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system of combination, which is of under the idea that when matters come late so general among them, enables to the worst, England will be obliged to them to prevent the possibility of any interfere and afford them and " The stranger, or otherwise obnoxious person Settlement” of property that protection getting possession of the land, and the which they stand in need of. They landlord, in his own utter ignorance of see no necessity for encouraging loythe true character of the applicants, ac- alty or religion, no necessity for a mocepts that character, whether black or derate rental, no necessity for impartfair, just as their stewards or drivers are ing comfort or civilization to the people, pleased to say. These men, owing to they see no necessity for any sacrifice our radically vicious system, have it of trouble or of rent or of anything always in their power to darken and else, on their part, to secure that problacken the character of a Protestant, tection which they conceive England, and to exalt the character of perhaps for her own sake, must always afford the most insidious and disaffected indi- them. They look for protection, not in vidual in the neighbourhood. God the affections or respect of their tenantry, knoweth how often and how fearfully but in the supposed interests of England. they have exerted this power with The only palliation for their conduct is effect!

to be found in the peculiar circumstanSuch are the two chiefly-effective ces of their estates, which are so encauses that have led the Protestants of encumbered with debts arising out of Ireland to emigrate. They have been the extravagance of their fathers and neglected by the landlords, and perse. themselves, that at least one-half of the cuted by the Popish population.— rental goes annually to liquidate them, There are, without question, many so that in their desire to maintain the other causes, all assisting in the pro- supposed importance of the family name motion of the same end, the modern they are necessitated to set their lands liberalism of the government, the con- far beyond their reasonable value. It cessions made to the Papists, the break- is thus the Protestants are found to ing down of the linen trade, and a emigrate, it is thus the lands are got laudable desire to improve their con- into the possession of the disaffected, dition, all lead them to emigrate, but the and it is thus the landlords look to two causes already noticed, are those England to give them powers to coerce which are the grand and chief mo- the people; they people their estates, tives which influence the mass of the (aftér removing the loyal Protestants, emigrants. They feel themselves neg- with an ill-affected tenuntry, and then call lected—unprotected—unfriended; and on the Government to protect them from while they are broken in fortunes, that very class of tenantry which they they are all but broken in spirit. themselves are encouraging? That there

It is passing strange, that the pro- are some bright and illustrious exeepprietary should thus treat that popula- tions among our proprietors is as certion which has, through good report tain as the shining of the sun ; but and through evil report, invariably those bright exceptions only serve to supported their interests, and their con- point out more plainly the desolation duct can only be accounted for, on the which others have created. For ourprinciple already noticed, at the com- selves we have no hesitation in saying mencement of this paper. They have that in these times, when new questions adopted the opinion that England will are mooted daily in a spirit of change, protect them in their estates, and they there is no security for the property of see no use in protecting themselves or the country, no pledge for the allegitheir properties, inasmuch as they con ance of this island, no peace for her ceive it will always be the interest of inhabitants of any class, unless in the England to give them the protection encouragement of a Protestant poputhey require. When they see danger lation ; and we must confess that our in the expulsion and emigration of Pro- forebodings are so far melancholy as to testants, and in the increase and loca- incline to the opinion that it is now too tion of Papists, and that it is the fac- late for even that remedy at present. tious priests and seditious leaders who Thus is the history of the lower possess the whole influence over that orders of the Irish Protestants a history increasing body, they admit the great- of suffering affliction” and of emigraness of the evil, but console themselves tion! They came here two centuries

ago, and many of them not half a cen- this glorious end chiefly by the emigratury ago, as emigrants from England tion of Protestants from these islands, and Scotland : they have been “stran- so we may imagine that He designs to gers and pilgrimos” in the land, and it carry on this glorious work, and, as we may be said of their sojourn in this have witnessed a new spirit of Chrisisland, as of the Patriarch of old, that tian knowledge, and zeal, and piety “ few and evil have been the days of raised up among the Protestants of Iretheir pilgrimage." They are now anew land, so we may conjecture that they loosened from the sails of their fathers' may be designed to be the honoured adoption, and breathing their sad and instruments of carrying the knowledge bitter farewel to the green and sunny of His ways, and raising the standard hills of their land—they have become of His salvation in the unpeopled and emigrants again. It is a destiny which endless tracts of the American world. is passing strange, and as melan- The roses of Sharon will bloom in the choly and interesting as it is strange; wide Savannah, and the flowers of but let us bow in meekness before Him Carmel blossom in the transatlantic who rules the destiny of nations, and forest, and perfect civilization and true who hath his own purpose in that which religion make their dwelling in that he has appointed unto us. We must land of emigrants ! As for the land not presume to fathom the deep pur- they leave—this doomed land, weeping poses of His will; but as we have seen with her thousand sorrows—there Him already cradle into maturity and seems but little hope : she has not yet people a new world beyond the western passed through her sea of troubles, and wave, where His name is known and there seems nothing but “ blackness His truth is loved, and has affected and darkness" before her.

AGATHOCLES, A NOVEL, BY CAROLINE PICHLER. Reviewed and Translated by Herr Zander, Professor of German Literature.

Within the last fifty years Germany subdued, is never tame, and is always has produced a number of excellent graceful and pleasing Amongst her novels and romances, which, however, numerous writings none has met with hitherto are little known in this country, such a favourable reception and signal Whether it be the black-letter, or the success as Agathocles (3 vols. Vienna, eu, or the ch, or some other bugbear 1808.) This novel is brought before that has frightened the novel-reading the reader in the form of letters, a ladies, we cannot say ; but this we form which, though fatal to mediocrity, can assure them of, that if they could offers to the gifted author many adovercome these ill-founded prejudices vantages, as it is peculiarly qualified and a little apathy, they might find in for the developement of events and senthose black-letter-books a great many timents. Göthe in his Wilhelm Meister things well worth the trouble of a few (Vol. II. Book 5, chap. 7,) says, “ In months' study.

the novel it is chiefiy sentiments and Without further speculation, how- events that are exhibited ; in the ever, we beg in these pages to intro- drama, it is characters and deeds. duce to our readers a highly talented The novel must go slowly forward ; authoress, whose very name is hardly and the sentiments of the hero, by known in this country, though her some means or another, must restrain works amount at present to no less the tendency of the whole to unfold than forty-four volumes. Caroline Piche itself and to conclude. The drama, ler has for many years been a favourite on the other hand, must hasten, and the in Germany, and she derives her lite- character of the hero must press forward rary celebrity no less from the number, to the end ; it does not restrain, but than from the intrinsic merits of her is restrained. The novel-hcro must works. All her writings display a be suffering, at least he must not in a most amiable character, deep feeling, high degree be active , in the dramaclear understanding, and easy inven- tic one we look for activity and deeds. tion ; her style, though simple and Grandison, Clarissa, Pamela, the Vicar

of Wakefield, * Tom Jones himself, Italy and a part of Africa;—but Egypt are, if not suffering, at least retarding Thracia, and the Asiatic provinces personages, and the incidents are all Diocletian reserved to himself. Each in some sort modelled by their senti- of the four monarchs was independent ments. In the drama the hero models and unlimited in his own territory, nothing by himself,—all things with while their united authority extended stand him, and he clears and casts over the whole empire. away the hinderances from off his path, This is the canvass which Caroline or else sinks under them." These Pichler has selected for the tableatt words of the author of Werther and of her Agathocles; the historical events Wilhelm Meister have, on account of of those times are, however, kept their simplicity and conciseness, made merely in distant view, except the war no little impression, and seem to have against Narses, the persecutions of the exercised a salutary influence upon Christians and, once, also a piratical the genius of Caroline Pichler.

invasion of the Goths, which are The scene of her tale is laid prin- brought somewhat more into the futecipally in the Eternal City and the ground, or, if we may say so, intereastern dominions of the Roman Em- woven with the action of the novel. pire ; the time is from the year 300 to By the following letters and extracts 305, a period when Christianity had to we intended to enable our readers to suffer so many violent and horrible form an idea of the plot; we have, on persecutions. The rays which the this account, selected not the best religion of the cross shot at that time letters, but merely those which bear into the corruption of a deeply shaded more strictly upon that point, and for and contaminated age, have been ad- this reason, they may the easier pass mirably depicted in the characters of for a fair specimen of Madame Pichler's the manly, virtuous Agathocles, and the style :angelic sufferer Larissa.

Rome had then ceased to be the residence of the emperors. Diocle AGATHOCLES TO PHOCION." tian, from a slave, risen to be the chief of the Prætorians,—those janisaries of

Rome, January 301. old-had, after the death of Numerian, I am in Rome. That since a fortusurped the throne, and selected his night's sojourn here I have not yet countryman and fellow-warrior, Maxi- written, you will, I trust, excuse, from mian, to share it with him. They the novelty of the objects that surround divided the empire, so that the latter me, and their effect upon my mind. ! from Milan governed the west, whilst feel, however, that I neither have found Diocletian ruled the east, and fixed his here, nor shall find, that cheerfulness residence at Nicomedia, where he sur- and mirth which they expected in rounded his throne with Asiatic pomp Nicomedia. Moreover, Rome is

, perand splendour. Soon, however, two haps, of all places in the world that more co-regents were considered de- where I shall be least likely to recover. sirable ;

Maximian adopted Con- But am I really ill ? They imagine to, stantius Chlorus for his Cesar, Dio- because I cannot live like others around cletian conferred the same dignity me. Their perversity makes me ap, upon Galerius. After this, they divided pear eccentric—their follies, severe and the government of the vast empire insupportable ; not that I desire imthus : Constantius ruled Gaul, Spain, mense and impossible things, but that and Britain ; Galerius the banks of truth and virtue, discipline and morals the Danube and the Illyric provinces ; appear to them impossible,--that is the Maximian's dominion extended over real ground of our disagreeing. The

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It may not be without some interest to subjoin here the opinion Frederick Von Schlegel gives on the Vicar of Wakefield in bis History of Literature (11. 212) “ Of all romances in miniature,” he says, “ and, perhaps, this is the best shape in which romances can appear, the Vicar of Wakefield is, I think, the most exquisite." Upon this Lord Byron remarks in his diary he thinks?-he might be sure!"Moore's Byron.

age is sick, not he who with full know- to let them appear truly deserving of ledge of better times bygone, is bold esteem, Before supper, Piso introenough to call it so. How can I live duced me to his daughter. By the amongst these people!

gods! a charming creature! Report With the description of my journey had already drawn my attention to her, by land and water, I shall not trouble --still I found, in every regard, more you, out of regard for your time; it than I had expected. So much beauty, will suffice you to know, that I arrived so much inexpressible grace in form in the capital of the world in good and deportment, and so much levity bealth and with a cheerful and open and perversity of sentiment! The mind. The unrestrained enjoyment of daughter of one of the first houses of nature, the boundless sea, the liberty Rome, the descendant of such noble of leisure, had gladdened my heart, matrons, in the dress and attire of a and made it susceptible of every good Greek Hetaera, and, nevertheless, in impression. To you, the teacher of her words and actions perfect dignitymy youth, I may own, that a strange nobility of womanhood ! feeling overcame me when our vessel entered the mouth of the Tiber, To my father I have already writand soon was to appear before me ten twice-once from Corinth, by a the stage of all those grand and homebound vessel, and several days glorious scenes which from my ago also from Rome. The respect infancy had occupied my mind. which I owe to him as a son, I shall My soul glowed within me, my breast never violate wittingly. For the rest heaved higher. Thus I arrived at I can, unfortunately, do nothing of that Rome. From the height of the capi- which he wishes. I cannot live and tol, the manes of the illustrious ances. act like him, for I cannot think and tors seemed to be floating downward. feel like him, and the total change of All around was hallowed earth ;-eve a stedfast mind is not the work of

perrywhere memory, dignity, majesty. suasion or force. Circumstances, time, 'Í'hrough the crowded streets my guide and alluring might do something ; but conducted me to the house of our host, where the conviction of the right is so Lucius Piso. Many a monument of immovably grounded, as in my casevenerable antiquity, many an index to even from those nothing is to be feared bright moments of history, I passed by for me, nothing to be hoped for him. with high-beating heart, and the firm He has sent me away from Nicomedia intention shortly to visit them all. In to learn in other countries by experithe court a band of richly dressed ence, that my mode of thinking is fanslaves received us. I was shown into tastical, my requirements of the human the Atrium. The statues of the Piso- race eccentric, and my ideas of public nian house, many signal forms easily welfare absurd. I have obeyed bim. recognised by those versed in history, Let me own that this obedience costs were standing here. I first perceived me nothing; for there was a voice by the sun-dial in the court that I had within which told me, that father and been left to wait for a considerable son should not think thus of each other, time. At length a smart slave who and that, if they do so, they should not spoke Greek with peculiar elegance, live together. My views, however, made his appearance, and conducted will always remain the same ; Rome, me through many splendidly decorated at least, will work no change in them. apartments full of vases, paintings, sta- How disgusting this city with her intues, &c., to Lucius Piso. He is an habitants is to me, I am unable to tell excellent man, on the borders of old you. I readily agree with an opinion age, vigorous, intellectual, noble,—but which Tiridates (who is the only permuch nobler without the pomp which son with whom I can live and converse surrounds him, and veils and dimi- in this focus of vice and follies), lately nishes his intrinsic worth. The father advanced, that it is exactly the acute I was pleased with, less .so with the contrast of the past and the present so sons. They are young men, not quite strikingly exhibited in these despicable $0 devoid of accomplishments as most descendants of illustrious ancestors, others whom I have become acquainted which still more increases my antipawith here and at home ; but the colour thy. No, indeed, Phocion, my father of the age has tinged them

too strongly should not have sent me to Rome!


Nevertheless, I do not, upon the broke off all intercourse with the disa whole, dislike my sojourn here. I learn graced family. Larissa and I saw eacle much, gather experience,' see many a other only by stealth, and therefore monument of art and of better times, with the greater desire, across the and associate with many well informed hedges which separated our gardens, men. My hours are regularly divided At last, after a fourteen months' imbetween mental and bodily exercises, prisonment, by particular favour, it was enjoyment and labour. You know, I said, having been found guilty of a caonly require leisure and liberty to be pital offence, Timantias was banished contented. Contented !--more, man with his family, and his great pros cannot and should not desire. And is perty confiscated. Sisenna Statilius purnot, indeed, every one happy only as far chased his house at a trifling price, as he considers himself so ? If, never- and my father kept up the same theless, gloomy thoughts sometimes friendly terms with him, on which he rise in my soul, it is exercise for my had formerly been with Timantias, inner strength to combat them. Man I could not be persuaded to enter the is not born for fortune,--his destina- house again where the spirits of the tion is to be good. To goodness wis- expelled seemed to me to wander about dom leads, to wisdom independence of demanding vengeance. This obstinasy wants. That let us never forget, let of a youth of eighteen was one of the us keep to that, and then expect what- main sources of the continual disagree ever may happen to us, with courage- ment between me and my father. Eight ous mind and cheerful countenance.' years have elapsed, no trace of Timan

tias' fate has been found. Whether Larissa be happy, whether she be par

ried, or even whether she be still alive, Rome, Febr 301,

-however important these questions may seem to me,-nobody can answer

them. All inquiries I made, were “When I was a child, long before my fruitless. But still her memory lives father entrusted me to your guidance, in my breast, as the only bright point there dwelt next door to us Timantias, in my fate. And even that was to vas a noble Nicomedian, who filled one of nish! — Farewell.” the highest offices in the state. My father and he were friends, or at least, what usually is called so ; his children were our playmates. A delicate con

Rome, Febr. 501 stitution, the inheritance of my early departed mother, and my disposition "A high image in ethereal brightness prevented me from joining those wild is floating before my soul. Larissa sports in which my early deceased bro- appears to me frequently here in Rome thers, with Timantias' sons, exercised since I live about Calpurnia, --more their youthful strength. Larissa, Ti- frequently than before, --in wakiog, in mantias' daughter, on such occasions, dreaming,--and not in vain! By this: remained with me ; her mild soul found pure flame, every impure desire is dese a delight in not deserting me. We troyed, the will itself chastened, my played together, or, by the irresistible strength steeled. I have lost all hope.. power of kindness, she persuaded the of seeing her again; nevertheless, I can others also, to choose à less violent in some moments, not resist a fervent garne. Thus she cared for me, loved wish, a presentiment of future union me, and filled my heart with sweet This also, is one of the contradictions sentiments. We grew up, and our in- in my heart, which shame and torinent clination grew with us.

Then fate Am I then never to gain rest a« coldly and hostilely stept in between peace of mind? Is my breast for ever: us. Timantias was accused of a crime; to be the arena of contending inclina: whether he really had committed such, tions ?" or whether his great wealth-a powerful temptation for the avaricious Pro The next letter which after this consul,' Sisenna Statilius—were the fragment, we have selected for the per cause, never has become known. He rusal of our readers, is dated front. Nie was thrown into prison. My father comedia, whither Agathocles had



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