« הקודםהמשך »
gence and accuracy of Mr. Nasmith have furnished me with the
Thanne passeth forth this storye with al
Now of al this storie have I mad an ende
Hartelich with an ave that ze hir bede
Thanne Merlyn to Blafye cam anon
There scholen ze it fynde, and ze weten look
Which that MARTYN DE BEWre translated here
After this latter extract, which is to be found nearly in the middle of the manuscript, the scene and personages of the poem are changed; and king Enalach, - king Mordrens, Sir Nesciens, Joseph of Arimathea, and the other heroes of the former part, give place to king Arthur, king Brangors, king Loth, and the monarchs and champions of the British line. In a paragraph, very similar to the second of these extracts, the following note is written in the hand of the text, Henry Lonelich Skynner, that translated this boke-out of Frenshe into Englyse, at the instaunce of Harry Barton.
The Quest of THE SANGREAL, as it is called, in which devotion and necromancy are equally concerned, makes à conliderable part of king Arthur's romantic history, and was one grand object of the knights of the Round Table. He who achieved this hazardous adventure was to be placed there in the hege périllous, or feat of danger. «When Merlyn had or" dayned the rounde table, he faid, by them that be fellowes " of the rounde table the truthe of the SANGRÉALL shall be “ well knowne, &c.—They which heard Merlyn say soe, said “ thus to Merlyn, fithence there shall be such a knight, thou “ shouldest ordayne by thy craft a siege that no man should “ fitte therein, but he onlie which shall passe all other knights. " -Then Merlyn made the fiege perillous, &c." Caxton's MORT D'ARTHUR, B. xiv. cap. ii. Sir Lancelot, who is come but of the eighth degree from our lord Jesus Chrift, is represented as the chief adventurer in this honourable expedition. Ibid. B. iii. c. 35. At a celebration of the feast of Pentecost at Camelot by king Arthur, the Sangreal fuddenly enters the hall, “ but “ there was no man might see it nor who bare it,” and the knights, as by fome invisible power, are instantly-supplied with
a feast of the choicest dishes. Ibid. c. 35. Originally LE BRUT, LANCELOT, TRISTAN, and the SAINT GREAL were separate histories ; but they were so connected and confounded before the year 1200, that the same title became applicable to all. The book of the SANGREAL, a separate work, is referred to in MORTE ARTHUR. Now after that the quest of the “ SANCGREALL was fulfy.lled, and that all the knyghtes that “ were lefte alive were come agayne to the Rounde Table, as “ the booke of the SANCGREALL makethe mencion, than “ was there grete joye in the courte. And especiallie king “ Arthur and quene Guenever made grete joye of the remnaunt " that were come home. And paffynge glad was the kinge and “ quene of fyr Launcelot and fyr Bors, for they had been “ pafsynge longe awaye in the quest of the SancGREALL. “ Then, as the Frenshe booke sayeth, syr Lancelot, &c.” B. xviii. cap. I. And again, in the same romance.
- Whan “ fyr Bors had tolde him (Arthur) of the adventures of the “ SANCGREALL, such as had befallen hym and his felawes " all this was made in grete bookes, and put in almeryes at “ Salisbury.” B. xvii. cap. xxiii'. The former part of this paffage is almost literally translated from one in the French romance of TRISTAN, Bibl. Reg. MSS. 20 D. ii. fol. antep, " Quant Boort ot conte laventure del Saint Graaf teles com eles “ elloient avenues, eles furent mises en escrit, gardees en la
mere de Salibieres, dont Mestre GALTIER MAp l'estreft a faift Jon livre du Saint Graal por lamor du roy Herri fori sengor, qui fif leftoire tralater del Latin en romanzt." Whether Salisbury, or Salibieres is, in the two passages, the right reading, I cannot ascertain. [But see Not". P. 117. vol. ii.) But in the royal library at Paris there is “Le Roman de TRISTAN ET Iseu.lt, “ traduit de Latin en François, par Lucas chevalier du Gast
pres de Sarisberi, Anglois, avec figures.” Montfauc. CATAL.
" The romance fays, that king Arthur “ these goode knygtes." [See fupr. vol. grete
clerkes com efore im that i. p. 336.] they fhould cronicle the adventures of See supr. vol. i. p. 235.
MSS. Cod. Reg. Paris. Cod. 6776. fol. max. And again Cod. 6956. fol. max. “ Liveres de Tristan mis en François par “ Lucas chevalier sieur de chateau du Gat".” [See supr. vol. i. p. 115. Notes.] Almeryes in the English, and l’Amere, properly aumoire in the French, mean, I believe, Prelles, Chests, or Archives. Ambry, in this sense, is not an uncommon old English word. From the second part of the first French quotation which I have distinguished by Italics, it appears, that Walter Mapes, a learned archdeacon in England, under the reign of king Henry the second, wrote a French SANGREAL, which he translated from Latin, by the command of that monarch. Under the idea, that Walter Mapes was a writer on this subject, and in the fabulous way, some critics may be induced to think, that the WALTER, archdeacon of Oxford, from whom Geoffrey of Monmouth professes to have received the materials of his history, was this Walter Mapes, and not Walter Calenius, who was also an eminent scholar, and an archdeacon of Oxford. [See vol. i. p. 65.] Geoffrey says in his Dedication to Robert earl of Gloucester, “ Finding nothing said in Bede or Gildas of “ king Arthur and his succesfours, although their actions highly “ deserved to be recorded in writing, and are orally celebrated “ by the British bards, I was much surprised at so strange an “ omission. At length Walter, archdeacon of Oxford, a man “ of great eloquence, and learned in foreign histories, offered « me an ancient book in the British or Armorican tongue; “ which, in one unbroken story, and an elegant diction, re“ lated the deeds of the British kings from Brutus to Cadwal. “ lader. At his request, although unused to rhetorical flou« rilhes, and contented with the fimplicity of my own plain « language, I undertook the translation of that book into “ Latin.” B. i. ch. i. See also B. xii, ch. XX. Some writer's fuppofe, that Geoffrey pretended to have received his materials
• There is printed, “ Le Roman du • noble et vaillant Chevalier Tristan fils “ du noble roy Mchiadus de Leonnoy
par Luce, chevalier, seigneur du chas“teau de Gaft. Rouen, 1489. fol.”.