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continental writer, M. Turgot, has sug- appears totally fallacious, that algebragested that in all probability abstract ical results are analogous to the concluideas are the first which are formed in the sions which we draw in general reaminds of children. The origin of this hy. soning. It confounds the sensible pothesis, rests upon the common habit of relations of material quantity with the children apparently confounding fami- abstract relations of impalpable qualiliar ideas, as in the instance already ties, than which nothing can be more analyzed, of a child calling several per dissimilar. From the very nature of sons by the name of father. This, as language, verbal reasoning must be prehas been shewn, arises from the child ceded by mental. And the individual affixing to the terms it employs certain who has advanced this doctrine apsignifications, which differ from those pears unconsciously to have controwhich those terms in ordinary accep- verted it in another portion of his tation, and by conventional arrange- valuable work, for he tells us, that ment, usually express. Now the great “part of the process in reasoning, conperfection of the Christian's creed is sists in fixing, with a rapidity that this, that the meaning of its leading escapes our memory, the precise meanterms is previously settled by its divine ing of every word which is ambiguous, author ; and the Christian beholds in by the relation in which it stands to his God, his Creator, his Redeemer, his the general scope of the argument." Sanctifier. He finds in the page of In algebraical deduction, it is true, that revelation, the fixed relation in which there is a meaning primarily attached man stands to his God; and the mode to the symbols, from which meaning we by which he is to become one with are supposed not to depart, and so far Christ. And while others are tossed it may be considered analogous to geupon the troubled ocean of life, driven neral reasoning. But in the former the before the storm, and overclouded in process of tracing the relations is conthe tempest, his chart is spread before ducted on pre-established principles, him, his prow is ever towards the ha- founded on the known relations of ven of his rest, and as he ascends upon quantity; whereas in the latter, that the swelling bosom of the heaving and process altogether depends on the tempestuous billow, he only feels him- meaning of the general terms employed. self, when poised upon its crest, (as it The perception of the several relations were) Alung the nearer to Him who is can only be ascertained by tracing the his present help in trouble. The man similitude of the qualities which prowho takes his creed, his principles and duce sensations, or in other words by his definitions from the Bible, will find analyzing the precise meaning of the that his lamp will be trimmed and his terms employed. Language is a neoil provided, when he is summoned cessary instrument to communicate “ to attend the Bridegroom." Reason- thought, but is not essential to thinking. ing on spiritual things cannot proceed The vast importance, therefore, of havsafely without this precaution. Rea- ing the language of scriptural discussoning is the perception of the relation sion clearly understood, cannot be too of two ideas by means of their mutual strongly urged. And so in defending relation to another idea or ideas. A our holy faith, we should always ascerthought is the affection of the mind tain the verbal weapons of our advercreated by the perception of the rela- sary, and make him draw his sword tion of two objects or ideas. Reason- from the scabbard. How strangely or ing then may be considered as the pro- rather how divinely coincident are the cess by which we arrive at an abstract opinions, and harmonious the feelings, thonght, and which is effected by com of all those who acknowledge the docparing a particular thought with other trine of the influence of God's Holy thoughts and tracing a similitude of Spirit as essential to the formation of a relations. It has been considered by true believer. And how diversified an eminent philosopher that this pro- and various the tracks and courses of cess may go forward by using words those who leave the spiritual convoy; like algebraical symbols, and without and trust their frail barks to the casual reference to the precise signification of gusts of polemical dissension. If each particular word, in each stage of the errors into which, in the ordinary the

process. This dangerous opinion process of reasoning, from its very nahas its foundation in a position which ture, man must always be liable to fall,

are all avoided by the Gospel system, heavenly contemplation, the glory and if the true chart and compass for a sublimity of which is coeval with eterheaven-bound voyage can only be nity and coextensive with immensity, found in the page of Divine Revela- and all these its effects are traced by tion ; if by the system of Scripture the finger of God in his Word, as alone, man's nature can be re-con- they demonstrably flow from that distructed, its symmetry adjusted, and vine system upon the principles of mereconciliation with his Creator effected taphysical and moral science ; " How -if every affection of the heart, and beautiful then upon the mountains are every emotion of the soul, there, and the feet of him that bringeth good there only, find the bread and the wa- tidings, that publisheth peace !" Let ter of life, to satisfy the hunger and the political tempests now gathering thirst after righteousness—if by that around rage as they may; we have avenue alone we find an approach to each our position to defend, and may the throne of grace, enabling us to we be enabled firmly to stand in the stand erect in the robes of imputed day of trial. This consolation, at least, righteousness—if that system finds men must remain to the true believer, that scathed by the lightning of the wrath when driven to the last entrenchment of offended purity, and clothes him in of that civil and religious freedom with all the loveliness and eternal verdure which we once were blest, as subjects of infinite grace-if it gives and realises of a temporal King, and when the last to man the promise of the life that now inch of ground remains, and the last is, as well as that which is to come- moment intervenes between his allotted if it smashes and shatters the fetters of time and his entrance on eternity, he sin, and emancipates the sinner from falls upon the bosom of his martyred the slavery of an unholy nature—if it master, where a hallowed home and whispers peace in aflietion, sympathy an everlasting rest remain to him, as to in sorrow—if it lights up the darkness all who have trusted in the same unof the grave—if it transfers our affec- failing promises, and walked in the tions to the high considerations of di- same infallible light. vine mercy, and affords a theme for our

A DREAM.

I slept—and back to my early days

Did wandering fancy roam,
When my hopes were bright, and my heart was light,

And my own a happy home.
And I dream'd I was young and innocent,

And my brow untrac’d by care,
While my parents smild on their darling child,

And breath'd for his weal a prayer.
Once again I was rising before the sun,

For in childhood I was told,
If its earliest ray on my head should play,

It would turn each tress to gold.
I was kneeling again on the grassy knoll,

Where I never may kneel more,
And I pray'd, and was blest, with that holier rest,

Whose halcyon reign is o'er.
I was sporting again thro' the fields and flowers,

And felt at each step new joys ;-
But I woke with a sigh, that e'er memory

Should revive what time destroys.

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The benefits of history are lost to Lord Chief Justice. Charles followed him who, either a fool or a knave, his example towards the gay and vicious would regard it as an “ Ol Almanack.” Duke of Buckingham ; but not in the Without it, man's life should be but the same spirit with that of the hero of present hour as it flits from him, and, Agincourt; and if, at a period nearer like a ship at sea, no shore in view, no to our own times, a prince, on his acrudder, compass, or log-book, the past cession to the throne, had forgotten course were unprofitable, the future towards a minister an act of duty which without an object. I confess that I a very limited understanding, alone, entertain great reverence for history, could have construed into personal ofand, without being the keeper of any fence, England might, probably, have man's conscience but my own, I would been spared calamities for the pen of hold it a sin of deep dye against the history yet to record. Charles was a happiness of mankind, to vilify its cha man of an excellent heart, but of weak racter or deny its authority. It is a intellect as to the art of governing. He treasury upon which all may draw to had a bad minister, but, worse and render the path of life safe, useful, and more fatal to his fortunes, he had in pleasant; and to it I am indebted for Henrietta of France, his royal consort, the following narrative, in which pri- abosom-counsellor to popery. Alliance vate loves, dangers, and sorrows, min- of any kind with France, has been fagle with the vicissitudes and sufferings tal to the throne and people of Engof royalty. That narrative, Mr. Edi- land. Hume, inclined himself to the tor, I offer as an humble tribute to Stuarts, has not attempted to withhold your laudable attempt to add to the or disguise from the judgment of posyet scanty stores of our national litera- terity, that the favouring of popery ture.

and innovations upon the Established A bright morning often ushers in a Church, even more than the arbitrary gloomy and tempestuous day, Charles dispensations of the laws, led to the the First ascended the throne of Eng- embroilment of the state and the exeland with as much popularity as ever cution of the King on a scaffold, as fattered or deceived a sovereign-evil having violated the laws and constituadvisers brought him to ascend a scaf- tion of which he had been appointed fold, and by his death

the guardian, and the integrity of To point a moral or adorn a tale.

which he was bound to maintain. The Henry the Fifth had the magnanimity, assassination of Buckingham did not or, what is better, the wisdoin to for- relieve Charles from the evils which get what the Prince of Wales endured had been superinduced by his pernifrom the official faith and duty of the cious councils. The impetus given to

misrule continued after the head from lay, wrapt profoundly in its accustomed which it proceeded was laid low, and, state of tranquillity. This place, now when forced by the long parliament, to a neat and pleasant town, was, at the concession after concession, he found, period in which our narrative comas in our own times, that he was only mences, remarkable for nothing but endeavouring to “ till a sieve with wa- the goodness of its harbour, which, with ter"—the stream of time has always its proximity and safe egress to the “ stepping-stones” to facilitate the pro- German ocean, and the excellent quagress of revolution and calamity. The lity and great variety of the finny tribes King gave his assent to the bill deprive swarming on its shores, had rendered ing the Bishops of their votes in par- it one of the small emporiums, where liament, and in that moment he cast the patient and money-loving Hollandfrom him the soundest and strongest ers carried on their thriving fisheries. staff which he had to lean upon. It Being entirely occupied, either in the consummated the views and the power pursuits of a maritime life, or the less of the republican faction. So “ anti- dangerous, though not less laborious monarchial an act,” as Clarendon terms one, of curing their fish, as their days it, stamped the cause of the King with were peaceful and industrious, so were the seal of desperation and destruction. their slumbers tranquil and profound ; The royal bark began to the rats and it required neither watchmen nor obeved their instinct, and the few, in patrol to secure the property or protect either house of parliament, who had the lives of the well-regulated denizens been the King's friends, forsook him of Docklum. The modern march of and sided with the “ lords of the as- intellect had not yet reached them, nor cendant." Charles, whatever the er- ultra-civilization cursed them with the tors of his government, passionately increase and ingenuity of crime, which and faithfully loved his Queen-no in our day, and in our country, makes profiigate minister or favourite, whig municipal police, the most arduous part or tory, could detach him from her. of the science of Government to conHe inherited the fatal uxoriousness of coct and reduce to practice. There the “ first man,” and incurred his pe was then, as we believe there is now, nalty : his Eden was forfeited, he was perfect harmony in the mental and made acquainted with death, and his physical conformation of our Dutch Eve was sent forth on the world. The neighbours, and the Craniologists (if Queen, after the death-contest be- there had been any in that day,) would gan, embarked at Dover, for Hol- have found few bumps on the head of a land, and the King, who had at- genuine Mynheer, unless, as in the tended hereinbarkation, returned to · Emerald Isle, produced by the very Greenwich to be sacrificed to the successful application of a sprig of spirit of democracy. What follow- shillela.” The organ of money-making ed between this period and that could, certainly, have been found develwhen the fortunes of Charles had ar- oped, but so incorporated with that of rived at a still more interesting crisis, honesty that they could not be sepaneeds not to be detailed here. We are not rated. In numerous points of modern about to give a regular history of the knowledge, it must be confessed, the life and death of the royal martyr, but inhabitants of Docklum, in common wish to raise the veil of time from facts with their countrymen in general, were relating to some individuals of the miserably deficient, probably because Itinerant Court, whose destinies were that then “the Schoolmaster was not involved in those of the unhappy mo- abroad,” and that none of the shining barch, and whose Love and LOYALTY lights of our modern administrations were never separated from the fortunes had at that time any archetypes in the of the royal victim. But let us on to political firmament; nor the labours of our tale without further preface. Paine, Cobbett, Hone, Carlisle, and

It was on a keenly cold and frosty those of the Edinburgh Reviewers had night, or rather morning, by the clock, been cast upon society like a moral or the eleventh of February, in the malaria. The inhabitants of Docklum year of Grace, one thousand six hun- were so shamefully ignorant, that they dred and forty-three, that the little knew not the distinctions of Whig and town of Docklum, situated at the Tory, Repealer and Radical—they mouth of the River Ee, in Friedland, were troubled neither with Catholic

Emancipation-Parliamentary Reform vice is, the observance of it. Peter »-Jesuit Ministers, nor Jesuit Priests ; was under the influence of his swelled

passive resistance'could not be trans- legs and stubborn constitution, on the lated into their language ; they held fine and cold night we have mentioned, Pope and Devil in equal repute, and when sounds to which his ear was not would have had no dealings with either unaccustomed, brought him to the caseexcept-upon Change ; and the Pope ment, which looked up the street. It (we will not answer for the other gen was the distant tramp of a small party tleman) seemed as little disposed to of horse, and as our Host added to his have any thiug to do with them ;-in a retail business, the wholesale benevoword, they were good, plain, down- lence of administering to the wants of right Protestants, and, however deti- those who nauseate the favour of any cient in other reading, they were deeply liquid which had undergone the ordeal versed in their Bibles and their ledgers; of an impost, or, in other words, that which was the most favourite study, had been exchequered, he felt assured we presume not to say, but if they la. that some of his free-trade friends were boured equally to save their souls and about to visit him ; he was disappointtheir fish, they did that which was rare ed, and so was the love of gain, which in their own age, and is still more so in was as national to Peter as natural to ours ; above all, they had the wisdom, all in every part of the world, who which we have woefully proved our sell ale or any thing else. He saw selves not to have possessed-they re pass under his window a sight, then as spected the adage, “ Let well enough rare in Docklum, as an honest statesalone,”-had no King or Prime Mi- man, or peace-loving priest of mother nister to provoke to love of change, church, would be in our day. This and, necessarily, were happier than sight was an officer and two mounted most of their neighbours.

dragoons, fully caparisoned in the ponSuch were the simple and honest derous accoutrements of the times, and Docklumonians on the night already corresponding in stature to their horses, mentioned; but even Morpheus's leaden which were of the largest black Flansceptre cannot ensure general obedience, ders breed. Peter thrust his head out and there is scarcely a well-inhabited of the window, looked after the men at house, much less a small fishing town, arms, wondered what the devil it could in which “ kind nature's sweet re be about, and went to bed. storer, balmy sleep,” does not deny her Now, although our Host of the Dolnourishment to some; and, on the phin is not the hero of our tale, nor night in question, Peter Von Double- long to hold place in our narrative, we Chalkem, the proprietor of a small are in conscience bound to vindicate change-house in Docklum, had been him from any distinctive imputation sedulously courting her influence, but resting on his character, in consequence she “ no ready visit paid.” An intense of our having said that his love of swelling in his legs, which“ murdered gain was disappointed, because, that sleep," and had baftled all medical skill whatever called for the visit of the draand sagacity to alleviate or determine, goons, they did not call for drink.had kept him awake. Peter, however, Truth to say—and we value truth if nowise disposed to the rus in urbe of for no other than a mercantile princithe Docklum Pere la Chaise, kept his ple for its scarcity-honest Peter difante-mortem ground, despite of every fered in nothing, that we have ever professional prediction to the contrary. known, from all other honest men, Truth to say, our Host of the Dolphin whose creed was to be found in the laboured hard to support the credit of balance sheet of profit and loss. Inhis physician, who, with great respect deed, nothing seems more strange and be it spoken, never graduated beyond unaccountable to us, than that so much the pestle and mortar, which formed discord and crime should fill the world the sign over his shop-door, situated at under the pretext of difference of relithe corner of Tombstone-Alley ; and, gion-for a mere and shallow pretext although in daily indulgence of pota- it is, and there is no man, willing to see tions, deep and strong, Peter still kept things in their true light, who must not on his legs, bad as they were, and be convinced that there is but one uniwould almost lead one to believe that versal religion, and that the whole huthe only danger attending medical ad man race—the inhabitants of Utopia

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