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untrimmed whiskers : such men as eat English, who did not give us credit for heavy breakfasts of toast and butter. the clearest or coolest heads in the Then there is O'Connell's band of Irish, world, had still no small spice of res. with an odd mixture of shyness, con- pect mingled even with the ridicule, ceit, and doggedness in their appear- which when out of presence, or on
These gentry, 'bating two or the other side of Tallaght Hill," as one three, have gained no credit for Irish- might say in Dublin, they loved to inmen in general, with any class that I dulge in! They expected, when they have discoursed with here. As a na saw Irishmen, that they would find tion we have decidedly lost Kudos by the realized the energetic description of the exhibition of O'Connell's tail. The Poet
“ And you'll see dashers, and tearing smashers,
Ready to face ould Belzebub,
Person whom you'd desire to drub.” But the “ tail" are reasoners, and ex. quence is, that they are a leetle con postulators (God save the mark,) and temptuously looked upon. And now have learned statistics, of which they farewell till I write again. I avait a make the most extraordinary hash; and letter from you, with news from the old they interfere in English questions, and people and the young at your suburban in short play the fool most egregiously, castle. without combining with their folly the Ever your's affectionately, slightest particle of fun, and without showing fight, as of old. The conse
A MEMOIR OF THE LIFE AND PHILOSOPHY OF
By ANDREW CARMICHAEL, M.R.I.A.
We love and admire Andrew Car The publication before us is a paper michael. We love him for his worth, that was read before the Dublin Phrehis benignity, his gentleness, his honest nological Society, containing some acdevotion to what he believes to be count of the Life and the Philosophy truth. We admire him, because of his of the late Dr. Spurzheim, of whom varied learning, and his rare and ex Mr. Carmichal was a steadfast disciple tensive intellectual powers and attain and an enthusiastic admirer. This may, ments. But we do not think that his in itself, furnish a theme for contempsystems, either philosophical or theolo- tuous ridicule; and it would be as easy, gical, are sound: or even that he is the perhaps, for us as for others, to purbest expounder of his own opinions. chase a little ephemeral reputation at While, therefore, we may find it neces no greater cost than the expenditure of sary to differ from our excellent friend some half dozen sarcastic jokes upon upon many points that have been the superficiality of the new theory of touched upon in the little tract of which mind. But such is not our bent at prewe are about to give a brief analysis, sent. Whether founded in truth or in we are much mistaken if we do not do error, it has been adopted by indivihis subject more justice than he has duals, far too respectable, both as men done it himself.
and as writers, to permit us, for a mo
ment, to treat them with curtness or Gall originated his new theory, was not contumely; and, without committing such as to discourage an adventurous ourselves as the advocates of the new mind from seeking for some more satissystem, we are desirous of candidly factory mode of accounting for intellecdiscussing its merits, and of laying be- tual phenomena than philosophers had fore our readers, in a spirit of perfect at that time devised. "It may be truly fairness, what has been advanced by its affirmed that no two of the leading friends, or objected by its enemies. doctors who were eminent in that de
Of the science of phrenology the partment of learning, could be said to be late Dr. Gall must be considered the entirely agreed amongst themselves; nor founder. It was enlarged, illustrated, was it to be deemed extraordinary that and defended by his able and laborious an individual should arise, who should pupil and coadjutor, Dr. Spurzheim, differ from them all with as little cereby whom the knowledge of it was first mony as as they differed from each introduced into these countries, and
other. Each might be said to have whose life was devoted to the propaga- protested, in some one particular, against tion of a doctrine which he believed to be the infallibility of every other; and intimately connected with the progres- Gall did no more than protest against sion and happiness of the human spe- the infallibility of all, and appeal from cies. Of his early history Mr. Car
the dicta of the schools, to nature and michael has the following brief notice to observation, for the truth of his pe
“ Thom Gasper Spurzheim was born culiar views, by which, as he conceivon the 31st December 1776, at Longuick, ed, more light was thrown upon near Treves, on the Moselle, between the human understanding, than by sixty and seventy English miles from its any other theory with which he was confluence with the Rhine, at Coblentz. acquainted. It is stated in recent public journals, that We differ from our excellent friend his father was a farmer, and educated him Mr. Carmichael, respecting the intelfor the clerical profession. He acquired lectual powers of Gall and Spurzheim; the first rudiments of Greek and Latin and any value which we are disposed in his native village; to which he added to set upon their theory, arises, he Hebrew at the University of Treves will be surprised to learn, from the where he matriculated in 1791, in his comparatively very humble estimate fifteenth year, and where he also entered which we have formed of their capacity upon the study of divinity and philosophy, and attainments. The first was led to of both of which, in his riper years, he the adoption of the leading principle was a consummate master
. `In 1792, the which forms the basis of phrenology, republican armies of France overran the less by design than accident. It was South of Germany, and seized upon Treves. Spurzheim retired to Vienna,
more a result of observation than of where he was received into the family of reflection; and the latter merely folCount Splangen, who entrusted to him lowed out the lucky thought of his prethe education of his sons."
cursor, while he brought to the proseWhen he arrived at Vienna, Gall was
cutor of his discovery a larger share lecturing upon the new system. He of sagacity, and a greater power of attended him as a student, and soon
generalization. If, therefore, such men became convinced of the soundness of have hit upon a theory which affords a the principles upon which phrenology fuller and a juster explanation
of all was founded. That the brain is, in moral and mental phenomena, whether some way or other, connected with the emotional, cogitative, or perceptive, process of thought, we have a kind of than any that has been invented either instinctive evidence; and there seems
before or since, there is a kind of evinothing startling or contradictory in dence in its favour, arising out of the the notion, that its different
intellectual deficiencies of Gall and compart
very ments may be allocated to the develop- Spurzheim, which confers upon it, in 'ment of the various modifications of our eyes, a value not belonging to any the thinking principle; even as the other, where great power of mind has eye has been appropriated to the re
been exhibited in an endeavour to make ception of the ideas of colour, and the phenomena agree with preconceived ear to those of sound.
principles, instead of basing principles Unquestionably, the state of meta- upon an observation of facts.
Had Gall or Spurzheim been capaphysical science, at the period when
ble of originating as a theory, what they ted organs of different specific memories, may be said to have discovered as a and of separate feelings. system, it would, to our minds, come " Such,” says Mr. Carmichael, “ was before the public in a much more sus- the physiological state of the science, picious character than it does at present. when Spurzheim became a convert to its Its very plausibility would, in such a doctrines, in his twenty-third year. Gall case, cause it to be regarded with great was sensible that physiognominical meaus distrust. But, when they were led alone were not sufficient to discover the from facts to observations, from obser- physiology of the brain, and that anatomy vation to principles, and from principles was a necessary coadjutor. He was conto asystem, without in the first instance, firmed in this opinion by observing a poor having any other object in view than to
woman affected with hydrocephalus, who, follow nature wherever she led, the sys- tinued to possess an active and intelligent
though reduced to great weakness, contem, whatever it is, at which they have arrived, is clear of all imputation of mind. After her death four pounds of having been the result of that love of water were found in her head; the brain
was much distended, but not destroyed ar theory by which, upon metaphysical dissolved; he therefore concluded that subjects, the human intellect has been the structure of this organ must be very so bewildered; and, if that system different from what it was commonly supshould afford a more simple and natural
posed to be.” account of the passions, propensities, This opinion was confirmed by a and intellectual operations than any more careful dissection. The brain was other, the less ground we have for sup- found to consist, not, as was supposed, posing that it was ingeniously contrived, of a pulpy substance without disthe less hesitation we can have in ad- tinction of compartments, but of a conmitting that it must have a foundation geries of organised parts, correspond, in nature.
ing, accurately, to the physiognominical We are therefore of opinion that developments as exhibited in the craMr. Carmichael, in doing what appears nium. This was à most important imto us more than justice to the intellec- provement in anatomy, and has, we tual powers of Gall and Spurzheim, has believe, been universally acknowledged done less than justice to phrenology. as such by the
faculty ; nor is it denied In seeking to magnify the men, he has, or undervalued even by those who are in a certain degree, depreciated the by no means converts to the doctrines system, which stands, if it stand at all, of phrenology, and who set but very as a science built upon observation of little value upon the other labours of its facts, which would lose all their value founders. if they could be supposed to have been sought out by theorists for the support cal studies before he united with Gall,
Spurzheim had terminated his mediof their peculiar views. It makes all and was therefore enabled to devote the difference in the world, whether all his time and intelligence to his new the system arises out of the facts, or, pursuit. Phrenology was, at this pel the facts are arranged with reference to riod, a chaos, a shapeless mass of facts the exigencies of the system.
and observations,“ rudis indigestaque Gall's first course of private lectures moles.” It is perfectly clear that it were delivered in 1796, and that, even was not the result of any theorising in 1800, when Spurzheim first attended spirit
, which would, at least, have given him, his notions of the science, of which he may be considered the founder, and doctrines ; and we cannot but re
a unity and consistency to its views were extremely vague and inaccurate, gard with considerable interest, the is manifest from the following passage, progress by which it assumed its prewhich Mr. Carmichael quotes from sent form. The first important step Spurzheim's notes to Chenevix's pam- towards methodical and systematic arphlet on phrenology.
rangement is thus described in the me * He then spoke of the brain as moir. Gall and Spurzheim, Mr. Car the general organ of the mind - michael tells us, of the necessity of considering the brain “ Observed that those who possessed a as divided into different organs—and of peculiar memory were gratified in exertthe possibility of determining those or- ing it, and felt a pleasure in pursuing the gans by the development of different objects connected with it. Those enparts of the brain, exhibited in the exter- dowed with a verbal memory, had a ul contiguratiou of the head.” He admit- strong propensity to exercise it in recita
tion, or in the study of languages; while could not remember a note of music, those who were remarkable for a local will be able to report, with an almost memory, entertained a similar inclination verbal accuracy, the whole of a long to visit a variety of places, and observe debate, while he who could repeat the and compare the diversified relations of tune with such marvellous correctness, sensible space ; and so of the memory of will be unable to convey to a third persons, times, and facts, &c. It there- person an intelligible notion of what fore naturally occurred to their under, had been said by any one of the standings that the organs of the mind
Speakers. The best account which are very different from those supposed by
can be given of this, upon any of the philosophers, from Aristotle down to Lock, Reid, and Stewart ; and that there attends to the music with peculiar in
old hypothesis, is, that the one man is not a general perception which takes cognizance of all sensations—a general tention to the debate ; and that the
tenseness, while he pays but little atmemory which retains the recollection of names, numbers, places, times, facts, and other, “ vice versa,” attends to the deevery kind of object—a general imagina- Thus it is that facts are made to square
bate, while he neglects the music. tion which combines them in new forms, and a general judgment which compares
with theory. But we utterly disbelieve and ascertains their differences ; but that that any attention could have made the the organ of language, the organ of space, musician a good reporter, or the reporter
We are not at all the organ of number, the organ of music, a good musician. are gifted, at once, with their own' sepa- disposed to undervalue the degree in rate and distinct perception, memory, which the faculties may be improved imagination and judgment, and actuated by skillful training. We speak now of by a propensity to exercise their respect à natural aptitude which some men ive faculties upon their appropriate ob have for some things, and other men jects. They, therefore, were led to be- for other things ; and which exists, keve that each organ was devoted to a and is manifested previously to any par. special purpose, not hitherto imagined by ticular training. Of this, the received philosophers; and, in subserviency to that philosophy of mind gives no account purpose, was separately endowed with that to us appears intelligible ; and all the faculties, which, till now, were there are many who deny that there is ascribed to the understanding at large.” any such natural aptitude, whose love
Whatever may be the ultimate judg- of theory, blinds them to a fact that is ment to which the world will come, obvious to the most cursory observarespecting the soundness of this view tion. Gall and Spurzheim admit the of the nature of the human faculties, fact, and explain it in a manner that there are few who will deny that it appears to us to confer no small deaffords a more complete and ready so gree of plausibility upon their peculiar lution of many facts connected with system. them, than any other theory which has Of the received philosophy, Lock's, been as yet proposed. How else can for instance, it may be generally obwe account for the extraordinary power served, that it makes all intellectual which horses possess of remembering phenomena exteriorate. Lock's theory and distinguishing places ; that dogs is, that all ideas are derived from senseem to possess of remembering and sation and reflection ;-or rather, indistinguishing scents? How else are deed from sensation alone ; for reflecwe to account for the prodigious pow- tion only works up, as it were, the raw er of memory exhibited by individuals materials which have been received of the human species upon some sub- through the inlets of the external senjects, while upon others, they seem de It were needless to remark, that ficient in that faculty to a degree that this great man has exhibited prodigious is equally extraordinary? Let two ability in support of this theory; for men enter a concert room, and hear a it could not have so extensively prepiece of music: one will be able to vailed, and continue to this hour to be carry away with him almost the whole received with so much respect, if his of a long, difficult, and complicated powerful mind had not conferred upon composition; the other will not re it a plausibility which is certainly not member a single note. Let the same to be found in its correspondence with men pass from the concert room to the facts. But although his treatise still House of Commons, and the man who holds its place in our schools, it is, we
believe, by no one whose opinion is en mind exerted to construct a specious titled to any considerable weight, re- and captivating theory, out of a slenceived with the same implicit reve- der scantling of verisimilitudes ;-on rence, with which, by the by-gone ge- the other hand, we have very modeneration, it was regarded. His gene- rate abilities crowned with much more ral mode of proof is, to take ideas, complete success, simply because they apparently, the most remote from sen- rejected theory, and confined thensation, and endeavour to shew, that selves to an observation of the procesthey may be resolved into simple ele ses of nature. ments, which were all originally de « Gall,” says Mr. Carmichael, « bad rived therefrom. We will not here been led to the discovery of all the orenter into any analysis of what he says gans he had yet ascertained, by observ. of the ideas of infinity, eternity, im- ing the actions of individuals, and attendmensity, because we have no wish to ing to their mental operations in a state hide our heads in the clouds of theory, of activity ; such, for example, as the faand our view in writing this paper cility in recollecting and repeating whatmay be answered without encumbering ever series of words had been committed our pages with any matter that may
to memory-skill in the mechanical arts, not be intelligible to the simplest designing and music--the exercise of me reader. We will therefore have re
mory in respect of places, persons, nuncourse to that class of ideas of which bers, events, and phenomena—the proany one may form a distinct concep- after knowledge, to compare the analo
pensity to travel, to calculate, to search tion. Let us take, for instance, the gies of things,
to ascend to causes, to de idea of benevolence. What is that, scend to effects. These several faculties, according to Locke ?, Why, he will during their activity and manifestation in tell us, it is a complex idea, formed so individuals, betrayed, one after another, and so ; and he will consider that he the seat of their respective organs. It has fully satisfied the enquiry, when he was, therefore, not surprising, that Gall, shews, that it is composed of simple when he abandoned the beaten track of ideas, which have been all derived the schools, after an irksome and unpro from sensation and reflection. But fitable search for general organs of meeven if we grant that, as far as the idea mory, judgment, and imagination, should goes, this explanation is good, what seize with eagerness the conjecture, that light does it throw upon the feeling of every class of actions might have an approbenevolence ? Does it throw upon it priate organ in the brain. In considering, any light at all ? Does it not, on the therefore, the most striking and energetic contrary, treat it as though it never actions of men, he noticed rapine, murder, existed? And what sort of a theory lust be observed benevolence, justice, of mind must that be, which does not piety-unshaken firmness, and hesitating even attempt an explication of by far caution--pride wrapped in its own opinithe most important and interesting on, ambition wrapped in the opinions of class of mental phenomena ? Yea,
others-cunning that succeeds in the dark which, in point of fact leaves them „violence, courage, and magnanimity, more inexplicable than they were be- that disdain any but an open triumph. fore? For if, as Locke would have
He visited the prisons, the hospitals, the us believe, the idea altogether exterior- schools
, and the churches of Vienna; and ates, one of the uses, at least, of the he found organs which he did not hesitate
to name as the organs of theft, murder, emotion is done away; and we are so far less able to perceive the purpose He considered the actions of men, whe
and cunning, benevolence, and religion. for which it has been implanted in us by Providence. Upon this subject, from the organization they received from
ther good or evil, as necessarily flowing phrenology, even as a mere theory, has nature, without adverting to the primidecidedly the advantage of the re
tive power their organs were destined to ceived philosophy. Gall and Spurz- exercise in a healthy and unvitiated state. heim refer to an organ of benevolence.' But as no man is a universal genius, it was They give such an account of the emo-' here his philosophy was eclipsed by that of tion as explains the idea ; while Lock his coadjutor. Spurzheim had the merit gives such an account of the idea, as of pointing out the primitive powers of leaves the emotion even more myste- the different organs, and discriminating rious than he found it. On the one between the institutions of God, and the hand, we have very great powers of abuses of these institutions."