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lishments for the latter, of which every called Rector, Director, Schulrath, &c. town of any note possesses, at least, one who, either individually, or with the In the latin Schools the student is final concurrence of the senior professors
, ly prepared for the Universities, and directs the course of study, and all closes his course of “humaniora." other affairs connected with the insti
The whole of these institutions, with tution. The number of masters is difa few solitary exceptions, I are public ferent in the various establishments, establishments, under the immediate su. and, on an average, amounts to five or perintendance and controul of the res six professors, and an equal, or greater pective governments. The professors number of teachers, besides the masters and masters receive a salary adequate of foreign languages, drawing, &c. The to their station, which, generally, ren- whole of these are appointed by goverders them independent of their pupils. ment, and receive, out of the public On this account particular care is be- funds, fixed salaries, proportioned to
their selection. Even in the rank and extent of the establishthe grammar Schools, the greater part ment, and to the services required of of the teachers must have received a them. The head masters have from University education, and be known as 800 to 1200 dollars.t. The professors men of moral character. The same is from 300 to 1000, and the junior masrequired of the junior masters in the ters from 150 to 300, which is someLatin Schools, but a professorship there- times paid partly in money, partly in in cannot be obtained without distin- kind. “Besides their salaries, they also guished talent and learning. In fact, receive, in some places, a share of the nearly all the most eminent classical school-money which the pupils have to scholars, are, or were at least fora
consi- pay for their tuition, but this is the case derable time, professors in some of these only where those fixed revenues are Latin Schools. When, for instance, we very low. were at Misnia, Dr. Koenig, (the edit There are, comparatively, but fex or and commentator of Claudianus and schools, where the pupils re side at the Persius) was rector, and the three se establishment, but they, generally, live nior professorships were occupied by either with their parents and relations Kreyssig, (the editor and commentator or board and lodge with the professors, of Livy), Bornemann, (editor and com or some other respectable private famimentator of Xenophon's works), and lies, who are in the habit of receiving Lindemann, known by his edition of young students as inmates, and treat Plautus, his Thesaurus linguæ, Latinæ them as members of the family. In prosodiacus, and a small publication, some places, however, a certain pum
de Accentibus Linguae Latinae." The ber of the pupils are either partly or rector of the “ Kreuzschule," at Dresden, altogether maintained and instructed at is Baumgarten-Crusius, who edited public expence, and in that case, they alEutropius, the Odyssey, Livy, Sueton ways reside at the school. Such estab nius, Ovid, Agesilaus, and Xenophon's lishments there are for instance at Berlin, Encomium Agesilai. At Altenburg is Halle, Misnia, Schulpforta, Grimma, Matthiae, celebrated for his Greek Leipzig, &c. &c. In many of these grammar, and for his editions of Alcæ latter, the numbers are limited, on an us, Aratus, Dionysius, Eratosthenes, average, from 150 to 250 ; but, where Euripides, Herodotus, Homer's Batra- the pupils are expected to live in primyomachia, and Cicero's orations and vate families, there are no restrictions letters, &c.
of this nature ; and the increase or Thus we might go all over Germany, decrease of the frequenters depends on and would hardly find a single town of the literary celebrity of the rector and any consequence, that cannot boast of the masters, and the more or less some distinguished scholars, whose favourable situation of the town. In names are well known to the literary some institutions, the number of young world, and
be seen in every cata- students amounts only to two hundred, logue of classics and philological wri- whilst, in others, we find as many tings.
as 500, or 600, for example at the Each establishment has a head master, “ Graue Kloster of Berlin." The classes
* We are acquainted with no more than one. + A dollar is about three shillings.
into which they are divided, are gene in the junior classes, are Eutropias, rally fixed by the fundamental regula- Cornelius Nepos, Cicero de Amicitia, tions of each establishment. At Misnia, Cæsar, and a selection' from Ovid's
for instance, there are but four ; at the Metamorphoses ; in Greek, they begin - Waisenhaus of Halle, eight or nine, in with some Anthology, and subsequently
each of which there usually are two take the New Testament, Xenophon's sub-divisions. In most schools the Cyropaedia, and the Odyssey. In the course is fixed to a year, in which time senior classes, we find Sallust, Livy, the students are presumed to pass a Curtius, Cicero de Officiis, and his class. They may, sometimes, do so in Orations, and Tacitus. Amongst the sir months ; but, if they be idle, they poets, Virgil, Horace, and Terence. may not be promoted to a higher class of the Greek authors, they read, even in two years.
especially the Anabasis, some of PluUp to a not very remote period, the tarch's Lives, Thucydides, and Plato's Roman and Greek classics, and a little Dialogues, (particularly Lysis, Phaelogic and ancient history, used to form drus, and sometimes Phaedo); the not only the principal, but almost the Iliad, Euripides, Sophocles and Æsexclusive subjects of instruction in the chylus, (generally, only Agamemnon).
Latin schools. This went so far, that Isocrates' Panegyricus, Theophrast's 1. modern history, mathematics, all mo- Characters, and Pindar, are also read,
dern languages, and even the mother- but less frequently. Tibullus, Protongue, were entirely neglected. The pertius, Juvenal, and Persius, are, as old professors themselves wrote and far as we know, not lectured upon, but spoke Latin much more fuently than frequently recommended to private German, and frequently, were more study. intimately acquainted with the internal In the junior classes, strict attention and external affairs of Rome and is paid, and constant reference had, to Athens, than with those of their own grammar ; in the higher classes, where country. But the last forty years have this, of course, becomes less necessary, vrought a vast change. With the all possible efforts are made to excite perriwigs those absurdities, also, were and quicken the critical judgment of the banished by degrees, and thus we find, students ; accordingly, after a portion at present, considerable attention paid has been translated, by the pupils, into to mathematics, the historical sciences, German, and the Greek, frequently, and especially to the cultivation of the also, into Latin, the professor comments mother-tongue. The folly of neglect upon it, for which purpose he always ing the study of modern languages is keeps his own commentary,* which, clearly enough perceived by the differ- usually, he communicates in Latin, and ent governments, and great efforts are which the pupils take notes of. Beat present being made to give them sides the “Notae variorum," and his their proper weight in the instruction of own critical observations, he also gives youth.
them the different readings, and geFrench, of course, is studied to a nerally requires some one of the stugreat extent ; English ranks next ; dents to argue his opinion, pro or contra, Italian and Spanish ate about on a which frequently gives rise to a sort of level with each other ; Hebrew is disputatorium, wherein the professor attended to only by such young men acts as chairman, or even now and as are intended for the church. Most then takes a part himself. Moreover, lessons, with the exception of some it always is so arranged, that, in the modern languages, and Hebrew, are higher classes, where the judgment of compulsory, and industry and assiduity the pupils is already somewhat maare enforced by half-yearly examina- tured, different professors lecture upon tions, of which we shall speak hereafter. the different authors, which prevents
The Latin classics, most usually read the students from forming narrow and
* These commentaries, and critical observations, generally form the principal part of those which we see afterwards published in their editions of the classics. The writer, for instance, had a great part of Kreyssigs notes to Livy, in his memoranda, long before that celebrated professor published his edition of Livy, 5vols. 8vo. Leipzig, 1823.
partial views, and excludes the 6 in Michaelmas. The Rector, bý a Later verba jurare magistri.”
programma containing some cńtical inBesides the authors appointed for quiry into a classical or similar subject, the "regular lectures, usually some invites the patrons of the establishothers less difficult, are either read in a ment, the parents of the pupils, and the cursory manner, as it is called, without public in general, to favour with their more than occasional comments, or presence, the actus," which is held recommended to a private study of with great solemnity some - large which the pupils afterwards have to hall of the institution, and opened by give an account. In some establish- a speech of the Rector. ments
, they also have one or two hours. Each class is then examined by its in the week fixed for a regular Dispu- master, in the subjects taught during tatorium. One of the class has to the past half-year, and in the intervals write a dissertation which is handed some of the senior students deliver round amongst his fellow-students, and speeches or poems, composed by them afterwards attacked and opposed by selves, in different languages, on them. The discussions sometimes grow given or self-chosen subject, whilst very warm, and in such cases an ap some of the junior pupils recite similar peal to the “ vir doctissimus” is usual
, compositions selected from ancient of Latin and Greek exercises, and in the modern authors. higher classes free compositions also, es After the general examination there pecially in Latín, are
much practised, and follows a special one of those students have a very beneficial result. Prosody who intend to leave the School for the forms an especial part of instruction University. This latter, particularly, in the junior classes, metrical composi- is in most instances very severe
the tions (sometimes free, that is , the more so, as the certificate obtained theme only being given) are practised thereby is of great weight not only at in the senior. Ancient and modern geo the University, but even later, when graphy and statistics are taught only in the young men after having accomthe lower and middle classes, Roman plished their academical course, apply and Greek Antiquities, and Logic, in the for an office in the state. Upon having higher ; but History and Mathematics passed this examination, which usually in all. "German composition and Lite- fasts several days, sentence is prorature are at present much attended to, nounced by the Board of Professors, and in some countries, for instance, whether or not the Student bè qualified Prussia, there is an especial time fixed for the University, and if so, a certifor the reading of ancient German ficate is delivered to him stating in đae works; for example, the Niebdeugen- form his degree of qualification, which lied. About two hours a-week are des. usually is done bythe numbers one, iwa, tined for instruction in the prevalent or three; those who are not able to religion, it being left optional with those obtain even number three are not adwho profess a different creed, to attend mitted into any University, but must or not.
stay another half-year. To avoid, howThe attendance to most other lessons ever, partiality on the part of the prois, as already mentioned, compulsory, fessors, it is, especially in Prussia, teft but as the mere obligation to attend a open to the Student to apply for a new lecture would not be sufficient to insure examination by a certain board, which the progress of the pupils, or the due for this purpose is appointed at every exertions of the masters, general public University. examinations have been considered the .. The hours of instruction usually are most efficacious means to attain both from 8 till 12 in the morning, and from objects. They usually are held at the 2 till 4 or 5 in the afternoon; each lecend of every half-year, viz., Easter and ture commonly lasts about one hour,
* For instance, Critical observations on some difficult or obscure passages of Roman or Greek classics,--historical and critical inquiry into some subject of antiquitygrammatical inquiries, as for example, into the nature of the the Accus. c. Info-the accents,-peculiar metres, different dialects, in which frequently uncommon depth of learning is displayed.
and an interval of about 10 minutes is as boys and according to German custom allowed between the lessons. The after- called, "thou;" “ Du," but the seniors noons of Wednesdays and Saturdays generally between fourteen and eighin most places are granted for the re- teen years old, are treated with more creation of the Pupils. Vacations usually distinction and consequently addressed are, a week or fortnight at Christmas, in the third person plural, “ Sie." Easter, Whitsuntide, and Michaelmas, The total expence of education is but and three or four Weeks at Midsum- trifling when compared to this and other mer. During these the Students either countries. Where the pupils do not return to their homes or make excur- reside within the establishment, the stons, sometimes in parties, through the junior students pay for their instruction country,
from four to ten dollars per annum, the In those Schools where the Pupils senior from twelve to twenty-four. Of reside at the Establishments, the dis- the private families who are in the cipline is generally pretty severe. When habit of taking students as inmates, they live in private families, they are many belong to the most respectable treated as the children of the house, classes of society; their charges, of partake, whenever their time permits it, course, are different, but generally beof the amusements of their hosts, and tween one hundred and fifty and two usually are very comfortable. This hundred dollars (£20 to £45) a-year.* mode of living in private families has With the Professors and at the public a great and salutary influence, not only institutions themselves, the charges are upon their morals but also upon their similar, but never higher; on the conmanners, for whilst they must attend to trary, usually somewhat lower. their studies, they do not, as is but too For indigent individuals generally the frequently the case in other places, lose governments have made excellent prothe advantages of social education, and visions; a recommendation from a Clertheir constant living in good society gyman, from one of the professors, or prevents them from becoming rude and a gentleman of similar respectability clownish,
and a “testimonium paupertatis"is usually At the same time the Rector and sufficient to obtain instruction gratis, the Professors always exercise a certain and every country has an adequate controul even over their domestic be- number of establishments where they haviour. During school time they are, are received as residents and supplied of course, entirely under the discipline with board, lodging, and even clothing, of the masters, and idleness or miscon- either without any, or sometimes at a duct is punished by them. In the very trifling expence. In this respect junior classes caning is now and then the munificence of the governments and resorted to, but seldom ; the shameful the voluntary sacrifices of the masters system of flogging is never even so are very great, and cannot be praised much as heard of. Usually they have too highly; An industrious and taat
every establishment and, especially, lented youth, however poor he may be, where the pupils are resident, a certain hardly ever can be at a loss in Ğerroom for the confinement of such as are many, whether at school or at the. guilty of misdemeanour, idleness, &c. Universities, he always will find supIn some institutions this is considered port from public or private foundations, a great disgrace. At Berlin for exam- if he be deserving of it. ple, where there are five Gymnasia, it Here we beg to conclude our acis, particularly in the higher classes, count of the German Schools, which thought nearly as bad as expulsion ; in does not rest upon mere vague reports other places, however, it is less so. and partial information, but on an intiOld Dr. Koenig at Misnia, for instance, mate personal acquaintance with many used to say, when a student came too of those establishments and their Prolate for his lecture, “ I shall send you fessors. In some future number we for an hour into a cool place.” In the hope to have an opportunity of giving junior classes, where the pupils gene- a more extended account of the Unirally are between eleven and fourteen versities of Germany. years of age, they are of course, treated
• The writer lived for some time in the family of a counsellor of one of the courts at Berlin, where he paid 300 dollars per annum, equivalent to 45 pounds sterling. Vol. I.
WHIG GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND.'+ yundi Witamy King George the Third, of good and The Whigs, with that curious infelihappy memory, used to say, " I find no city of management which has pervaded a honesty in these Whigs." We echo every public act of theirs, since they * his sacred voice, and adă, “nor find we came into office, (in private jobbery 16 any particle of practical knowledge of they seem, happily for themselves, fár side political sagacity. Therefore we put more fortunate, appointed to the go no faith in them--their measures, pre vernment of Ireland the very man whom dictions, promises
. Much rather do we the Duke had been obliged to dismise, ki seriously incline to lend a listening ear from that high office, because his in the to the opinions of that high and honored prudence rendered him incompetent to band, which, by the mouth of their the proper discharge of its arduous and chief, the venerable Earl of Eldon, fore most responsible duties. The galant told that when the Test and Corpora- Anglesey" and a very bold dragoon we tion Act was repealed, and the Eman acknowledge him to be, was most 'ticipation Bill enacted, the barriers of fortunately crazed with the besetting her the constitution were broken down, the sin of Whigs, an inordinate vanity, and bulwarks destroyed, and the citadel it a ridiculous passion for display: 7 self placed in such a situation that it this, all the solid usefulness that might must speedily follow the fate of its out ever have been in the man, was wholly works. The words of these men have sacrificed, and having played the game proved true ; their honesty is unim- of mob-courting popularity once too peached, and unimpeachable, and there- oftent, he has long since filen into con fore them we can well trust. But with reg. tempt and dislike, even with the "rab pect to Ireland, we do sincerely believe ble commons," the 'senseless noise or that it could never have come into the whose loud huzzas, was to him, as the dreadful condition to which many parts breath of his nostrils. The King's re of the kingdom are now, or have been presentative fairly pitted himself against lately reduced, had the Duke of Wel: Mr. O'Connell in a personal contest för lington continued at the head of the mob-applause and lost the battle - na administration. The Duke had' pro- Sinée then, the arch-agitator, and not mised, and he, too, is a man of his word, the military Marquis, has been chief that if the measure of emancipation governor of the be worto in Ireland. 'Mr, which (as he himself acknowledged, O'Connell, with the formidable array against his better judgment,) he proposed of the regimented and rent-collecting and carried, should not suffice to con: Repeal associators at his heels, and the tent and pacify Ireland, he would come priests' or their agents in his council down to Parliament, and ask its assent chamber, can wield at will five or six to measures by which he would under millions of the population of Ireland
. take and pledge himself to put an effec He, too, has overshot his mark, and has tual stop to outrage and agitation in given the Whigs, with all their folly, this kingdom. Something of this kind an advantage over him, by creating the Whigs have at length been driven practical case of wide-spread national to attempt, after a long and wretched insubordination, which made it neces. period of neglect and misrule. After sary for the Conservatives to step in having, by weak and ignorant govern- and assist the Whigs to overthrow the ment, caused exasperation to rise to its villainous supremacy of assassins with greatest height, and permitted violence which they were threatened. to assume its most dreadful and formid Mr. O'Connell with the aid of his dable shape, they now seek, by the ex: allies, throughout the chapels and the treme of severity, to atone for the ex- whiskey-houses, the open fairs, and the treme of imbecility, and by assuming a secret gatherings of the peasantry, can power beyond that which the constitu- doubtless keep down outrage if he likes tion allows, to make up for having so - he did so once already or a long se long permitted the constitution, and the ries of months, when he had a point to laws, to be outraged and insulted with carry by their remaining peaceable. It impunity.
has been shown that a political associe