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BOOK II.

THE PRAISE-ODES OF LOO.

As the pieces of Book I. are called the Sung of Chow, so those of this Book are called the Sung of Loo. It is impossible, however, to render Sung by the same term or terms in both cases, for we have not in this Book “Sacrificial odes.”

Choo He says :-“ King Ching, because of the great services rendered to the kingdom by the duke of Chow, granted to Pih-k'in [the duke's eldest son, and the first marquis of Loo,] the privilege of using the royal ceremonies and music, in consequence of which Loo had its Sung, which were sung to the music in its ancestral temples. Afterwards they made in Loo other odes in praise of their rulers, which they also called Sung." In this way it is endeavoured to account for there being such pieces as the four in this Book in this part of the She. Confucius found them, we are to suppose, in Loo, bearing the name of Sung; and it was not for him to do otherwise than simply edit them as he did, and he thereby did not commit himself to anything like an approval of their designation. This is, perhaps, the best explanation of the name that can be given ; but it is not complimentary to the discrimination of the sage.

It has often been asked why there are no Fung of Loo in the 1st Part. The question cannot be answered further than by saying that the pieces of this Book are really Fung; but as they were wantonly called Sung, we have them introduced here instead of being inserted in their proper place.

Loo was one of the States of the east, having its capital in K'ëuh-fow, which is still the name of one of the districts in the department of Yenchow, Shan-tung. Choo says that king Ching appointed the duke of Chow's eldest son directly to it. Sze-ma Ts'ëen's account is rather different :— that the duke of Chow was himself appointed marquis of Loo, but that, being unable to go there himself in consequence of his duties at the court, he sent his eldest son instead ; and that the territory was largely augmented after the termination of his regency, though he still continued to remain at court,

The Këung ; narrative. CELEBRATING SOME MARQUIS OF LOO FOR HIS CONSTANT AND ADMIRABLE THOUGHTFULNESS, ESPECIALLY AS SEEN IN THE NUMBER AND QUALITY OF HIS HORSES.

The Preface says that the marquis was Shin, known as duke He (B.C. 658–626) It refers, indeed, all the four pieces of the Book to him ; but it is only the fourth, of which it can be said with certainty that it belonged to his time.

Confucius, in the Analects, II, ii., says, “In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of all of them may be embraced in that one sentence ;-Have no depraved thoughts.'” “ That one sentence" is the last line but one in this piece, the declaration about the marquis who is celebrated being given by the sage as if it were a general imperative injunction. That the sage should have selected a sentence from such a piece as this to convey his own idea as to the scope and tendency of all these ancient poems is surprising. It is only less so, and it is peculiarly Chinese, that this characteristic of the prince should be referred to as the cause of the serviceableness of his horses.

1 On the wide plains, our frontiers near,

The stallions, sleek and large, appear.
There, sleek and large, they meet our sight;
Some black, with their hind-quarters white;
Pale yellow, some; some black; some bay :-

For carriage teams good horses they ! .
To the duke's thoughts we can assign no bound;
Turned to his steeds, lo! thus good are they found !
2 On the wide plains, our frontiers near,

The stallions, sleek and large, appear.
Those stallions, sleek and large, are seen;
Some piebald,—white and flushed with green,
And others white, with yellow sheen;
Some chestnuts; and some dapple gray :-

For carriage teams strong horses they !
To the duke's thoughts no limit can we set;
Turned to his steeds, such is the strength they get !
3 On the wide plains, our frontiers near,

The stallions, sleek and large, appear.
Oh! sleek and large, those sprightly males !
Some that appear as flecked with scales;
Some black, with manes of spotless white;
Some white or red, manes dark as night :-

In carriage yoked, obedient quite !
The duke's thoughts never cease and never tire;
Turned to his steeds, lo! thus they rule their fire !
4 On the wide plains, our frontiers near,

The stallions, sleek and large, appear.
Oh! sleek and large, those stallions bright !
Cream-coloured, some; some, red and white;

Some, with white hairy legs; with eyes
Like those of fishes, some :-men prize

Such horses, grand in strength and size.
His thoughts without depravity, our prince
Thinks of his steeds, and such powers they evince !

II. The Yër peih; allusive. THE HAPPY INTERCOURSE OF SOME MARQUIS OF LOO WITH HIS MINISTERS AND OFFICERS ;-HOW THEY DELIBERATED ON BUSINESS, FEASTED TOGETHER, AND THE MINISTERS AND OFFICERS EXPRESSED THEIR GOOD WISHES.

1 How sleek and strong, how sleek and strong,

Those chestnut teams that dash along!
Early to court they bring, and late,
Their masters, ministers of state,
In council wise, quick in debate.
As flock of egrets, circling round
Aloft, then lighting on the ground,
Those masters are. The drums resound;
Having well drunk, they rise and dance,

And thus their mutual joy enhance.
2 How sleek and strong, how sleek and strong,

Those stallion teams that dash along !
Early and late their masters all
Are present in the palace hall,
And with the duke a-drinking fall.
As flock of egrets, circling round
Aloft, or wheeling 'bove the ground,
Are they. Anon the drums resound;
Having well drunk, they homeward move;

Pure is the mutual joy they prove.
3 How sleek and strong, how sleek and strong,

Those iron grays that dash along !
Early and late, their masters all
Are present in the palace hall,
And with the duke a-feasting fall.
At last their prayer they thus express :--
“May fruitful years our marquis bless!
His goodness may he still maintain,
And leave to sons in lengthening chain ! ”
May such rejoicing long remain!

III.

The Pwan shnuy; allusive and narrative. IN PRAISE OF SOME MARQUIS OF LOO, CELEBRATING HIS INTEREST IN THE STATE COLLEGE, WHICH PROBABLY HE HAD REPAIRED OR REBUILT, TESTIFYING HIS VIRTUES, AND AUSPICING FOR HIM A COMPLETE TRIUMPI OVER THE TRIBES OF THE HWAE, WHICH WOULD BE CELEBRATED IN THE COLLEGE.

It is not unlikely that the marquis in this piece was Shin, or duke He, for we know that he was engaged in operations against the tribes of the Hwae. His part, indeed, was but a secondary one in them, and he was only a follower of duke Hwan of Ts'e, who had the supremacy among the feudal States ; but it was not for a poet of Loo to dwell on the inferior position to which his State and ruler were reduced. To Loo had in the first place been assigned the regulation of the East ; and in this ode and the next the writer, or the writers, would fain auspice a return of its former glories. The immediate occasion of its composition must have

opening or inauguration service in connexion with the repair of the State college.

On III. i. VIII, we have seen that the royal college of Chow was built in the middle of a circle of water ; each State had its grand college, with a semi-circular pool around it. There the officers of the State in autumn learned ceremonies ; in winter, literary studies ; in spring and summer, the use of arms; and in autumn and winter, dancing. There were celebrated trials of archery ; there the aged were feasted ; there the princes held council with their ministers. The uses which it served were very diverse, but all important.

been

1 Fair is the pool, half-circling round

The college of our land.
The plants of cress that there abound

We pluck with eager hand.
To it our prince of Loo draws nigh;
We see his dragon banner fly,

Free waving in the wind.
And as he moves, his horses' bells
Tinkle harmonious, and fast swells

The crowd that comes behind.

2 Fair is the pool, half-circling round

The college of our land.
The pond-weed plants that there abound

We pluck with eager hand.
Arrived is now our prince of Loo,
With team of steeds that grandly show,

Steeds, each of highest worth.

His fame is great. With winning smile,
And blandest look, no haste the while,

His lessons he gives forth.
3 Fair is the pool, half-circling round

The college of our land.
The mallow plants that there abound

We pluck with eager hand.
The college now our prince contains.
Joyous, the festive cup he drains,-

The cup of spirits good.
His be the strength that knows not age !
His be the noble course and sage,

By which men are subdued !
4 Our prince of Loo has virtue rare ;

His reverence we see.
His every step he guards with care;

The people's mould is he.
In peace and war his powers are proved,
His mighty sires are deeply moved ;-

O’er him with love they bend.
Through filial duty ever paid,
And without farther effort made,

Blessings on him descend.
5 Our prince of Loo has wisdom great;

His virtue brighter grows.
This college, glory of the State,

To him its beauty owes.
The tribes of Hwae will own his sway;
His tiger chiefs down here will lay

The ears cut from their foes.
His questioners, like Kaou Yaou wise,
Will here rehearse their enterprise,

And captive kerns expose.
6 His numerous officers, all true,

And of a virtuous mind,
Will haste with martial zeal to do

The part to them assigned ;-
Those tribes from south and east expel,
Then back their triumphs come to tell,

And here themselves report.

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