« הקודםהמשך »
Constantinople, particularly Bajazet the second, freely imparted these treasures to the Italian emissaries, who availing themselves of the fashionable enthusiasm, traded in the cities of Greece for the purpose of purchasing books, which they
edit. Bafil. 1520. 4to. He staid at Rhodes Yet this practice was encouraged by some
This was about the year 1500. of our bishops, who had received their eduI have before mentioned a Translation of cation in English universities. Pace, one Vegetius's Tactics, written at Rhodes, of our learned countrymen, a friend of in the year 1459, by John Newton, Erasmus, was placed for education in gramnently one of our countrymen, who perhaps mar and music in the family of Thomas studied Greek there. MSS. LAUD. Bibl. Langton, bishop of Winchester ; who kept Bodl. Oxon. K. 53. It must however be a domestic school within the precincts of remembered, that the passion for visiting the his palace, for training boys in these sciholy places at Jerusalem did not cease ences. " Humaniores literas (says my among us till late in the reign of Henry “ author) tanti estimabat, ut domestica the eighth. See The pylgrymage of fyr Ri “ fchola pueros ac juvenes ibi erudienchard Torkyngton, parson of Mulberton in “ dos curavit, &c.” The bishop, who Norfolk, to Jerusalem, An. 1517. Catal. took the greatest pleasure in examining his MSS. vol. 2. 182. vol. 2. William Wey, scholars every evening, observing that fellow of Eton college, celebrated mass cum young Pace was an extraordinary proficient cantu organico, at Jerusalem, in the year in music, thought him capable of better 1472: MSS. James, Bibl. Bodl. vi. 153. things; and sent him, while yet a boy, to See his ITINERARIES, MSS. Bibl. Bodl. the university of Padua. He afterwards NE. F. 2. 12.
In which are also some of studied at Bononia : for the same bishop, his English rhymes on Tbe Way to Hierufa by Will, bequeaths to his fcholar, Richard lem. He went twice thither.
Pace, studying at Bononia, an exhibition Barclay, in the same stanza, like a plain of ten pounds annually for seven years. See ecclesiastic, censures the prevailing practice Pace's TRACTATUS de fructu qui ex doce of going abroad for instruction ; which, trina percipitur, edit. Basil, 1517. 4to. p. for a time at least, certainly proved 27. 28. In which the author calls himself small detriment to our English schools and bishop Langton's a manu minister. See aluniversities.
fo Langton's Will, Cur. Prærog. Cant.
Registr. Moone. qu. 10. Bishop LangBut thou, vayne boaster, if thou wilt take
ton had been provost of queen's college at in hand
Oxford, and died in 1501. At Padua To study * cunning, and ydelnes defpise,
Pace was instructed by Cuthbert Tunstall, Th'royalme of England might for thee
afterwards bishop of Durham, and the giver suffice :
valuable Greek books to the uni. In England is sufficient discipline,
versity of Cambridge, and by Hugh LatiAnd noble men endowed with science, &c.
Tractat. ut supr. p. 6.
99. 103 And in another place, ibid. fol. 54. a. Leland, COLL. iii. 14.
We find also archbishop Wareham, beOne runneth to Almayne, another into Fraunce,
fore the year 1520, educating at his own To Paris, t Padway, Lombardy, or Spayne;
expence, for the space of twelve years, RiAnother to || Bonony, Rome, or Orleaunce,
chard Croke, one of the first restorers of To Cayns, to $ Tholous, Athens, or + Co
the Greek language in England, at the uni
versities of Paris, Louvain, and Leipsic: layne: And at the last returneth home agayne,
from which returning a moft accomplished More ignoraunt.
scholar, he succeeded Erasmus in the Greek • Koowledge. † Padua. || Bononia. Caen and Tholouse. + Cologne in Germany. lij 2
sold in Italy: and it was chiefly by means of this literary traffic, that Coímo and Laurence of Medici, and their munificent successors the dukęs of Florence, composed the famous Florentine library'.
It is obvious to remark the popularity which must have accrued to these politer studies, while they thus paved the way to the most opulent and honourable promotions in the church: and the authority and estimation with which they must have been surrounded, in being thus cultivated by the most venerable ecclesiastics. It is indeed true, that the dignified clergy of the early and darker ages were learned beyond the level of the people". Peter de Blois, successively
profefforship at Cambridge. Croke dedicated to archbishop Wareham his INTRODUCTIONES IN RUDIMENTA GRÆCA, printed in the shop of Eucharius Cervicornius, at Cologne, 1520.
With regard to what has been here faid concerning the practice of educating boys in the families of our bishops, it appears that Grofthead, bishop of Lincoln in the thirteenth century, educated in this manner most of the nobility in the kingdom, who were placed there in the character of
pages : “ Filios Nobilium procerum regni, quos « fecum habuit DOMICELLos." Joh. de Athona. in CONSTIT. OTTOBON. Tit. 23. in Voc. BARONES. Cardinal Wolsey, archbishop of York, educated in his house many of the young nobility. Fiddes's WOLSEY, p. 100. See what is said above of the quapopę
Leo's CUBICULARII, p. 411. Fiddes cites a record remaining in the family of the earl of Arundel, written in 1620, which contains inftructions how the younger son of the writer, the earl of Arundel, tould behave himself in the family of the bishop of Norwich, whither he is sent for education as page: and in which his lordship observes, that his grandfather the duke of Norfolk, and his uncle the earl of Northampton, were both bred as pages with bishopps. Fiddes, ibid. RECORDS. No. 6. c. 4. pag. 19. Sir Thomas More was educated as a page with cardinal Moreton, archbishop of Canterbury, about 1490,
who was fo ftruck with his genius, that he would often fay at dinner, This child bere waiting at table is so very ingenious, that he will one day prove an extraordinary man. Mori Utop. cited by Stapleton, p. 157. 138. And Roper's More, p. 27. edit. ut supr.
y Many of them were sent into Italy by Laurence of Medicis, particularly John Lascaris. Varillas says, that Bajazet the second understood Averroes's commentaries on Aristotle. ANECDOT. de Florence, p. 183. P. Jovii Elog. c. xxxi. p. 74. Lar . caris also made a voyage into Greece by command of Leo the tenth ; and brought with him some Greek boys, who were to be educated in the college which that pope had founded on mount Quirinal, and who were intended to propagate the genuine and native pronunciation of the Greek tongue. Jov. ut supr. c. xxxi.
2 The inferiour clergy were in the mean time extremely ignorant. About the year 1300, pope Boniface the eighth published an edict, ordering the incumbents of ecclefiaftic benefices to quit their cures for a certain time, and to study at the universities. [See his ten CONSTITUTIONES, in the BULLARIUM MAGNUM of Laertius Che. rubinus, tom. i. p. 198. seq. Where are his Erectiones ftudiorum generalium in civitate Firmana, Rome, et Avenione, A. D. 1303] Accordingly our episcopal registers are full of licences granted for this purpose. The
archdeacon of Bath and London, about the year 1160, acquaints us, that the palace of Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, was perpetually filled with bishops highly accomplished in literature: who passed their time there, in reading, disputing, and deciding important questions of the state. He adds, that these prelates, although men of the world, were
rector of Bedhampton, Hants, being an accolite, is permitted to study for seven years from the time of his inftitution, in literarum fcientia, on condition that within one year he is made a fubdeacon, and after feven years a deacon and priest. Mar. 5. 1302. Regiftr. PONTISSAR. Winton. fol. 38. Another rector is allowed to study for seven years, in loco quem eligit et ubi viget fudium generale, 16 kal. O&obr. 1303. ibid. fol. 40. Another receives the same privilege, to study at Oxford, Orleans, or Paris, A. D. 1304. ibid. fol. 42. Another, being desirous of study, and able to make a prohciency, is licenced to study in aliquo Audio transmarino, A. D. 1291. ibid. fol. 84. This, however, was three
before Boniface became pope. Another is to ftudy per terminum conftitutionis novella, A. D. 1302. ibid. fol. 37. b. But these dispenfations, the neceflity of which proves the illiteracy of the prieits, were most common. ly procured for pretences of absence or neglect. Or, if in confequence of fuch difpensations, they went to any university, they seem to have mifpent their time there in riot and idleness, and to have returned more ignorant than before. A grievance to which Gower alludes in the Vox CLAMARTIs, a poem which presents fome curious pictures of the manners of the clergy, both fecular and monaftic. cap. xvii lib. 3. MSS. Coll. Omn. Anim. Oxon. xxix. Hic loquitur de Rectoribus illis, qui fub episcopo licentiati fingunt se ire scolas, ut sub nomine virtutis vitia corporalia frequentent.
beneficed priest. But the most extraordinary anecdote of incompetency which I have feen, occurs fo late as the year 1448. A rector is instituted by Waynfiete Bishop of Winchester, on the presentation of Merton priory in Surrey, to the parish of Sherfield in Hampshire. But previoufly he takes an oath before the bishop, that on account of his insufficiency in letters, and default of knowledge in the fuperintendence of fouls, he will learn Latin for the two following years; and at the end of the first year he will fubmit himself to be examined by the bilhop, concerning his progress in grammar; and that, if on a second examination he should be found deficient, he will resign the benefice. Regiftr. WAYNFLRTE. Winton. fol. 7. In the Statutes of New Col. lege at Oxford, given in the year 1386, one of the ten chaplains is ordered to learn grammar, and to be able to write; in order that he may be qualified for the arduous task of aflisting the treafurers of the fociety in transcribing their Latin evidences. Statut. Coll. Nov. RUBRIC. 58. Ia the statutes of Bradgare college in Kent, given in 1398, it is required that the governor of the house, who is to be a priest, should read well, conftrue Latin well, and fiog well, fciat bene legere, bene construere, et bene cantare. Dugd. Monast. tom. iii. Ecclef. Collegiat. p. 118. col. 2. At an epifcopal visitation of faint Swithin's priory at Winchester, an ample society of Benedictines, bifhop William of Wykeham orders the monastery to provide an INFORMATOR, or Latin preceptor, to teach the priefts, who performed the service in the church without knowing what they were uttering and could not attend to the common stops. to read grammatically, Feb. 8. 1386. MSS. Harl. 328. These, indeed, were not secular priefts : the instance,
Et sic Ars noftrum Curatum reddit inertem,
De longo ftudio fert nihil inde domum: Stultus ibi venit, fed ftultior inde redibit, &c.
By Ars we are here to understand the (cholastic sciences, and by Curatus the be.
a fociety of scholars: yet very different from those who frequented the universities, in which nothing was taught but words and syllables, unprofitable subtleties, elementary speculations, and trifling distinctions. De Blois was himself eminently learned, and one of the most distinguished ornaments of Becket's attendants. He tells us, that in his youth, when he learned the Ars VERSIFICATORIA, that is, philological literature, he was habituated to an urbanity of style and expression: and that he was instituted, not in idle fables and legendary tales, but in Livy, Quintus Curtius, Suetonius, Josephus, Trogus Pompeius, Tacitus, and other classical historians. At the same time he censures with a just indignation, the absurdity of training boys in the frivolous intricacies of logic and geometry, and other parts of the scholastic philofophy; which, to use his own emphatical words, “ Nec domi, nec militia, nec in foro, nec in claustro,
nec in eccleßa, nec in curia, nec alicubi prosunt alicui o.” The however, illustrates what is here thrown “ ipfis dormire, faciat feu permittat.” Cap. together.
50. MS. apud Archiv. Wulves. Winton. Wiccliffe says, that the beneficed priests And what shall we think of the religious of his age “ kunnen [know] not the ten manners and practices of an age, when the “ commandments, ne read their sauter, ne following precautions were thought necef“ understand a verse of it." Life of Wic sary, in a respectable collegiate church, cliffe, p. 38. Nor were even the bishops consisting of a dean and fix secular canons, of the fourteenth century always very emi
amply endowed ?
“ Statutum eft, quod nently qualified in literature of either fort.
liquis convictus fuerit de peccato SodoIn the year 1387, the bishop of Worcefter “ mitico, vel arte magica, &c.” From the informed his clergy, that the Lollards, a ftatutes of Stoke-Clare college, in Suffolk, fett of reformers whose doctrines, a few given by the dean Thomas Barnesley, in fanatical extravagancies excepted, coincid the year 1422. Dugd. Monast. ut fupr. ed in many respects with the present rati p. 169. col. 1. onal principles of protestantism, were file From these horrid pictures let us turn lowers of MAHOMET. Wilkins, Concil. our eyes, and learn to set a just value of tom. iii. p. 202. [See fupr. p. 190. in that pure religion, and those improved the Notes.]
habits of life and manners, which we at But at this time the moft shameful present enjoy. grossness of manners, partly owing to their a EPIST. Petr. Blefenf. vi. fol. 3. 2. celibacy, prevailed among the clergy. In Opera. edit. Parif.
fol. the statutes of the college of faint Mary
Epist. cii. fol. 49. b. Ottery in Devonshire, dated 1337, and · Ibid. That is, “ Which are of no real given by the founder bishop Grandison, the “ use or service, at home, in the camp, at following injunction occurs. “ Item fta “ the bar, in the cloyster, in the court, in ** tuimus, quod nullus Canonicus, Vicarius, “ the church, or indeed in any place or « vel Secundarius, pueros choristas (col “ situation whatsoever." legii] fecum pernottare, aut in le&tulo cum
Latin Epistles of De Blois, from which these anecdotes are taken, are full of good sense, observations on life, elegant turns, and ingenious allusions to the classics. He tells Jocelyne, bishop of Salisbury, that he had long wished to see the bishop's two nephews, according to promise: but that he feared he expected them as the Britons expected king Arthur, or the Jews the Messiah". He describes, with a liveliness by no means belonging to the archdeacons of the twelfth century, the difficulties, disappointments, and inconveniencies, of paying attendance at court'. In the course of his correspondence, he quotes Quintilian, Cicero, Livy, Sallust, Seneca, Virgil, Quintus Curtius, Ovid, Statius, Suetonius, Juvenal, and Horace, more frequently and familiarly than the fathers'. Horace seems his favorite. In one of the letters, he quotes a passage concerning Pompey the Great, from the Roman History of Sallust, in six books, now loft, and which appears at present only in part among the fragments of that valuable historians. In the NUGA CURIALIUM of Mapes, or some other manuscript Latin tract written by one of the scholars of the twelfth century, I remember to have seen a curious and striking anecdote, which in a
d Epist. li. fol. 24. a.
apud forinsecos janitores biduanam forte “ gratiam aliquis multiplici obsequio me“ rebitur.-Regem dormire, aut ægrotare, " aut esse in consiliis, mentientur. -Ostia“ rios cameræ confundat altiffimus! Si “ nihil dederis ostiario actum est. Si nihil “s attuleris ibis, Homere, foras. Poft primum « Cerberum, tibi fupereft alius horribilior “ Cerbero, Briareo terribilior, nequior Pyg. * malione, crudelior Minotauro. Quanta
cunque tibi mortis necessitas, aut difcri“ men exhæredationis incubat, non intrabis
EPIST. xiv, fol. 8. b. f Latin and French, the vernacular excepted, were the only languages now known. Foliot bishop of London, cotemporary with De Blois and Becket, was
efteemed, both in fecular and facred litera'
& “ De magno Pompeio refert Sallustius,
quod cum alacribus faltu, cum velocibus « cursu, cum validis vecte certabat, '&c. “ &c." Epist. xciv. fol. 45. a. Part of this passage is cited by Vegetius, a favorite author of the age of Peter de Blois. De Re Milit. lib. i. c. ix. It is exhibited by the modern editors of Salluft, as it ftands in Vegetius.
u ad regem.