« הקודםהמשך »
was one of those geniusses who gain after all, we look on as their real use), their fame after they are lost to the his bids fair to a lasting duration. Buildworld. His beautiful dissections of ing his orders on the character of a insects, which even in this advanced single set of organs, the wings; and the age of the science are consulted with varieties of his genera on the character admiration, dropped from the press of particular parts of the head, espe“ unnoticed and unknown.” A second cially of the antennæ, it is astonishing work, prefaced by him, his great how nearly his arrangement approaches “ Biblia Naturæ," no bookseller would a natural one. In the Terminology, undertake to print, and the author was or, as Mr. Kirby would call it, the too poor to do it himself; yet, within Orismology, of the science, he has made two years after his death, his “ His- equal improvements, and his introductoria Insectorum" had been translated tion of the “ trivial name” has almost into Latin, French, and English. His done for Entomology what Lavoisier fame spread abroad into all lands, and so skilfully accomplished for chemistry. when, a few years after, Boerhaave for- This trivial name was, when practicatunately rescued from the obscurity of ble, taken from some easily observed a museum, and published to the world peculiarity ; but perhaps greater ingehis Biblia Naturæ, mankind, ever just, nuity was exhibited in applying it to though often late in doing justice to those species which, from their inhabitreal merit, acknowledged that a giant ing foreign climates, could not so readily had been amongst them, and they had be subjected to our notice. We copy not known it. The system which he one illustration of this. “ Butterflies attempted to establish was founded on are divided into sections, by the names the consideration of the metamorphoses equites, heliconii, danai, nymphales, and insects undergo. It was too artificial plebei. As great numbers of these are in the arrangement to stand, but it has foreign, it would be impossible to make afforded a clue-to future entomologists, the trivial names significant. Linnæus, which, skilfully followed up, has guided therefore, by way of simile, has taken them to most important discoveries. the name of the equites from Trojan From this time the science has pro- history. These he divides into two ceeded with pretty sure steps. Its im- troops or bodies ; of which one conportance has been acknowledged, and tains the sable and, as it were, mourning the wonders it unfolds have been ap- nobles, having red or bloody spots at preciated. Ray followed up Swammer- the basis of their wings. These redam's ideas in classification, and added ceive names from the Trojan nobles, many accurate and original observa- the most splendid amongst them of tions. Madam Merian's beautiful illus course being Priam. The other body, trations of the metamorphoses of the ornamented with a variety of gay cobutterflies of Surinam tended not a little lours, are distinguished by the naines to increase its popularity ; and the of the Grecian heroes ; and as in both establishment of our Royal Society, armies there were kings, as well as about this period, gave a new and officers, of inferior rank, those elegant powerful impulse to the study of this butterflies, whose hinder wings resemas well as other branches of natural bled tails, were distinguished by some history.
royal name. Thus, when Paris is menNothing was now wanted but a tioned, knowing him to be a Trojan of master-mind ; one capable of viewing, royal blood, we find him among those with philosophic eye, the works that of the first section ; i. e. those of a sable existed on this subject-of embracing colour, spotted in the breast with red, them in one comprehensive glance-of and having their hinder wings resembcatching the points of analogy they ling tails. Agamemnon, of course, will presented, and systematizing them all have variegated and swallow-tailed into one harmonious whole. This wings, but Nereus will be in the second inind was found in Linnæus. He im- section, having wings, but no tails. pressed on the science that form, the We must now pass over numbers who general outlines of which it still retains; have either improved the philosophy and if systems derive their value from or adorned the details of the science : simplicity of principle, and the assist- the ingenious De Geer, systematist, ance they afford the memory, (which, anatomist, and physiologist ; the
learned Fabricius, whose classification, me suis imposé un tâche aussi hardie founded on the organs of manducation, pour le plan que difficile dans l' exeis only too refined to become popular, cution. "Réunir dans un cadre trèsand of whom Linnæus is reported to limité les faits les plus piquans de l'hishave said, “Si Dominus Fabricius ve- toire des insectes, les classer avec prèniat cum aliquo insecto, vel Dominus cision et netteté dans une série natuZoega cum aliquo musco, tunc ego pi- relle, dessiner á grands traits la physileum detraho et dico : estote doctores onomie de ces animaux, tracer d'une mei.”—The indefatigable Reaumur, to manière laconique et rigoreuse leurs whose preeminent merits, Kirby says, caractères distinctifs en suivant une “ A volume would scarcely suffice to do marche qui soit en rapport avec les projustice ;" for we must now hasten to grès successifs de la science et ceux d' the work, the title of which we have člève, signaler les espèces utiles ou nuiplaced at the head of this article. Insibles, celles qui par leur manière de the year 1800, Cuvier, assisted by Du- vivre interessent notre curiosité, indimeril
, brought out his celebrated quer les meillures sources où l' on pu“ Anatomie Comparée." In the por- isera la connaisance des autres, rendre tion of this work devoted to the inver- a l' entomologie cette aimable simplitebrated animals, ample justice is done cité qu'elle a eue dans le temps de to the insect tribes. Too much occu- Linnæus, de Geoffroy et des premières pied, however, with the other divisions productions de Fabricius, la presenter of animated nature, to lend to this in- néanmoins telle qu'elle est aujourd'hui, teresting part all the attention it re ou avec toutes les richesses d' observaquired, he looked anxiously round for tions qu'elle a acquises, mais sans trop some suitable fellow-labourer, on whom len surcharger, le conformer, en un he might devolve the execution of this mot, au modèle que j'avais sous les volume of his grand and crowning work yeux, l'ouvrage de M. Cuvier ; tel est the “Regne animal. His eye fell on le but que je me suis efforcé d'atteinLatreille.
dre." Already favourably known to the Assisted by the anatomical investi. scientific world by his Précis des ca- gations of Cuvier, he has thus furnished ractères génériques des insectes," as what he calls “une grande esquisse de well as by his various contributions to l’Entomologie,” which is made the the « Annales du Museum d'Histoire foundation of the two very interesting Naturelle," and other philosophic pe- volumes before us, in which this sketch riodicals, M. Latreille proved himself is beautifully filled in with all the most fully worthy of the confidence reposed valuable information derivable from in him. Like his countryman Jussieu other sources, embracing some enterhe disregarded all artificial systems, and taining original matter supplied by the attempted to construct one on a natural editors themselves, already well known basis. He neither followed Linnæus in the literary and philosophic world. nor Fabricius ; but adopting what was The plan of this work was thus briefly excellent in each, has become the foun- described by them in the preface to der of what Mr. Kirby terms the Ec- their first volume. “Thus while a comlectic system, judiciously adopting the plete translation of the “Regne anisensible maxim of Scopoli, “ Classes et mal” is given, with as much closeness genera naturalia, non solum instru- and accuracy as the corresponding menta cibaria, non solæ alæ, nec solæ idioms of the two languages will perantennæ constituunt, sed structura to- mit, much that is interesting and imtius, ac cujusque vel minimi discriminis portant from the pens of other modern diligentissima observatio.”
naturalists and travellers, and from oriThe feelings with which M. La- ginal sources, will be found subjoined treille set about this important task are by way of supplement.”. It only remains as creditable to his modesty, as the ex- for us to say, that their task has been ecution of it is to his talents. After performed in the most praiseworthy expressing his regret, that his other nu- manner in the volumes before us ; the merous engagements prevented Cuvier translations are generally correct, and himself from performing this part of neither labour nor expence seem to the work, he goes on to say, “ J'ai con- have been spared in the literary and tracté un obligation bien grande, et je pictorial illustrations.
We present our readers with a few two-following classes, have the trunk extracts from the work to enable them formed of distinct and articulated leto judge for themselves. And first of vers, and are furnished with limbs or the rank which insects are entitled to lateral appendages, destined for various hold in the animal kingdom.
motions, according to their mode of ex* Having once established that the istence. Those which live in the water existence of the crgans of motion and have organs appropriate to that medisensation is the characteristic distinc- um, being provided with gills ; these tion of animals, it is certain that the are the crustacea. In the others, the more that these faculties are developed air penetrates into the various parts of in animals, the more are the latter re the body, through apertures conducting moved from vegetables, and vice versa. into aeriferous tubes named tracheæ ;
“ The degree of this development is these are insects. They are far more easily observed. If we find animals animalised, if we may be allowed the endowed with the faculty of repro- phrase, that is farther removed from the ducing themselves by germs or slips ; vegetable existence_than any of the being able to exist only in a liquid me- preceding classes. They are endowed dium ; often fixed upon a point in the with sight, hearing, smell, taste, and midst of their aliment, which many of touch. They enjoy all the various them absorb through external pores ; modes of motion on the water, on the shewing but few vestiges of anything earth, and through the air. In the orlike motion—such animals assuredly gans destined for nutrition and generaexhibit the nearest possible relation to tion, they are fully on a par with aniplants. They have neither distinct mals of a more elevated order.” nerves, nor organs of sense, with the exception of passive feeling ; no ali
. We have said sufficient to shew mentary or digestive tube, no articulated the elevated rank which the insects appendages for motion, no distinct or should hold in the classification of the gans of respiration. These are the animal kingdom. They should certainZoophytes, the last class of animated ly be placed immediately after the nature.”
vertebralia, over even which, they may “ We next find animals condemned be said to possess more advantages than for the most part to live in water, one.”. (Vol. I. pp. 37–38.) whose motions are slow, and often hard This quotation we have given, not as ly perceptible. They are therfore des- exactly according with our own views titute of several of the organs of sense of the subject, but as affording ou though possessing nerves. They have readers some idea of the principles of no articulated limbs. Their mode of classification followed by the gentlemen generation somewhat resembles that of who have undertaken this work. We plants. Sometimes there is a triple shall next afford them specimens of the complication of distinct individual sex ; entertainment they may expect in pesometimes the sexes are united in one rusing its pages. The dangerous conand the same being—such are the mol- sequences that would arise from the busca."
extensive putrefaction of animal matter “The living creatures next in the are well known. Of the agents emscale, cannot be considered much more ployed to remove such matter, perhaps perfect than the last. They are either few are more singular than the species inhabitants of the water, or some con of beetle to which, from their peculiar stantly obscure and humid medium, and habits, Fabricius gives the name of Neare destitute of almost all the organs of crophorus. Instinct tells them, that the senses. Their body, it is true, is their young when first born require a divided into rings, which facilitate lo- supply of animal food, and they precomotion, but it is unfurnished with pare it for them in the following ingethose articulated appendages, which nious manner. constitute limbs. Their nerves are
“ M. Gleditsh had often observed, well distinguished and knotty, and from that dead moles, birds, and other small each of the knots or ganglia, radiations animals, when laid upon the ground, of threads proceed towards the organs. especially upon loose earth, were The sexes are united. These are the almost sure to disappear in the course worms."
of two or three days—often of twelve The beings which belong to the hours. To ascertain the cause he
placed a mole upon one of the beds in in the small quantity of earth allowed his garden ; it had vanished by the them, twelve carcasses ; viz. four frogs, third day ; and on digging where it three small birds, two fishes, one mole, had been laid, he found it buried to and two grasshoppers, besides the enthe depth of three inches, and under it trails of a fish, and two morsels of the four beetles, which seemed to have lungs of an ox. It is plain that all this been the agents in this singular in- labour is incurred for the sake of their humation. Not perceiving anything young. One mole would have sufparticular in the mole, he buried it ficed a long time for the repast of the again; and on examining it at the end of beetles themselves, and they could six days, he found it swarming with have more conveniently fed upon it maggots, apparently the issue of the above ground than below. But if beetles, which M. Gleditsh now natu- they had left, thus exposed, the carcass rally concluded had buried the carcass in which their eggs were deposited, for the food of their future young. To both would have been exposed to the determine these points more clearly, imminent risk of being destroyed at a he put four of these insects into a mouthful by the first fox or kite that glass vessel, half filled with earth, and chanced to espy them.” (Vol. I., properly secured, and upon the surface pp. 417, 418.) of the earth two frogs ; in less than But if some of the insect tribes may twelve hours one of the frogs was in- thus be ranked among our benefactors, terred by two of the beetles—the there are others to be held amongst other two ran about the whole day, as the worst foes, to which mankind are if busied in measuring the dimensions exposed. Against their incursions no of the remaining corpse, which on the foresight can guard—no valour defend third day was also found buried He us, then introduced a dead linnet : a pair of the beetles were soon engaged upon
The rushing of their wings is as the sound
Of a broad river, headlong in its course, the bird ; they began their operations Plunged from a mountain's summit. by pushing away the earth from under the body, so as to form a cavity for One of the most formidable of these, its reception ; and it was curious to the locust, is thus described :see the efforts which the beetles made, “ It is armed with two pair of very hy dragging at the feathers of the strong jaws, the upper terminating in bird from below, to pull it into its short, and the lower in long teeth, by grave. The male having driven the which it can both lacerate and grind female away, continued the work alone its food; its stomach is of extraordifor five hours. He lifted up the bird, nary capacity and powers ; its hind changed its place, turned it
, and ar- legs enable it to leap to a considerable ranged it in the grave, and from time distance, and its ample vans are calcuto time came out of the hole, mounted lated to catch the wind as sails-Al. upon it, and trod it nnder foot, and though a single individual can effect then retired below, and pulled it down. but little evil, yet when the entire surAt length, apparently wearied with face of a country is covered with them, this uninterrupted labour, he came and every one makes bare the spot on forth and leaned his head upon the which it stands, the mischief produced earth beside the bird, without the may be as infinite as their numbers. smallest motion, as if to rest himself, « The first record of the ravages of for a full hour, when he again crept the locusts which we find in history under the earth. The next day, in the is the account in the Book of Exodus, morning, the bird was an inch and a of the visitation to the land of Egypt. half under ground, and the trench re Africa appears to have been the quarmained open the whole day, the corpse ter of the globe most severely subseeming as if laid out upon a bier sur- jected to incursions from the locust rounded with a rampart of mould. In tribes-Blown from that quarter the evening it had sunk half an inch of the globe, the locusts have occasionlower, and in another day, the work ally visited both Italy and Spain. was completed and the bird covered. A famine took place in the Venetian From a number of experiments con- territory in 1487, occasioned by the ducted in this way, he found that in ravages of these insects, in which fifty days four beetles had interrred, 30,000 persons are reported to have
perished. Mouffett mentions many cases, they take their joyous disporť other instances of the same kind which in the fields of ether, and rove careless have taken place in Europe at different and free through the orchard and the periods. They entered Russia in im- meadow. This is to them the season mense divisions in three different of life and love !” The buds of the places (A. D. 1600,) darkening the air apple-tree are already far advanced with their numbers, and passed over before the female is prepared to lay from thence into Poland and Lithu- her eggs : she is furnished with a ania.
beak, supplied at the end with very “ In many parts they lay dead to the minute teeth ; with these she works a depth of four feet. Sometimes they small hole into the calyx of the future covered the surface of the earth like a blossom, and having satisfied herself dark cloud, loaded the trees, and the by the introduction of one of her antennæ destruction which they produced ex- that the hole is suitable for her purceeded all calculation. They fall pose, she deposits in it by means of her sometimes upon corn, and in three ovipositor one single egg. This ovihours will consume an entire field, as positor is a tube composed of joints happened once in the south of France, that close one within another like When they had finished the corn, they those of a telescope, and which enables extended their devastations to vines, this little insect to deposit its egg at pulse, willows, and, in short, to every the bottom of the hole it has worked. thing wearing the shape of vegetation, The injury is so slight, that the hole not excepting even hemp, which was is soon closed up, and the blossom not protected by its bitterness." seems to grow like the rest ; in the
Nor are they less formidable dead mean time however the egg is hatched, than alive. According to Orosius and a little white maggot comes out, (A. m. 3800,) the north of Africa was which soon sets to work and gnaws so infested with them, that every vestige the young stamina and pistils, until of vegetation vanished from the face being arrived at its full growth, in this of the earth. After this,” he adds, its first stage, it changes into a chry“they flew off to sea and were drown- salis. It now lies quite still, but the ed; but their carcasses being cast on mischief has been done : the blossom, shore emitted a stench, equal to what which had at first appeared as blooming might have been produced by the as the rest, now shows signs of the dead bodies of one hundred thousand canker at the heart ; it continues closed men." We are told by St. Augustine, after the others have opened out in that a pestilence, arising from the same vernal beauty and soon commences to cause, destroyed no less than 800,000 pine and wither, changing from its people in the kingdom of Numidia, blushing tint to a dusky brown, Anoand the kingdoms along the sea-coast. ther change comes o'er the insect (Vol. 11., 205-6-7.) Every one knows within ; it bursts from its prison-bonds, that there is such a thing as a blight of and soon making its way through the corn-a blight of fruit-trees, &c., but few withered petals by which it is surhow few know that a minute insect is rounded, it soars away in the light the cause of this calamity. A slight Summer breeze, 'living a rover until notice of the insect that attacks our the chill Autumnal blast drives it apple-trees will, doubtless, be interest again to its shelter beneath the bark, ing. If one examines the back of an from which it issues at the return of apple-tree in winter, he will find occa- Spring to propagate a progeny, dessionally in some of its cracks or crevices, tined to undergo the same vicissitudes. a pretty little insect (anthonomus po Our limits do not permit us to exmorum,) which, on being touched, sets tend our extracts much farther ; but itself drop, as if dead, to the ground, we refer to the Aphides for some which in colour it much resembles-by novel aud interesting facts in physiothis artifice it often escapes. These logy. Of their fecundity some idea insects remain in the crevices until may be formed from Reaumur's calcutowards the commencement of Spring, lation, that in five generations one when they come forth on the first aphis may be the parent of 5,904,900,000 bright sunny day, and disclosing their descendants. Most interestng accounts long gausy wings, which had lain neatly are given of the cynyps, or gall infolded up beneath the elytra, or wing- sect, the coccus cacti, or cochineal in