the preism has often been asserted ; and the sence of an external cause ; although assertion has been rendered specious doubtless, they, in the great majority by the fact that it numbers amongst its of instances, furnish sufficiently good most ardent votaries, individuals who reasons for believing such a cause to be are known to be favorable to the ma. in existence. But, we must not conterial philosophy. But, in truth, it found the inference of the judgment leaves the great question at issue ex- with the act of, or impression upon the
LI actly where it found it. Phrenology mind. Of the latter, we have the evidoes not profess to throw any light on dence of consciousness. If we anathe nature of mind; it is only the laws lyze the evidence upon which we rest which govern its manifestations, with our belief in the former, we will find it which it pretends to be acquainted.- to resolve itself into no more than And it might as well be said that a man this, that such objects, supposing them was a materialist, because, admitted to exist, furnish the most plausible acthat he received ideas of colour by count that can be given of the phenomeans of the eye, as that he should be mena of perception. so considered, because he maintained A man hears the sound of a truwthat all other emotions and impressions pet, and, in common parlance
, he says were perceived by reason of certain he hears a trumpet. By which he does peculiarities of cerebral conformation, not mean that an external object
, called The brain is an instrument in the one a trumpet, is immediately present to his case, exactly as the eye is in the other, mind ; but only, that the sound which and neither are to be confounded with he has heard leads him to infer that a the mind, any more than the music trumpet must be somewhere in his produced from a piano is to be con- neighbourhood. In like manner, with founded with the keys or the strings respect to all the other senses. The by impressions upon which it was oc- eye conveys impressions of colour, the casioned.
nose of scent, which, although they But it may be said, if mind be a re- lead to an almost instinctive inference sult of organization, as music is of im, that some external cause of these impact upon an instrument, does not that pressions must exist, yet by, no means savour, at least, of materiality ? We impart to us the same distinct and in
fallible evidence respecting that cause phrenology accomplishes, the great which we have of their own existence. question between materialists and im
Phrenologists affect to have found materialists remains exactly where it out a faculty somewhat analogous to was before. Dr. Reid's" common sense," and by A knowledge of matter presupposes which they maintain that we havewhat the existence of mind. But the existamounts to self-evident knowledge of ence of mind does not necessarily preexternal existence. But we beg to suppose the existence of matter. It ask, will not that faculty manifest itself may be true that the latter exists as in the dreamer, with an activity as in- well as the former. But it is not a tense, and a belief as unhesitating, as self-evident truth. And however men in any waking subject ? And if so, may doubt about the one, the very fact how can it be presumed that any cer- of doubting at all, affords perfect certain or infallible knowledge of the tainty respecting the other. Our conexternal world is the result of its ope- jectures or inferences may be erroneous rations? We are very much inclined and therefore we can never be sure to think, that the faculty to which the that we are not under a delusion when phrenologists allude, is a primitive fa- we are led by our sensations to the culty ; that is, that some individuals belief of an external object. Many are born with a peculiar power of ob- such delusions are practised by those serving and distinguishing particular who are skilful at slight of hand. But objects ; but that power affords no the very act of conjecturing at all, evidence whatever of the necessary proves infallibly the existence of a beexistence of external objects, beyond ing that conjectures, and we therefore, the very natural inference which may can never entertain any doubt respectbe drawn in the case of any of the ing the real existence of an intellectual other senses. So that, for aught that nature.
LETTER ON THE IRISH EDUCATION QUESTION.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.
of Education have published, from the The frequent complaints made of charge of being a mutilation of the Reporters in the public papers, would Scriptures, and the plea is, that “a induce those who value the honour of mutilation of a book, is a publication proour Established Church, to hope, that fessing to be the whole book, which it is it was to the inaccuracy of one of these not." It were well
, if such a plea as we were to ascribe a report on the this could be admitted to vindicate the + Education Question in Ireland. It is, iniquitous principle of this selection,
at all events, due to propriety, to visit A selection from the Sacred Volume, on the Reporter what he has presumed used in education, in conjunction with to put into the lips of his Grace the the whole Bible, to the study of which,
Archbishop of Dublin ; and I can only little children are taught with feelings a treat it as coming from such a writer. of reverence to aspire, cannot indeed,
It is due to the cause of truth and the with justice be called “a mutilation," Clergy of Ireland, not to allow that but an honest and valuable introduction writer's observations to escape unno to the use of that inspired Volume. ticed. I merely touch on a few points But a selection from the Sacred
This writer, Sir, uses the cloak of Volume, used in education as this is, the Archbishop's authority, to vindi-' to the exclusion of the remainder, cate the book which the Commissioners and made on the iniquitous principle, Vol. I.
that this remainder or any part thereof, attacking the then Commissioners of is unfit for the instruction of youth, Education for the principle that means this, Sir, is not only a mutilation, but should be taken to supply the Protes. it is worse than a mutilation of the tant children with the Testaments," he Scriptures, it is a mutilation of some urges this sentiment with the caustic parts of this holy Volume and a dese- irony of mingled infidelity and supercration of the rest.
stition, thus · I would, Sir, that we had been left The Protestant child who sits beside to impute this exclusively to Popish the Catholic, is to be initiated in the insuperstition, and that we had been per- teresting details of criminality contanud mitted to consider the Protestant mem in the history of the Jews, while his bers of the Board merely as the dupes Popish neighbours are to be denied all of a mistaken and perverted policy access to those pure and salutary sources But alas ! we are deprived even of of information from which so much useful this melancholy consolation—we are knowledge is to be derived." I refer compelled to admit that the Board is those who wish to examine the impious guided, not by a perversion of policy, amplifications with which ribald blasbut by a dereliction of principle. What phemy can enlarge upon this principle, is the account given of this selection ? to a perusal of that gentleman's speech it is this
on that occasion. So Mr. Maguire in “ The first publication of selections his controversy with Mr. Pope, saysby the Society comprised the whole “ Christ will not allow his children to book of Genesis, with the exception of use good food, when by the circumthose parts which all parents would re stances of the case, it might be confrain from putting into the hands of their verted into poison. Would you give children." Here, Sir, is not a submis- to a child food of an indigestible quasion to an error of Popish superstition, lity?". In short, Sir, this is a principle not a weak and criminal compromise which has been set forth and dilated on of truth with falsehood, but a plain by men of every grade and every class, dogma of Popery herself, a plain, direct from the schoolmaster to the pope, in and awful charge against the purity, the ranks of superstition, and from the and the perfection of the truth of the liberal to the atheist, in those of infieternal God. Such dogmas may be delity; but no man has ever yet vennovel in English people, but we are too tured to suppose, a Protestant Archwell accustomed to them in Ireland. bishop gravely to stand up and tell a Pro
The first in the ranks of impiety, testant nation, that in conjunction with who recently set forth a modification of the ministers of superstition, he had this principle, was Dr. Doyle, who, in composed an expurgate edition of an his letters on the Bible Society, in 1825, inspired book of God, " omitting those says
parts which all parents would refrain “Some person in Waterford, quoted from putting into the hands of their chil. with religious horror the saying of a dren.” That is, Sir, in plain English, priest “that the Bible would play the that the Bible is a book unfit for our devil with them,” meaning the children, children, and that these parents-these yet the priest thought rightly, though worms of the dust, are wiser than the he expressed himself in the Irish man- God and Father of lights, whose wis. ner, putting the wrong end of the senti- dom inspired, and whose merey gave ment foremost. The Scriptures would his Sacred book to be "a lantern to not play the devil with the children, our feet and a light to our paths," to but the devil would play his pranks guide us to salvation from the cradle to with the children by means of the Scrip- the grave. tures!!"-See Letlers of J. K. L. What, Sir !—Is it that very portion
This was followed by a worthy pupil of God's holy Word which his own of such a master, Mr. Sheil, who in the authoritative command ordains that we attack which he and Mr. O'Connell “should teach them diligently unto ou commenced upon the London Hiber- children ?” that we should - teach them nian Society, declares it as the dogma to our sons, and our sons' sons," that of his Church, that “the Bible is not fit " children which have not known anything for the unassisted perusal of every shoe- may hear and learn to fear the Lord less urchin, and that we should not make their God, as long as they live." Is this a primer of the Word of God," and in that Word which we are now to learn