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p! upon the assessed taxes, a species of declarations called forth from Mr. ! impost in the reduction of which we in O'Connell and his friends in the House

Ireland have no immediate interest, but of Commons, nor to recapitulate the

which are felt as a very heavy impost arguments with which those, who con. • by persons in moderate circumstances tended on the ministerial side, met

throughout Great Britain. The whole their assailants of the Repeal phalanx. amount of the assessed taxes may be Before these pages meet the public estimated at five millions per annum, of eye, the minds of most of our readers which one-half is paid in window tax have been made up as to the merits of and inhahited-house duty. These are the arguments for and against. We the heaviest direct taxes paid in the wish, rather, as we have the opportunity, towns of England and Scotland, and to state, what our readers may not be we have no doubt that the Minister will so well acquainted with, namely, the be compelled to give them up, and to impression of the public mind in Engcompensate the Exchequer by some land upon this portion of the King's impost which will bear more exclusively speech, and the part taken by the Irish upon the rich. The Ministers would members with regard to it. assuredly have acted with more pru Mr. O'Connell's cunning is vernadence had they advised his Majesty to cular, and, out of Ireland, it fails him. advert to the great pressure of tax. At home, he discovers a natural and ation upon the people, and to promise prompt alacrity to seize upon the surest that every thing would be done which mode of success ; or, if he makes a the public safety and the public credit mistake, to retrieve himself so as to would permit, in order to render its twist even ill fortune to advantage. reduction possible. But the Ministers He has a kind of instinct for adapting do not appear to have composed the himself to circumstances when he has speech in a popular humour—they his own countrymen to deal with, and speak of coercion, not of compassion now, by downright impudence-now -of punishment rather than relief, by adroit dexterity, carries his point by The condition of the working classes, storm, or wins his way to it by mancuabout which when out of office they ap- vre ; but, in England, he does not make peared to be so continually and so sen- sufficient allowance for the different sitively solicitous, is scarcely adverted dispositions of those whom he seeks to to, and no intimation is given of any influence. He is eloquent, and he measure to ameliorate their circum- interests them, but Englishmen do not stances, and lift them out of the cala- make their feelings the governors and mities which flow from low wages and guides of their judgment ; and, therescanty employment.

fore, though he may interest, he does We now come to the last topic of not persuade. An Englishman will the speech, and that part of it which, up only be persuaded by evidence and to the moment at which we write, has authority. Moreover, an Englishman's almost exclusively occupied the atten- feelings will carry him only a certain tion of parliament. His Majesty ex- length. He cannot be so excited as to presses his confidence, that the Houses sympathise with extreme rage and vioof Lords and Commons will entrust to lence of expression. He loves decohim such additional powers as may be rum, thinks calmness an attribute of found necessary for controlling and truth, (at least in political details), and punishing the disturbers of the public violence, instead of rousing him to corpeace in Ireland, and for preserving responding feeling, gives him offence. and strengthening the Legislative Union Mr. O'Connell does not remember all between the two countries, which, with this, or, if he does, he acts as if he did their support, and under the blessing of not. Certainly if he was sincere in his Divine Providence, his Majesty states, violent opposition to the Ministers on he is determined to maintain, by all the the Address, nothing could be more measures in his power, as indissolubly injudicious than the method which he connected with the peace, the security, adopted. Had his object been to and well-being of his people. As we serve the Minister, he could have done have stated, at the commencement of nothing more effectual for that purthis article, it is not our intention to pose. To his violence, and that of his follow in the erratic course of all the friends, it is owing that, in spite of all eloquence and indignation which these the disappointment and dissatisfaction

mons.

which the speech was calculated to feelings of humanity. If Mr. O'Conproduce, and did produce at first, the nell has the power over the Irish peapopular favour flowed back again to santry to make them refrain from Ministers. The English public were crimes, let him thus exercise his power, disgusted and alarmed at the violent and when he has to plead before the tone and daring perseverance of the English public for innocent men sufferIrish repealers, and the few Eng- ing from political hardships, he will then lish levellers who joined them, and be listened to with attention and symdetermined against such assailants, pathy; but the public whom he addresses, to support the Government. To Mr. when he crosses the channel, have not O'Connell's policy therefore it is owing nor ought to have any sympathy with that the Ministers established them- assassins, and they will not respect Ireselves at the outset of the Parliament- land a bit the more that able men are ary campaign-in the first division on to be found among its representatives public business of the first Reformed who hear of the punishment provided Parliament, by a majority in the pro- for those who commit such crimes, with portion of ten to one. Had Mr. O'Con- much indignation. If there was any nell taken a different course, the result particle of impression made upon the would have been very different—if, House by Mr. O'Connell's speech in instead of his bullying justification of moving his amendment to the address, revolting atrocities, and his savage it was completely swept away by the abuse of the threats of punishment held speech of Mr. Shaw, a Representative out in the King's speech, he had devoted of whom our University may well be himself to a grave and serious accusa- proud, standing as he now does in the tion of the Irish Government—if he very first rank among the men of ability had painted, as he well could have and eloquence in the House of Compainted, the acts of that Government Wearied and impatient as the by which the populace were absolutely House was, when he rose to speak on encouraged in their violence, and then the address, it was soon absorbed in suddenly checked with fierce ill temper, mute attention to his energetic and as if the object had been to goad them affecting eloquence, and the Conservainto madness, he then might have tive party were at once fixed as adhetaken the public feeling of England rents of the Ministry, so far as the with him, instead of turning it, as he suppression of outrage in Ireland dedid, against him. He should have manded their assistance. No man in known the English better than to sup- the House except Sir Robert Peel, pose they would patiently listen to any could have done so much by a single thing like justification of the horrible speech, as was effected by Mr. Shaw. offences with which the daily records What the future course of the Conof occurrences in Ireland are stained servative party may be during the Sesand blotted. He should have admitted sion, we do not pretend to determine. their wickedness, and with sorrowful in- They have already done enough to dignation, not with brutal fury, have shew how much they can forgive, and cast upon the Government the respon- how little they are open to the charge sibility which it has a right to bear. It of factious opposition. They are already is in vain to talk in bullying language reproached with coalition with the to Englishmen about circumstances to Whigs. Not many weeks have elapsed justify outrage and assassination. There since the Whig papers accused them of can be no such circumstances; such coalition with the Radicals. One accrimes must be punished, and if ordi- cusation answers the other—we trust nary powers are not sufficient for their they will coalesce with nothing but punishment, extraordinary powers must Conservative principles, and hold thembe given. It is very true that political selves equally aloof from the spurious evils are not to be met with the bullet liberalism of the Whigs, and the bold and bayonet, or the axe and rope of depravity of the more open Revoluthe executioner, but with redress. It tionists, who are at present opposed to is equally true, however, that those who the Whigs. It is indeed but too plain complain of political evils are not to be that if there be not a good deal of conallowed to right themselves by the sent on the part of the conservatives in foulest crimes, and the most horrible Parliament to uphold any tolerable violations of the laws of God and the measures of the Government, worse

will follow; but then this never should because the constituted authorities are be done without a disavowal of the to be upheld against the attacks of principles of the Ministry, and a pro- anarchy, but great care should be taken clamation made that the apparent union not to let words of courtesy go so far was one of sheer necessity ; so as to as seemingly to lose sight (for a moment) keep alive and distinct an unflinching of the grand difference, that the Conmaintenance of the only true principles servatives are “white," and Lord Grey's of Government, and social welfare. Administration “ black,” even if now Conservatives may find it necessary to and then they are thrust into company support the measures of Government, by particular circumstances.

POLITICAL ASTRONOMY,

OR, NOTES OP SOME OBSERVED DISTURBANCES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

The events, Mr. Editor, which I am one night, after my spirit had attained about to relate to you, as well as the an unusual degree of elevation by a adaptation of our language to celestial perusal of the debates in a certain phenomena will allow, have, however house, reported in the columns of the strange it may appear, been witnessed Times newspaper, and found myself by me, as the vision of the Revelation after a time placed by some invisible was by the Divine, before they have power in the chair of Cassiopeia, being actually taken place to our clouded and at the same time made certain that I confined perceptions. To explain how had liberty to dip my pen, a feather this is, would be fruitlessly wasting my from the right wing of the Swan, in the time and your patience, and you will dark azure of the heaven, and to make therefore at least give me the credit my notes of what passed upon the due to travellers in general, and believe milky way. my relation until some subsequent ad No sooner was I seated, than there venturer shall have proved its false was an unusual bustle in the little world hood. Strange indeed are the mysteries which I had left. I was reclined with of the universe, and cautious should he my legs crossed, my head on the palm be who attempts to initiate the public, of one hand, (my elbow being placed lest his soarings be, to its clouded pere on the arm of the chair, which was ception, considered fantastic or vision- stuffed with the softest nebulæ to make ary. But, like my great predecessor, it easy,) and the other lazily hanging Copernicus, who bore privation and over the back, with the quill between misery rather than conceal or disavow my fingers.--I was at once dubbed a the TRUTH, am I content to suffer the constellation. The object-glass of fout and jeer of every earth-crawler, every telescope glared full upon me.who raises his voice and turns up his An astronomical treatise was published nose in proportion to his prejudice and in little more than a week after I apignorance. * Let, then, him that pos- peared, for the purpose of enlightening sesses the sense and reason of a man, the world on the subject of “the new that he can understand great truths, discovery." I was described as being under the garb of allegory, come with observed in such a declination and me into a political Patmos, and learn right ascension, forming such an angle secrets that concern him nearly. with the elbow of Perseus, and the

Without further preamble, I will pro- right ear of Andromeda, and being ceed to inform you that I was rapt visible on a fine night to the naked eye. into the unmeasurable depths of ether But one thing remained—to give me a

name ; and this was more difficult than frequently concealed from his fellowmight be imagined. Philosophers dis- subjects. agreed ; for each wished to translate Immediately exterior to Hesperus

, his own patron to a place that might and at by no means an immeasurable give him some reasonable hopes of distance from him, revolved my own immortality. One name proposed was world, conducting with him, on his sober Philippus ; I suppose from my having and regular path, one bright luminary, taken a place to which it was conceived that shed the beams caught from the I had no right ; another, Miguelius, author of light principally upon her probably because I had ousted Cas- guardian, choosing for the season of siopeia from the throne, perhaps some her sweetest influence that hour, when similarity in my appearance to Ursa every other lamp is extinguished. Major might have suggested Augustus, With the same aspect ever turned upon but nothing but the pen could have her protector, she faithfully and feargiven rise to Agitator. When no like- lessly pursued her way, and if at any lihood of agreement appeared, an hum- time the light of her smile was eclipsed, ble astronomer proposed a name, which it was when he looked dark upon her. at once met with the approbation of all, Outside the terraqueous globe, Mars and I now figured in every celestial stalked on his red way, independent : globe under the title of ADVENA. and alone ; and beyond him, kept at a When I had got over my first asto- respectful distance by this fiery planet

, de nishment, and perceived that I was four small luminaries shuffled round in secure, I began to look about me, and their eccentric and irregular courses. what a prospect presented itself to me: These were supposed formerly to have Innumerable constellations darting their been but one, as indeed their inconsisplendour around, till the wide arch of derable size would argue, but, some heaven was lit, and burned in the radi- convulsion having separated them, each ance of indescribable light! I naturally set up for himself, (to use a terrestrial looked for my own system, and beheld expression,) and was by tacit acquies met the sun pouring out his bright treasures cence allowed all the rights, dignities

, on his tributary orbs, which, sleeping immunities, and privileges of a planet on their “soft axles," walked, as in a Sober and sad, grave Jupiter took his dream, their well-known courses around plodding journey along, enshrined with him. Music, more than earthly ears in his four satellites, and regardless of can understand, was wafted from each, the distance of Saturn, who, adorned and swelled and swept away amongst with ring and moons, sailed away the boundless halls of immensity-all through the twilight vastness of his was perfection, all was harmony, and orbit. But more remote even than all was beauty.

him, a planet that had been admitted A falling star flashed across my eyes but lately into the system through the ma roar as of thunder smote upon my misdirected exertions of the Earth, ear—and a voice, which said, “mortal, wound its way, suspicious and suspectsee as we see, and hear as we hear.” ed, and guarded by a trusty band of I started, and looked—and what a satellites, which, formerly but two, had change! I saw suns and systems as latterly increased to sir* to finite sight, animated and intellectual beings ; I I must not say what their number was heard their voices, as of men who dis- to mine. coursed together, and I found my

facul Through a reflector, with which the ties expanded to catch and retain the kindness of Andromeda supplied me, mysterious knowledge.

I was enabled to perceive that each of The sun was now a great and influ- these planets represented the sentiential ruler over subjects of various ments and characters of the generality dimensions and consequence.

Near of those innumerable beings thatswarmhim were two stars of brilliancy, Mer- ed on its surface ; and I could even cury and another, which, variously distinguish the individual appearance denominated, I shall call' Hesperus. and occupation of the throng. MerThe first of these was so near as to be cury and Hesperus were inhabited by

In this age of discovery, the Herschel may have a dozen moons visible since I read Brinkley, I wish the number were eight.

same.

dignified creatures, each wearing a atmosphere of each planet, &c. &c. small crown on his head ; but in other Another(which forcibly reminded me of respects there was a marked difference my adventurous prototype Gulliver's between the inhabitants of the two Laputa) had strange creatures, plan bodies.

ning new systems-examining the strucThe lords of the former tossed their ture of the world-conjecturing with reheads and strutted, and boasted them- spect to others--dividing their surface selves of their propinquity and relation- into complex mathematical figures ship to the Sun , while on the latter, endeavouring to form satellites for all was gravity, majesty, and decorum. themselves. But it would be an endThe coronets of these did not indeed less task to recount the various and make so fine a show, but I soon per- extraordinary pursuits of those figures. ceived that it was only because they I soon felt tired of following them, were older, the materials of which they and directed my glass outwards to were composed being precisely the Jupiter, whose population was grave

and dogmatical, clothed in flowing garOf the Earth I need say nothing but ments, with venerable wigs, and a this

, that the good people who inhabit leathern aspect, they met and argued, it are most super-eminently Conservative, and disputed in incessant contention ; as regards any change dehors their own though I soon perceived that they little world, and that nothing terrifies were, notwithstanding, on very good them more than the bare mention of any terms with each other ; they held conconvulsion of a more extended nature stant communication with the four sathan that of states and empires. But tellites, and passed in and out of them å glimpse at the moon showed me as their business or inclination promptgrave and venerable men, in sad co- ed them. loured garments, of whom it must be On the surface of Saturn, I beheld confessed there were a few puffed up an idle, lazy, lounging crew, some sitwith the great reverence paid to them, ting listlessly looking about them, not only by their own body, but by some playing at games of chance, some

but by far the greater por- quarrelling, and some complaining ; tion were humbly engaged in what I all evidently ignorant and discontented, suppose were their duties. Some yet affecting to despise and ridicule were exhorting others to acts of bene- every thing outside their own ring. tolence and charity; some were visit On the Herschel were scattered a ing those in sickness or distress ; some turbulent, sans-culottes band, each with Were poring over old books, of which an oak-stick in his gripe ; and as well as the light from one dazzled me so, as I could distinguish, a piece of sharp iron that I was unable to discover its con- adapted to the head of it, partially aptents; these they frequently opened pearing from his pocket. But enough and placed in view of the earth and of the constituency of the planets; I shall the other planets, which were all pro- henceforth confine myself to the mass. vided with glasses sufficiently power My neighbour Perseus, who seemed ful to read them—though few there an intelligent constellation, and from seemed to be who applied themselves whom I gained all my information on to the study; there were others who these subjects, told me that these knelt apart

, and seemed rapt in de- bodies had continued to revolve for votion.

six thousand years of sidereal time On Mars I plainly beheld great cas time quietly round the sun, with some tles

, banners Hying, camps forming, little disturbances, it is true, but in the · armies marching“ in all the pomp and main agreeing wonderfully ; but that

circumstance of war.” But it was not of late a serious spirit of discontent without difficulty that I could discern had begun to manifest itself in certain what the little beings on the lesser of them; and this had risen to such a planets were about ; on one of them pitch, that it had been agreed, shortly were things busily engaged in casting before my arrival, to refer the points up never-ending accounts-calculating in dispute to a solemn meeting of the the quantity of light emitted from the whole system. sun annually—the minimum of gravita Accordingly I had not long to wait tion requisite to hold the system to- before I perceived that the celestial gether—the superfluous atoms of the conclave had met. The chair was

the earth;

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