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7 The waters bubbling up make known

How deep and strong the spring below;
And long the inward grief has grown,

From which my words of sorrow flow.
Why came not this ere I was born ?

Why happened it ere I was dead ?
Yet still the sorrowing and forlorn

Great and mysterious Heaven can aid.
O king, your sires no more disgrace !
So may you save your future race.

XI.

The Shaou min; narrative, all but st. 6, which is metaphorical, THE WRITER BEMOANS THE MISERY AND RUIN WHICH WERE GOING ON, AND SHOWS HOW THEY WERE OWING TO THE KING'S EMPLOYMENT OF MEAN AND WORTHLESS CHARACTERS.

The subject and style of this piece lead us to assign the same author. ship to it as to the preceding one. “The writer," says one of the critics, “saw that nothing now could be done for the kingdom, and that the honoured capital of Chow was near destruction; but in his loyal and righteous heart he could not cease to hope concerning his sovereign. In the former ode he expresses his wish that the king would not disgrace his ancestors, and here that he would use such ministers as the duke of Shaou. A filial son will not refrain from giving medicine to his father, though he knows-that his disease is incurable, and a loyal minister will still give good advice to his sovereign, though he knows that the kingdom is on the verge of ruin."

1 O pitying Heaven, why see we thee

In terrors thus arrayed ?
Famine has come. The people flee,

And homeless roam, dismayed.
In settled spots, and far and near,

Our regions all lie waste and drear.
2 See o’er the land Heaven's net of crime!

And lo! in place appear
Men idle, knowing not the time,

Locusts looked at with fear,
Oppressive, perverse, fond of strife !

Can such as these bring peace and life ?
3 Slanderers and insolent, the king

Yet sees in them no ill.

Us to dread peril's brink they bring;

Our minds with care they fill. Not for a moment dare we rest, Degraded oft, and sore opprest.

4 As when the dry parched grass we see

Wither for want of rain;
As water-plants graft on a tree

Cannot their life retain ;
So all things now to ruin haste.
Who can their fatal course arrest ?

5 'Twas merit once that riches gained;

The case how different now!
Troubles through all our time have reigned,

And greater still they grow.
Like grain unhulled those men in place !
Like fine rice these who find no grace!
Ye villains, of yourselves retire !
Why thus prolong my grief and ire ?

6 Now empty stands and dry the pool;

No streams into it flow.
The spring is idle, once so full ;-

Unfed now from below!
So for those evils all around
Sufficient causes could be found;
But they increase my anxious care,
Lest I be caught in evil snare.

7 When our first kings the throne received,

Such ministers they had
As Shaou's great chief, whom all believed.

In one day he would add
A thousand le, from States which came
Our king's protecting care to claim.
Now in one day that space is lost!
Can none the ancient virtue boast ?

THE B00K OF Ꮲ0ᎬᎢᎡY.

PART IV.

ODES OF THE TEMPLE AND THE ALTAR.

Book I. Sacrificial Odes of Chow.

SECTION I. DECADE OF TsʻING MEAOU,

TITLE OF THE Part. This is simply in Chinese Sung ;-meaning, according to the Preface, “pieces in admiration of the embodied manifestation of complete virtue, announcing to Spiritual Beings their achieve. ment thereof." Two other definitions are—“ Songs for the music of the ancestral temple," and " Songs for the music at sacrifices." I have combined these two accounts of the pieces, though there are a few whose only claim to have anything to do with sacrifices is that they are found here. Of the pieces in the Second Book I will speak when we come to them,

-It has been mentioned in the prolegomena that some of the pieces do not rhyme. This is probably the reason why they have not in this Book been divided into stanzas and numbered.

TITLE OF THE BOOK. The pieces in this were all appropriate to the temple services of the kings of Chow; and they are arranged in sections, two of which contain ten pieces each, and the third, like the third Book of last Part, eleven. Yet all the sections are called Decades, Choo contends, in opposition to the older interpreters, and correctly in my opinion, that of the thirty-one pieces in the Sung of Chow, while most were made (or fixed) by the duke of Chow, there are some among them belonging to the reign of king K'ang (B.C. 1077—1050), and even of a later date. .

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The Ts'ing mëaou ; narrative. CELEBRATING THE REVERENTIAL MANNER IN WHICH A SACRIFICE TO KING WAN WAS PERFORMED, AND FURTHER PRAISING HIM.

Choo agrees with the Preface in assigning the composition of this piece to the time of the sacrifice mentioned in the Book of History, V. xiii. 29, when, the building of Loh being completed, king Ching came to the new city, and offered a red bull to Wăn and the same to Woo.

Solemn and pure the ancestral temple stands.

The princes aiding in the service move
With reverent harmony. The numerous bands

Of officers their rapt devotion prove.
All these the virtues of king Wan pursue ;

And while they think of him on high in heaven,
With grace and dignity they haste to do

The duties to them in his temple given.
Glory and honour follow Wan's great name,

And ne'er will men be weary of his fame.

II.

The Wei T ëen che ming; narrative. CELEBRATING THE VIRTUE OF KING WAN AS COMPARABLE TO THAT OF HEAVEN ; AND LOOKING TO HIM FOR BLESSING IN THE FUTURE.

The Preface says that in this piece there is an announcement of the realization of complete peace throughout the kingdom ; and the old interpreters referred it to a sacrifice to Wăn by the duke of Chow, when he had completed his Statutes for the new dynasty in the sixth year of his regency after the death of Woo. But neither the piece nor any ancient testimony authorizes a more definite argument of the contents than that which I have given.

Heaven by a deep and ceaseless law

Orders its ways with man.
Pure shone, without a single flaw,

The virtue of king Wan.
To us he shows his kindness still.

As all our powers we strain
To be in concord with his will,

His favour we shall gain.
So may the last his throne to fill

His love and grace retain !

Latinè. By W. T. Mercer.
Jussa profunda manent magni mandataque Caeli,

Et Regis probitas undique mira fuit.
Quâ ratione petit Rex nunc monstrare favorem?

Sit satis; et nobis munera grata fluant :
Nos inter Regemque bonum concordia regnet,

Et mentem similem sæcla futura colant.

IIL

The Wei ts'ing; narrative. APPROPRIATE AT SOME SACRIFICE TO KING WAN, AND CELEBRATING HIS STATUTES.

According to the Preface, these lines were sung to accompany the dance of king Woo, called Sëang. That dance consisted in going through a number of movements, intended to illustrate the style of fighting introduced by Woo, and supposed to be described in the Book of History, V. ii. 7, 8. But, as Choo observes, there is no reference in the piece to the dance, and the imperial editors allow this, while at the same time they are unwilling to give up the old view, and accumulate authorities in support of it. But we can say nothing more about it than I have done above. The piece, moreover, has the appearance of a fragment.

The statutes of king Wan are pure and clear;
Them we must guard, and in our lives revere.
Since first we sacrificed to him till now
When all the States obedience yield to Chow,
The fortune of our House comes from his laws,
Its happy omen first, and then its cause.

IV.

The Lëch wăn; narrative. A SONG IN PRAISE OF THE PRINCES WHO HAVE ASSISTED AT A SACRIFICE.

The Preface says that this piece was made on the occasion of king Ching's accession to the government, when he thus addressed the princes who had assisted him in the ancestral temple. Choo views it as a piece for general use in the ancestral temple when the king presented a cup to his assisting guests after they had thrice presented the cup to the representatives of the dead.

Ye brilliant and accomplished lords,

Who with your help my worship crown,
The favours that your grace affords

My sons in future reigns shall own.
Ever in your own States eschew

Alike all greed and wastefulness;
So shall the king still honour you;

And when your present services
He calls to mind, your sons shall know
New honours he will oft bestow.

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