« הקודםהמשך »
sect, the bombyr, or silk-worm, and overturned the ash-colouredants, which, others.
after a very short, but very sharp comOf bees and ants it is sufficient to bat, retired to the bottom of their say, we are presented with a con- habitation. The rufescent ants clamdensed view of the observations of the bered up the sides of the hillock, colcelebrated Hubers, father and son. lected on its summit, and introduced With one extract from the latter we themselves in great numbers into its shall conclude, again thanking the avenues. Other groups of these ingentlemen concerned in this work for sects were working with their teeth, the rich treat they have afforded the to procure themselves an opening in English readers of Natural History : the lateral part of the ant-hill. This
« On the 17th June, 1804, walking enterprize succeeded, and the rest of in the environs of Geneva, between the army penetrated through the four and five o'clock, in the afternoon, breach into the besieged citadel, they I saw at my feet a legion of tolerably made no long stop there ; three or large ants, red, or reddish, which were four minutes afterwards, the rufescent travelling the road ; they were march- ants issued through the same passages, ing in a body with rapidity ; their each holding in his mouth a larva or a troop occupied a space of from eight nymph, belonging to the invaded antto ten feet in length, and about three hill. They resumed precisely the route or four inches in breadth ; in a few by which they had come, and prominutes they had entirely evacuated ceeded, without order, one after the the road ; they penetrated through a other. Their troop was easily distinvery thick hedge, and repaired into a guished on the turf, by the peculiar asmeadow, whither I followed them ; pect of this multitude of cocoons and they took a serpertine direction over white nymphs carried by so many the turf without losing themselves, red ants. These last a second time and their column always remained traversed the hedge and road in the unbroken in spite of the obstacles same place where they had passed at which it had to surmount,
first, aud finally directed their course “Soon they arrived neara nest of ash- into grass fields in full maturity, whither coloured ants, the dome of which was I regretted I had not the power of raised in the grass, at about twenty paces following them."-(Vol. II. p. 492.) the hedge. Some ants of this species We regret we have not the power were at the door of their habitation ; of following Mr. Huber any further in as soon as they discovered the arıny, his interesting discoveries ; suffice it which was approaching, they darted to say, some of them were so very sinforth on those which were at the head gular as to be considered the mere reof the cohort. The alarm was spread veries of an excited imagination, until at the same instant in the interior of they were fully verified by M. Jurine. the nest, and their companies sallied M. Latreille, M. M. Bose, Monge, and forth in crowds from all their subter- Olivier, as well as by our own distinraneous caverns. The rufescent ants, guished countryman, Mr. Kirby, who, the bulk of whose army was but two in company with M. Latreille, was a paces distant, hastened to arrive at the witness of one of the military campaigns foot of the ant-hill ; the entire troop of these singular animals. precipitated itself thither at once, and
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION OF SIR WALTER SCOTT,
RELATIVE TO THE CLAN GRAHAM.
We have been favoured by a Clergyman, resident in the diocese of Derry, with the following extract from an original communication of Sir Walter Scott, in answer to a request that he would furnish the Reverend Gentleman with a brief account of the original settlement of his own family, the Grahams, in the North of Ireland.
“ The sept or clan of Græmes, which the heathenish aud savage custom of at one time was so numerous and pow. deadly feud,” as it is termed in our law erful on the west border, are said to books, must often have given rise to have claimed their descent from Ma- lasting and cruel wars. hise with the bright sword, a younger I do not find any particular mention brother of one of the Scottish Earls of of their quarrel with the Johnstons (the Stratherne, of the name of Graham. This family tradition) but I observe that in seems uncertain, but they were hardy 1550, the Johnstons and Maxwells, and men, of great power on the borders, other west borderers, to the number of and originally of Scottish extraction, two thousand men, entered the debatethough latterly they usually embraced able land, and burned the house of one the English interest. Indeed, as they Armstrong, on which occasion the were situated on the debateable land, Grames and other borderers there skirwhich was claimed by both kingdoms, mished with them, and slew some men, each country refused to acknowledge Lord Dacre, then warden of the west them as the subjects of the rival nation, marches of England, having his forces or to demand from the other, satisfac- drawn up to support them, but not crosfaction for the wrongs they inflicted, sing the border, to avoid a violation of and as neither country would permit the peace ;* and the resentment of the the other to punish them as subjects, the Scotch was so great, that many of the consequence was, that their depreda- debateable land threatened to become tions went frequently altogether unre- liege men of Scotland, to avoid the pressed. They lived like other bor- effects of the vengeance of the Scots, derers, almost entirely upon spoil, and unless the English warden would agree it is said that when the last piece of to protect them effectually. beef was put into the pot, the mother The end of the dispute was, that the ised to say to the son, “ Rise Rowley, debateable land was divided between houghs in the pot." They had also like the kingdoms, by Commissioners, asother borderers repeated quarrels with signing the upper part of it to Scotland, their neighbours, and most probably and the lower, where most of the Grawith the Maxwells and the Johnstons, hams dwelt, to England. and as when blood was spilt, it was a In the above-mentioned introduction point of conscience in that lawless there is a list of names containing many country never to let it pass unrevenged of the clan of Græme who are accused
• In King Edward the Sixth's journal of his own time, there is the following note of this affair :-“ 16th of August, 1550, the Earl of Maxwell came down to the north border, with a good force to overthrow the Græmies, who were a certain family that were related to me,—but the Lord Dacre stood before his face with a good band of men, and so put him from his purpose, and the Gentlemen called Græmes skirmished with the said Earl, slaying certain of his men."*
You will find much correspondence about this affair in the Introduction to Nicholson's History of Camberland :- In the Gentleman's Magazine for September 1831, page 214, it is recorded that among the manuscripts at Hatfeld-house there are many papers touching the Grahams or Græmes, from 1603 to 1607, by which it appears that that tribe were transported to Holland, Ireland, &c., in bands of fifty and sixty each, until they were almost rooted out of their own couutry.-Before the union of the Crowns, this had been the most bold and formidable of the border clans.
of incursions, murders, burnings, &c. for by Geordie Hutchins' brother, committed about 1552. I do not ob- William Græme, another brother of serve any designed as being of White Young Hutchins, William Græme, sou house. In 1593 it is proposed as a of Robbie, Socks Johnnie, Robert question for consideration,“ Because Græme son to Hutchins, Davie and the Grame's have no commander under his brother Andrew; Hutchins Arthur, the Lord Warden, what course shall William Græme of the Fold, William be taken to keep good order among Græme of the Rosetrees, (these two them and their branches ?" from which appear to have had great followers); it appears that the name had no ac Daves of Bankhead, Jock of the Lake, knowledged head or chief, who accord. Dicks Davis and William Græme ing to border-custom, was answerable for Goodman of Meclop. the misdeeds of those of his name, The number of names for whom whom he was always supposed to pos- these leaders gave assurance, amounts sess the means of restraining or pun- to four hundred and thirty-nine, being ishing.
probably the strength of the clan with The resolution taken by the Warden their dependents in 1602. Lord Scroop, with the advice of the James II., on his accession to the Border Council was, that until he Crown of England banished the Grames should name an officer over them, the to the North of Ireland, upon their principal men of the name should be own petition, as his proclamation alheld responsible for themselves and leges, confessing themselves to be no those under them. Soon after it would meet persons to live in these countries. seem that William Bill, of Rosetrees, This measure was a political rather than and Rob, of the Fald, had been com an arbitrary one, but I suspect, much pelled to enter pledges for the good of James's animosity against the Grames behaviour of their retainers, and that arose from their constant adherence to the Warden intended to proceed in the English interest. same manner with the several branches There was a tax imposed on Cumof the Gremes, Armstrongs, Fosters, fc. berland for the expense of transporting who are described as having very inso- them, the total of which amounts to lent members belonging to them. £408. 10s. 9d. sterling. ney appear
In 1600 many of the Græmes petition to have been transported at three several the Lord Warden, setting forth their times, the money being divided among willingness to be amenable to good them at the rate of about one or two order in various particulars, and com- pounds each. Nicholson has published plaining, that the gentlemen of the the names of those who were removed country were joined together in a league at the second and third transportations, against them, and sate upon the bench but I do not find the designation of and jail delivery as their judges, al- Whitehouse. This however is not conthough they were known to thirst for clusive, for many of the exiles are destheir blood, and would cut their throats cribed by patronymics, or by nick-names with their own hands if they dared. according to the border fashion. There is a reply of the gentlemen, who Most of the particulars I have menassert that the Grames and their clans tioned are extracted from the introwere the chiefest actors of the spoil and duction to the Border History, and are decay of the country, and maintain taken by the authors from a folio manutheir own league to have for its object script, written by Richard Bell, Waronly the suppress of their depredations. den Clerk of the Marches, in the reign These proceedings are followed by a of Queen Elizabeth. note of the names of the clans of all If this could be consulted, it might the Grames, with those of the persons throw light on the subject of your for whom each leader held himself res- inquiries, but I could never learn where ponsible to Lord Scroop the Warden. it is now deposited, or if it be in existThe leaders are— Walter Græme, the ence. good man of Netherby ; John Græme, The deportation of the Grames of Aughouse Well ; Fergus Græme, seems to have been very perfectly of Sowport; David Græme, of the executed, for there is not now a man Millens; John Græme, of the Pear- of consequence of that name in Cumtree; The Goodman of the Moat. berland, save Sir James Graham, of Young Hutchin's clan or gang, answered Netherby, whose family arose “tem
pore Caroli primi." * * *
If you send me a drawno uncommon thing for the Scottishing, or heraldrie description, of the Borderers to fly to Ireland. In the Coats of Arms you mention, (the crest “ Memoirs of Captain Creighton," pub- a falcon-proper
with escallop shells on lished by Swift, that gentleman says, the shield), I will compare them with his ancestor Aled to Ireland in conse- those of the families of Graham here. quence of having killed a Maxwell, and I have no connection with the Scotthat two of the offended Clan followed tish Monthly Magazine, farther than him thither, waylaid and shot him as wishing well to it, and sending it some he went to church. It is, therefore, scraps of information. probable, that your ancestors cause of I omitted to say, that the song of expatriation may have been altogether “The gallant Grahams,” which you distinct from the general transportation mention, seems to have been originally of the Græmes in 1603. I have often written upon their deportation in 1603 ; wished to know if there are any tradi- but afterwards, from a similarity of the tions preserved concerning that event name, and popularity perhaps of the in Ireland, and what became of the time, it was re-written, and applied to exiles.*
the banishment of Montrose. The last If you consider this information as edition, I believe, is the “ Border Mindeserving the fulfilment of the promise strelsy." Of the earlier song, I have you have had the goodness to make only a flying line or two, such as me regarding the Minstrelsy of the
“They all were dress'd in armour fine, Ulster Settlers, I will be much gratified; Upon the pleasant banks of Tyne," and should your collection extend be- Which must have applied to the Border yond the size of an ordinary letter, it Græmes, not to those of Mentieth. will reach me safe, and post-free, if I am, Sir, your obedient servant, addressed to me, under the cover of
WALTER Scott. Francis Freeling, Esq., Post-Office To the Rev. John Graham, Glanone, General, London.
County of Londonderry, Ireland.
LINES ON A RUIN.
Why wer't thou form’d, thou tower of strength!
For ages thus to last,
Thyself by time o'ercast ?
To battle with the blast ?
Yes! noble souls must their's have been
Who reard thy gloomy height,
An emblem of their might :
And undisputed right :
• The only one is their being landed at Groomsport, in the County of Down, which name has been since corrupted from Græmesport, which that event had given to it.