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Kara Korourm Padichah, which takes vicinity of the ocean, where we finds a north-westerly direction, consequent- as a prolongation of the chain, an ly to the north of Ladak, towards the island (Formosa) whose mountains are Thsoung ling; the snowy mountains of covered with snow during the greater Hor (#hor) and of Zzang which part of summer, which indicates an thread to the east. Those of Hor, at elevation of at least 1,900 toises. Thus their north-western extremity, join the the system of Himma-leh may be Kuen-lun, and in the east take the di- followed as a continuous chain, from rection of the Tengri noor (lake of the Eastern Ocean, by the Hindou heaven). The Zzang, more southerly Khoosh across Kandahar and Khorasthan the chain of Hor, borders the san, lastly, to beyond the Caspian Sea long valley of Zzangbo, and goes from into the Adzerbardgan, in an extent of the west to the east, towards the Nien seventythree degrees of longitude, the tsin tangla gangri, a very high summit half of that of the Andes. The weswhich, between H' lassa and lake Ten- tern extremity, which is volcanic,f and gri noor (improperly called Terkiri), covered with snow at the Demavend, terminates at the mountain Nomchoun loses the particular characters of the oubachi.• Between the meridians of chain in the knot of mountains of Gorkha Katmandhu and H 'lassa, the Armenia, which attach themselves to Himma-leh sends to the north towards the Sangalou, to Bingheul and to the right bank or southern border of Kachmir-dagh, with the lofty summita the valley of Zzangbo several branches of the Pachalik of Erzeroum. The covered with perpetual snow. The mean direction of the system of the highest is the Yarla Chamboi gangri, Himma-leh is to the north 55° west. of which the name in Thibetian signi Such are the principal geographical fies the snowy mountain in the country results of the researches of De Humof God, existing by itself. This sum- boldt and his companions into the intemit is to the east of lake Yamrouk rior of Asia. The remainder which ap. Youmdzo, which is called on the maps pertain chiefly to natural history and Paltét, and which resembles a ring, chemistry, are yet to be published, with from the presence of an island which the exception of two excellent memoirs
, fills up almost its whole extent. the one on the occurrence of the Felis De Humboldt traces the system of pardus (Cuv.) in the
uplands of Asia, the the Himma-leh far beyond the English other on the geographical distribution of territory in Hindoostan by means of Infusory animals, by Professor Ehren, the writings of the Chinese collected berg, and which has made us acquainted by Klaproth. It borders Assam to with some curious facts regarding their the north, contains the sources of the dependent existence which these ani. Brahmapoutra, passes by the northern mated corpuscules, so low in the scale of part of Ava, and penetrates into the creation, preserve under diferent clie Yun-nan, a province of China; it ex mates and local circumstances. The dishibits to the west of Young tchang coveriesandconsiderations which belong sharp and snowy summits. It turns more immediately to physical geograabruptly to the north-east on the bor-' phy and to geology, embody some very ders of the Hon Kouang, of the Kiang important facts, among which we may Si, and of the Fou Kian, and it ad particularly notice the existence of vol vances with snowy summits into the canic agency in the central mountain
• Klaproth, Memoires relatifs a l' Asie. T. M. p. 291.
+ Probably from a mistake caused by the name of Peiti, situated a little to the north. D'Anville Atlas of China. ---Humb. The town is called in Thibetian Bhaldhi; the Chinese have altered this to Peiti or Peti; there can be no doubt but that the denomination of Palte, which is given to the neighbouring lake is derived from Bhaldhi.-Klap.
+ The eastern part of this chain where it terminates at the island of Formosa, is equally volcanic. Mount Ichy-kang (the red chain) to the south of Fung-chan bisa in that island, formerly poured out fames, and there is still a lake there whose water
chain and plains of the old world, and (pipe veins) in veins, in isolated or inthe vast extent which barometrical tersecting beds, (Stockwerke) and in measurement have now given to the the altered rock which neighbours the great depression in thesouth-west of the metalliferous chinks; with earthquakes,
same continent-circumstances which whose effects are not always simply * brought into the direct relation in which dynamic, but which are sometimes ac
they stand with regard to the philoso- companied by the chemical phenomena 'phical views of the origin of the con- of the development of irrespirable gas, i trasted configurations of the earth's smoke and luminous appearances ; i surface, to which geology has given lastly, with the upraising either instan
birth, tend at once to give magnitude taneous or very slow, and, only perto these deductions, to confirm them in ceived after a long period of time, of
their application to existing phenomena, some parts of the surface of the globe. i and to improve our knowledge of the This intimate connexion between so physical history of the globe.
many different phenomena--this mode Active volcanoes De Humboldt re- of viewing volcanic action, as the acgards as the effect of a permanent tion of the interior of the globe, on its communication between the interior of external crust, or the solid beds which the earth in fusion and the atmosphere envelope it, has in the present day which envelopes the hardened and thrown light upon geognostical and oxidated crust of the planet. Beds of physical problems, which had hitherto lava which issue forth like intermittent appeared inexplicable. The analogy springs of liquified earth, and their of well-observed facts, the rigorous exsuccessive layers, appear to repeat on amination of phenomena, which take a small scale before our eyes the for- place before our eyes, in the different mation of crytalline rocks of different regions of the earth, begin to lead, us ages. Upon the crest of the Cor, progressively to guess (not by noting dilleras of the New World, as in the all the conditions, but by contemplatsouth of Europe and in the west of ing the general modifications) what Asia, an intimate relation may be seen took place at those distant periods
to manifest itself between the chemical which preceded historical times, Vol. it
action of volcanoes, properly so called, canicity, that is to say, the influence and those which produce rocks, because which the interior of a planet exerts on their form and their position, that is to its external crust, in the different stages say, the minimum elevation of their of refrigeration, caused by the difsummit, or crater, and the minimum ference of aggregation (of Auidity and thickness of their flanks (not strengthen- of solidity) of the matters which comed by table lands) allow of the issue of pose it, this action from within to earthy matters in fusion, with the without, is at the present time much salses or mud volcanoes of South diminished-restrained to a few points America, of Italy, of Taurida, and of -intermittent-less often changing the Caspian Sea, first throwing out its place—much simplified in its chemiboulders (large masses of rock) fames cal effects, only producing rocks around and acid vapours; in another stage, little circular openings, or upon longituand one which has mostly been the dinal fissures of little extent, and only subject of descriptions pouring out showing its power at great distances mud and clay, naptha, and irrespirable dynamically in shaking the crust of gases (hydrogen mixed with carbonic our planet in linear directions, or in acid and very pure nitrogen.) The circles of simultaneous oscillations action of volcanoes, properly so called, which remain the same during a great manifests the same relation with the number of ages. In times which presometimes slow and occasionally rapid ceded the existence of the human race, formation of beds of gypsum and of an the action of the interior of the globe hydrous rock-salt, containing petroleum, upon the solid crust, which was increascondensed hydrogen, sulphuret of iron, ing in volume, has caused the tempeand sometimes (at the Rio-Huallaga, rature of the atmosphere to be modito the end of the Andes of Peru) con- fied and rendered the whole globe siderable masses of galena, with the habitable to productions which may be origin of thermal springs, with the looked upon as tropical, since by the grouping of metals deposited at dif- effect of radiation and of the cooling ferent periods from below upwards of the surface, the relations of the posiVOL. I.
tion of the earth with a central body in the low regions of Kama and the (the sun) have begun to determine Irtyche) mingled on the back of the almost exclusively the diversity of chain in the table lands between Beregeographical latitudes.
zovok and lekaterinbourg, with transIt is also in these primitive times ported deposits, rich in gold, diamonds, that the elastic fluids, the volcanic and platinum. It is further in testiforces of the interior perhaps more mony of this subterranean action of powerful, and making themselves more elastic fluids which upraise continents, easily a passage through the oxidated domes, and chains of mountains, which and solidified crust, have broken that displace rocks and the organic remains crust, and have injected, not only in which they contain, which form emiveins (dykes) but in masses very irre- nences and hollows when the vault gular in form, matters of a great den- gives way or falls in ; that we can consity (ferruginous basalts, melaphyres,and sider that great depression of the west metallic deposits) matters which have of Asia, of which the surface of the introduced themselves after the solidi- Caspian Sea and of lake Aral forms fication and Aattening of the earth had the lowest part, 50 and 32 toises be taken place. The acceleration which neath the level of the ocean, but which the oscillations of the pendulum under- extends, as shewn by the new barome go on several points of the earth often trical measurement made by Messrs
. offer from this geognostical cause de- Humboldt, Hofmann, Heffmersen, and ceitful appearances of an increase of Gustavus Rose, in the interior of the elipticity greater than what results from country as far as Saratov and Orenthe union of trigonometrical measure-bourg upon Jaik, apparently also to the ments and the theory of lunar inequali- south-east to the lower part of the course ties. The epoch of the great geognose of the Sihoun (Jaxartes) and of the tic revolutions has been when the com- Amouf (Djiboun, Oxus of the antients). munications of the Auid interior of our This depression of a considerable porplanet and its atmosphere were most tion of Asia ; this lowering of a contifrequent, and acted upon a greater nental mass of more three hundred feet number of points where the tendency to below the surface of the waters of the establish these communications caused ocean in their mean state of equilibrito be elevated at different ages and in um has not hitherto been considered in different modes (apparently determined all its importance, because we were by the diversity of these epochs) upon ignorant of the extent of the phenolong fissures, cordilleras as those of the menon of depression which was preHimma-leh and the Andes, chains of sented in a slight degree in some of the mountains of a lesser elevation and littoral countries of Europe and of those ridges or crests whose varied Egypt. The formation of this great undulations embellish the landscape of concavity in the surface of the northour plains. It is as if in testimony of west of Asia appears to De Humboldt these elevations, and marking (accord- to be in intimate relation with the ing to the extended and ingenious views upraising of the mountains of the of M. Elie de Beaumont) the relative Cancasus, of Hindou-kho, and of the age of mountains that De Humboldt upland of Persia, which border the mentions the occurrence in the Andes, Caspian Sea and the Maveralnahar to of the New World at Cundinamarca, the south, perhaps also more to the of extensive formations of stone stretch- east, with the upraising of the great ing from the plains of Magdalena and plain, which is designated by the very of Meta almost without interruption vague and incorrect term of the upland upon table lands from fourteen to six- of Upper Asia; and lastly this concateen hundred toises in height, and still vity of the antient world is proved from more recently in the north of Asia, in the facts collected by De Humboldt og the chain of the Ural, the same bones the frontiers of Chinese Dzoungaria of antideluvian anmals (so celebrated between the forts of Oustkamenogorsk
The extent of this depression may be about 18,000 leagues, and this vast region includes populous cities and immense commercial establishments. Arago has discussed its connexion with cometary influences.--Notices Scientifiques. Des Cometes es General. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes, 1832.
of Boukhtarminsk and Khoni-mailak- of craters (pays cratère) and the seat of hou,* a Chinese post to the north of volcanic action as are on the lunar surDzaisang, on the line of the Cossacks face Hipparchus, Archimedes, and of the step of the Kerghese,f and on Ptolemy, which are more than seventy the borders of the Caspian Sea, com- miles in diameter, and which may pared with what had already been made rather be compared to Bohemia than known to us by the researches of Abel to our cones and the craters of our Remusat, and Klaproth, to be a country volcanoes.
• In Kirghese this advance post of the Chinese on the Irtyche is called Kochtouba, | Strictly the step of Khazak or Kaizak.
Sing to me of the days that are gone
Sing of those days to me!
Sing of those hours to me.
Then change thy song to a sadden'd strain,
Sing of those days no more!
THE DEATH OF SCHOMBERG.*
[It is said that many a sea-fight was won by Dibdin—The excellence of his songs is indisputable, and it is certain that where all the orations and arguments that could be applied have failed to mine deep enough into the heart to reach the latent vein of courage, a national song has brought the latent ore to light. The aptients were well aware of their efficacy; and though one ingredient in such a composition was frequently wanting, I mean the simplicity that adapts itself to every ear, yet in one of the most admired of them, this quality is displayed in a rare degree -I mean the hymn of Callistratus to Harmodius and Aristogiton, “E, pugtoõ xaada," &c.—a composition matchless in its kind, and to which no translation that I have ever seen, not even that spirited one by Mr. Denman, published in Bland's anthology, and lauded by Lord Byron, does justice. Perhaps Sir William Jones's imitation has more of the spirit of the original than any translation. Burns in Scotland, the aforesaid Dibdin, and others in England, and Moore in Ireland, have by means of such effusions, roused the latent energies of thousands— Would that the spirit called by the latter bard from the “vasty deep" of political ferment had been one to whose stirring influence we could have safely confided ourselves! As it is, let us not be behind-hand - We can boast of bards, as well as patriots amongst us, and have a field at least as wide, and as thickly strewn with the flowers of poetry as the most republican or Italian of our opponents
. I need scarcely say, that I'step forward into the untenanted ground merely to plant the standard of England upon it, and to occupy it till the strength of our ranks shall have made it securely ours--I am the point of the wedge, the narrowest part, though the first applied, and I serve but to open the way for others. At this juncture for Protestant, for British Ireland, every power, even the most inconsiderable, should be applied, and brought to bear in concert upon its enemies.
I should add, that I have given to the following song, (if song that can be called to which no tune is appropriated) an easy measure, so that it may be readily adapted to some popular air—perhaps “ The Boyne water" might do.]
'Twas on the day when kings did fight
Beside the Boyne's dark water,
And earth was red with slaughter.
That morn an aged chieftain stood
Apart from mustering bands,
Surveyed broad Erin's lands
His hand upon his sword-hilt leant,
His war-horse stood beside,
Across the rolling tide.
“ Frederick Schonberg, or Schomberg, first developed his warlike talents under the command of Henry and William II. of Orange; afterwards obtained several victories over the Spaniards; reinstated on the throne the House of Braganza ; defeated in England the last hopes of the Stuarts, and finally died at the advanced age of eighty-two, at the battle of the Boyne, in 1690.”