« הקודםהמשך »
THE EARLY REFORMERS_GEORGE JOYE.
The boast of Sthenelus in Ho- made the same inference two and mer, is no uncharacteristic motto for twenty hundred years ago! Our reathe present times : ipsis rào waripãr ders shall have a portion of the diaμίγ αμείνονες ευχόμεθ ειναι.--How many Iogue :do we hear exclaiming, that the col. • Socrates : Hippias ! the dandy and lective mind of “all our yesterdays” the wise man! 'Tis a long time since is as nothing compared with “ the last you touched at Athens. march” and “movement of to-day " Hippias : ”Tis, because I have not But the truth is far otherwise. We had leisure, Socrates ! appeal to every man that coolly ob Socrates : Come, tell me, in the serves the present, and rationally re name of Jove! because our other arts flects upon the past.
have advanced, and the mechanics of When the intellectual dayspring of former days were contemptible in comthe age of reformation, the sixteenth parison with ours, must we say, that century, bursts
on the astonished your art has in like manner improved, mind, the little fire-flies, fitting and and that the ancients, who applied themsparkling, through the present day, selves to wisdom, were nothing comvanish in insignificance.
pared with you(march-of-intellect-men), But the majority even of the reading of the present age ? public are now too much occupied with Hippias : Quite right, old Socrates ! the gross and tangible objects of know. this is the very truth!!** ledge, to contemplate, with attentive How entirely does this dialogue, thought, the annals of the past : when considered in relation to the preαταλαίπωρος τους πολλοις, says the his sent times, verify the words of Guictorian of the Peloponnesian war, i ciardini, when writing to the FlorenSurnois ans årútuias, zás iai tá i rospice pán. tine historian, “ vedi che mutati sono i dov agiworras, so impatient are the mul- visi degli uomini ed i colori estrinseci : titude in the search of truth, and ready le cose medesime tutte ritornano, ne to adopt any opinions which are made vediamo accidente alcuno, che a altri to their hands. Having heard that empi non sia stato veduto !" mechanic arts, manufactures, agricul. But, admitting this boasted spread of ture, and commerce, have improved, physical knowledge, and the enlarged and that every thing that tends to pro- command of the products of the mamote our animal comforts, or to multi- terial world, let us ask, “have moral ply the refinements and embellishments happiness and virtue, and the sympa. of society, has increased beyond any thies, which bind man to man, increased former period, and that the elements of in equal proportion ?" Every one is political and scientific knowledge are compelled to admit, that they have more generally diffused, most men sit not; but too many plume themselves down well contented with the dis- in the self-satisfying fiction, that the covery, and, with a strange logic, infer, evils in the world are not so much the that they and their cotemporaries are result of their own worthlessness and every way raised in the scale of hu- vices as of what their ancestors have manity and intellect above those of done or established. “ Delusion all, former days. But there is no and vain philosophy!” We are little thing under the sun. We are told by disposed to disparage the present Plato, in a dialogue between Socrates times. We admit all their peculiar and Hippias, that the Grecian sophists advantages, and thank God for them ;
* Σ. Ισσιας και καλός τε και σοφός, ως διά χρόνου ημιν κατήρας εις τας Αθήνας.
Ι. ου γαρ σχολή ο Σωκρατες. Σ. αρ' ουν, προς Διος, ώσσερ αι άλλαι τέχναι επιδέδωκασι και εισι παρά τους νυν δημιουργούς οι παλαιοι φαυλοι, ούτω και την υμέτεραν τέχνην επιδέδωκεναι φώμεν, και είναι των
αρχαιών τους περί ΣΟΦΙ' ΑΝ φαύλους προς υμάς ; 1. wavu peir eu'r opdas aégus, &c.-Plat. Hipp. Maj.
but, when we contrast the sixteenth place. He was a native of Bedfordand seventeenth centuries, those“ pe- shire, and was educated at Cambridge, riods of reviving splendor in the cul- and elected Fellow of Peterhouse tivation of the human mind"#_when in 1517, about which time Luther thought was thought, not reading- commenced his labours in the cause of wben the mind of man was stirred and Reformation. Learning was then at a stirred to its depths, and the aspira- very low ebb in both the English Unitions of the human heart were for versities. Cambridge was the seat of liberty—not licentiousness—and intel- ignorance, of bigotry and superstition. I lect was absorbed in the contemplation The nurslings of a purer faith and of of truths spiritual, eternal, and uni- religious reform, who remained for a versal, deeply drinking in the soul of time unnoticed or neglected within things, with an intensity and uni- her cloisters, were soon blasted by the versality, as if it never could be poison-breath of persecution, and he deadened or satiated—again when we who presumed to teach the right of contrast those periods with the present private judgment, or to promulgate the times, we feel like the traveller, who, truths and expose the corruptions of having beheld the Nile, the Ganges, the Scriptures, was instantly beset by the River of the Amazons, or the a swarm of monkish hornets, who mighty Andes,
dreaded, lest the light of God's Word,
shed abroad upon the people, striking “ Turns his gaze To mark the wanderings of a scanty rill of ignorance and error, should discover
through the blank and settled night That murmurs at his feet.”+
to the world the unholy recesses of One of the first of those who stood their nests of indolence, impiety, and forward in England in the 16th cen- iniquity. The classical reader will tury to advocate the diffusion of the here be reminded of the piteous plight Holy Scriptures amongst the people, in which Pluto is described by the and to proclaim the sacred right of great Epic Bard, starting from his private judgment, was George Joye. throne, Jest the mysteries of his dark Though he is mentioned in terms of the abode should be unveiled to mortals. highest praise by his most eminent co ίδδεισιν δυπίνερθεν άναξ ενίρων 'Αϊδωνεύς, temporaries, few notices of his life or δείσας δ'εκ θρόνου αλτο και λαχι; μή οι writings have been collected in any one Daripes
• Can the eight eenth and nineteenth centuries assemble such great names as the following : -Luther, Melancthon, Calvin, Beza, Zuinglius, Erasmus, Ecolampadius Bullinger, Martin Bucer, Tyndale, Knox, Ridley, Hooper, Latimer, Jewell, Hooker, N. Bacon, Raleigh, Vaseo de Gama, Bacon, Des Cartes, Gassendi, Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo, Tycho Brahe, Grotius, Salmasius, Wallis, Sir Matthew Hale, Newtoa, (born in 1642), Shakspeare, Spencer, Milton, B. Jonson, Sir Philip Sydney, Michael Angelo, Titian, Raphael, Rubens, Guido, Domenechino; or such theologians as Hales, Usher, Bedell, Hall, Fell, Hammond, Calamy, Walton, Baxter, Pearson, Barrow, Cudworth, Boyle, Locke, Chillingworth, Stillingfleet, Mede, Parker, Tillotson; the two Buxtorfs, Voct ; the Spanheims, Du Moulin, Abbadie, Saurin, Claude, Whitgift, Donne, Herbert, Nowell, Sanderson, Beveridge, (born 1638,) Sir H. Wotton, the two Henrys, Hall, &c. &c. † It has been truly remarked by Schiller, in his introduction to the thirty years
“ Seit dem anfang des religions kriegs in Deutschland bis zum Munsterischen Frieden, ist in der politischen Welt Europens kaum etwas grosses und merkwürdiges geschehen, woran die Reformation nicht den vornehmsten Autheil gehabt hätte. Alle weltbegeben beiten, welche sich in diesem Zeitraum ereignen, schliessen sich an die glanbens verbesserung an, wo sie nicht ursprünglich, darans herflossen, und jeder doch so grosse und noch so kleine staat hat mehr oder weniger, mittelbarer odd unmittelbarer, den Einfluss derselben empfunden.”
“ From the beginning of the war of religion in Germany, to the peace of Munster, no great or remarkable event happened in the world of Europe in which the Reformation had not the principal share. All the important events of this period were connected with it, if they did not originate from it, and every country has felt its influence.'
| A Life of Latimer, prefixed to the 4th Edition of his Works.
γαλαν αναρρήξειε Ποσειδάων ενοσίχθων, , “ Abide," quoth he, “ with my Chanδικία δε θνητόισι και αθανάτοισι φανείη, cellor 'till I come again." I desired σμερδαλί”, ευρώεντα, τα τι στυγίουσι my Lord to be good Lord to me, and
shew me his pleasure, what his Lord. It is no matter of surprise that Joye, ship would with me ; and he answered who advocated the universal diffusion me like a Lord, and said, I should wait of the Gospel, and who was, as we are upon his leisure. On the morrow, I told by Fuller, “the great friend of Mas- met with a Scholar of Cambridge, and ter Tyndale,” became the object of ca he told me the Bishop of Lincolne had lumny and persecution. Accused of sent his servant busily to enquire and heresy, in a letter from the Prior of to seek me. “ What is the matter?” Newenham to the Bishop of Lincoln, quoth I. Marry," quoth he, “it is he was sent for, to use his own words, said he would give you a benefice !" “as from the Cardinal Wolsey, by one “ A benefice !" quoth' I,“ yea ! a maleof his officers to Cambridge, with let. fice rather, for so reward they men of ters delivered to the Vice-Chancellor, well-doing !" Then I got my horse, Dr. Edmunds, then Master of Peter- and rode from my benefice, and left house, in which letters he was desired College and all that I had. And the to send me up to appear at Westmin- Bishop of Lincolne laid privy wait for ster at nine of the clock, with Bilney me to be taken, and my feet bound under and Arthure, for certain erroneous an horse's belly, to be brought into him." opinions. I saw the Cardinal's sign Suspecting that the Cardinal had no manual subscribed in great letters, and charitable design towards him, and behis seal. I got me horse, when it lieving that his religious principles snowed, and was cold, and came to would be more effectually made known London, and so to Westminster, not to his countrymen from a foreign land, long after my houre, when Bilney and he resigned his fellowship, his home, Arthure were in examination. When his country, and his friends, and went I knew but those two poor sheep to Strasburgh in 1572. among so many cruel wolves, I was “ Your letters," as he pathetically not overhasty to thrust in amongst writes to his calumniator, “wrought them, for there was a shrewd many of me much trouble, and drew out of my Bishops, besides the Cardinal, with breast many a deep sigh, and many a others of that faction. On the Satur- salt tear out of mine eyes; they made day, a Master of mine, William Gas me suddenly to fly-to forsake my coigne, the Cardinal's treasurer, bade poor living, my college, my learning, me go to the cbamber of presence. I my promotion, and all that I had. They was but a coarse courtiger, never be- drew me out of my native land, whose fore hearing this term, and I was half desire yet holdeth me, for that I would ashamed to ask after it, and at last hap- right gladly return, and dare not, being pened upon a door, and knocked, and exiled into a strange land, among rude one opened it, and when I looked in, and boisterous people. Your letters it was the kitchen! Then the trea- caused me not only to forsake my kin surer told me, the Cardinal sent not and friends, but they slandered me so
Then I began to smell their grievously, that they made them to forsecret conveyance, and how they had sake me, and so to hate me, that yet I counterfeited their Lord the Cardinal's cannot come again into their favour, letters. And here the treasurer sent for they abhorred me 90 sore, after me to the Bishop of Lyncolne ; Dr. your secret letters had openly defamed Barnes shewed my Lord of me, and me, that they would not suffer me to said that I must come down again in come into their houses, nor speak with the morning at six of the clock. I did me, nor help me, but fied from me,
and so, and waited at the stair's foot 'till it loathed me, which before both loved was about eight. My Lord came me, and were right glad of my comdown, and I did my duty to him. He
pany: But if
had known Christ “ Be you Master Joye ? and his Word, you would never have “ Yea! forsooth, my Lord,” quoth I. done thus unto ine- I know it well."
* H. 20. 61.
Thus exiled from all that earth held Does the same principle inark the dear to him, he trusted not to dissipa- present times ? Far from it. tion of mind, or to length of time, to culations of presumptuous expediency, free him from his afflictions. He knew groping its way among partial and that even sutierings often make a ne- temporary consequences, have been cessary part in the disposition of substituted for the dictates of parathings as ordained by Providence-he mount and infallible consciencet.” How knew that resignation to the will of strange would it appear to our politicothat Providence was true magnanimity. religious senators of the 19th century, His mind was in hiinself-his mind in should they be addressed by the Lord himself was also in God; and there. Chancellor, on the opening of their fore he loved and therefore he soared*. councils, as the Lord Keeper Bacon, He remembered that he was but a pil- in the name of Queen Elizabeth, once grim on the earth, travelling to a beiter addressed the Peers of England ? and an eternal world ; and if asked “ Iu all councils and conferences, my where his country lay, he would have Lords, first and chietly there should be pointed, like Anaxagoras, to the hea- sought the advancement of God's glory, vens. Expulsed,” as he writes in his as the sure and infallible foundation, letter to the Prior," from my native whereon the policy of every good public land, forsaking all my kin and friends, weal is to be built; and, as the straight I do daily comfort myself, as God line whereby it is to be directed and giveth me grace, with this one com- governed; and, as the chief pillar and fortable saying of my Saviour—“Blessed buttress wherewith it is continually to are you when men cast rebukes upon be maintained.” you, persecuting you, and report all Such were the principles by which, manner
of evil against you, for under the blessing of the Alonegreat is your reward in Heaven. Good, the early Reformers, amid the This one sentence is enough to com- huge overshadowing train of error that fort me against all slanders and false had almost swept all the stars out of reports."
the firmament of the Churchf, went " Men ignorant of the Gospel,” as forth conquering and to conquer. he writes in another work, “what com “ They shrunk not, though assailed fort and deliverance have they in such With hostile din, and combating in anxieties? Verily none at all. Where sight fore let us embrace the Gospel, love Of angry umpires, partial and unand reverence the very true church ; just; let us know the godly not to be called And did, thereafter, bathe their to sluggishness and idleness, but into hands in fire, the most sharp, hard, and jeopardous So to declare the conscience satisbattle."
It is this feeling that so eminently Nor for their bodies would accept distinguishes the writings and decds of release ; the early Reformers froin the spirit of But blessing God and praising him, action and of thought in the present bequeath'd, day. Duties are man's,
With their last breath, from out the quences are God's," was the motto of
smouldring flaine, their lives. Thus only can their won The Faith which they by diligence derful achievements be accounted for. had earned, " Que eût crû,” exclaims the eloquent And thro' illuminating Grace reSaurin, “ que Luther pût triompher de ceived, tant d'obstacles, qui s' opposoient au
For their dear countrymen, and all succes de ses predications en Alle mankind; magne ? et que ce superbe Empereur ( high example! constancy divine !" (Charles 5,) qui comptoit parmi ses
WORDSWORTH. Captifs des Pontifes et des Rois, ne pùt But we resume the subject of our triompher d'un miserable moine ?" memoir. From his exile at Strasburg,
See a most eloquent pamphlet by the truly philosophic Poet, Wordsworth, on “ The Relations of England, Spain, and Portugal," published in 1809. + See Milton on “ Reformation in England.”
See Gilbert's Hurricane in Notis. VOL. I,
Joye wrote his “Answer” to the Prior of This ingenious piece of argumentaNewenham Abbey*, in which he ex tion reminds us of the expostulation of posed the greatest errors of the Church the Oulemas, or lawyers, in Turkey, of Rome, with an honest sincerity, a when Achmet the Third wished to esstrength of argument, a piety and com- tablish a printing press, about 1727, to mand of scriptural illustration which print the Koran. “ 0!” said they, few writers on the abuses of that Church“ it would be an act of impiety, if the have surpassed.
word of God should be squeezed and Speaking of the Scriptures being pressed together!" It seems, that withheld from the laity, he says, “ If they derived a considerable income ye were well acquainted with Christ from transcribing the Koran, which his Gospel, you should have read would thus have been lost. there, Wo be to you Scribes and Pha Latimer promised to reply to the risees, hypocrites! for you shut up the learned Prior of the Blackfriars, on the Kingdom of Heaven before inen, following Sabbath. Before the sermon You say the knowledge of God's word began, the Prior entered, with his cowl is hard and dark for the lay people, but about his shoulders, and took his seat wo be to you, saith Isaiah, that tell in front of the pulpit. Latimer gravely the light to be darkness. Yon say, 'recapitulated the doctor's arguments, that the Scripture in English would and then expressed his commiseration make sedition and breed errors and for the people, whose understandings heresies among the laymen: but wo were held by their spiritual pastors in be to you, saith Isaiah, that say that such low esteem. He wished, howething which is good to be evil! You ver, that his honest countrymen might say, the letter slayeth, is unsavoury only have the use of the Scriptures, and bitter for them, but wo be to you, until they showed themselves such absurd saith Isaiah again, that say, that which interpreters as the Prior represented is sweet to be bitter.”
them. “ A figurative manner of speech," As an instance of the grave and said he, " is common to all languages. weighty arguments by which the trans- Images of this kind are in daily use lation of the Scriptures into English, and generally understood. For inwas opposed by the clergy of the Ro- stance (addressing himself to that part man communion in that day, the reader of the audience where the cowled is referred to a discourse which Dr. Prior was sitting,) when we see a fox Buckenham, Prior of the Blackfriars painted in a friar's hood, nobody imain Cambridge, delivered against Lati- gines that a fox is meant, but that craft mer, that pillar of the Reformation, and hypocrisy are described, which are who did indeed, as he prophesied so often found disguised in that garb." immediately before his execution to This comparison, not indeed suited for Ridley, light such a candle, with God's the sacredness of the pulpit, excited a grace, in England, as shall never be general smile from the audience. The extinguished. “ If the ploughman,” raillery had the effect of shutting up said the learned Prior, “ 'should read Friar Buckenham within his monasin the Gospel, no man that layeth his tery, and the reasoning of the preacher hand on the plough and looking back, drove him eventually from the Univeris fit for the kingdom of God, he would sity. cease from his labor; and the baker, in Does our reader smile at the solemn like manner, finding, that a little leaven trifling of the Prior of the sixteenth leaveneth the whole lump, will, perad-century ? After a lapse of three hunventure, leave our bread un-leavened ; dred years, are not the present pretexts a third, reading, if thine eye offend thee, for withholding the Bible from the peopluck it out and cast it from thee, may ple, equally impions, ridiculous and be induced, in obedience thereto, to absurd The fact that they are so, pluck out his eyes, and so the world be should the more stimulate those, who filled with beggars."
sincerely desire to see the Holy Scrip
• « The Letters which Johan Ashwell, Prior of Newenham Abbey, sent secretly to the Bishop of Lincolne, wherein the said Prior accuseth George Joye of four opinions, with the answere of the said George unto the same opinions,” printed at Strasburgh A.D. 1527.