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mancer: for the only business and use of this character, is to open the subject in along prologue, to evoke the devil, and summon the court. The devil kicks the necromancer, for waking him so soon in the morning: a proof, that this drama Was performed in the morning, perhaps in the chapel Of the palace. A variety of measures, with shreds of Latin and French, is used: but the devil speaks in the octavect

stanza. One of the &age-directions is, Enter Baffibub with 22 Berde. To make him both frightful and ridiculous, the devil

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a'I'hus in Turpin's HlsTOIY or CHARBEMAGNE, the Saracens appear, " Ha** bentes LARVAS BARBATAS, cornutas, *' Dmuomnus confimiles." e. xviii. And in Lawrs 'run EIGHTH, an old French romance of Philip Moufltes.

j ot apries lui une barboire,
Com diable cornu et noire.

There was a species of masquerade cele-
brated by the ecclesiastics in France, called
the SHEW or BEARDS, entirely consisting
of an exhibition of the most formidable
beards. Gregory of Tours says, that the
abbess of Poictou was accused for suffering
one of these shews, called a BARBATORIA,
to be performed in her monastery. His-r.
lib. x. c. vi. ln the Errsrtss of Peter
de Blois we have the following passage,
" Regia curiam scquuntur aslidue histno-
" nes, candidatrices, aleatores, dulcorarii,
" caupones, nebulatores, mimi, BARBA-
" rous, balatrones, et hoc genus omne."_
EPlsT. xiv. Where, by Barbatarer, we
are not to understand Barberr, but mimics,
or buffoons, disguised in hu e bearded
maflts. In Don Agixote, the arber who
personates the squire of the princess Mi-
comicona, wears one of these masks, H una
" gran barba, &c." Part. prim. c. xxvi.
I. 3. And the countess of Trifaldi's squire

has " la mas lar a, la mas horrida, &c.".

Part. sec. c. xxxvr. l. 8. See Onsa'tv'n'r. oN Spensannol. i. p. 24. SECT. ii. About the elevth century, and long

before, beards were looked upon by the clergy as a secular vanity ; and accordingly were worn by the laity only. Yet in England this distinction seems to have been more rigidly observed than in France, Malmeshury says, that king Harold, at the Norman invasion, sent spies into Duke William's camp ; who reported, that most of the French army were priests, because their faces were shaved. HIST. lib. iii. p. 56. b. edit. Savil. 1;96. The rogulation remained among the English clergy at least till the reign of Henry the eighth: for Lon land bishop of Lincoln, at a Visitation of riel college, Oxford, in '531, orders one of the fellows, a priest, to abstain, under pain of expulsion, from wearing a beard, and pinked shoes, like a laic ; and not to take the liberty, for the future, of insulting and ridiculing the governor ana fellows of the fociety. ORDlNAT. Coll. OrieL Oxon. A'PEND. ad Joh. TROKELOWE, p. 339. See Edicts of king john, in Prynne, LlBERTAT. Echas. ANGL. tom. iii. p. 23. But among the religious, the Templars were permitted to wear long be3rds. In the year 1311, kin Edward

ss the second granted letters of sa e conduct

to his valet Peter Auger, who had made a vow not to shave his beard; and whohaving resolved to visit some of the holy plaCes abroad as a pilgrim, feared, on-account of the length of his beard, that he might be mistaken for a knight-templar, and insulted. Pat. iv. Edw. ii. In &Ig


Austin: and Simony offers the devil a bribe. The devil rejects her offer with much indignation : and swears by the soule Eumenider, and the hoary beard of Charon, that she shall be well fried and roasted in the unfathomable sulphur of Cocytus, together with Mahomet, Pontius Pilate, the traitor judas, and king Herod. The last scene is closed with a view of hell, 'and a dance between the devil and the necromancer. The dance ended, the devil trips up the necromancer's heels, and disappears in fire and smoke b. Great must have been the edification and entertainment 'which king Henry the seventh and his court derived from the exhibition of so elegant and rational a drama! The royal taste for dramatic representation seems to have suffered a very rapid tranfition : for in the year 1520, a goodlie comedz'e as Plautus was played before king

Henry the eighth at Greenwichfl

I have before mentioned

Skelton's play of MAGNIFICENCE '._

dale'sanrcxst-uu, p. 704. Many orders about Beards occur in the registcrs Os Lincoln's-inn, cited by Dugdale. In the year 1542, it was ordered, that no member, 'ZUl'flrislg a num, should presume to dine in the hall. ln 1553, says Dugdale, " such as had beards should pay twelve" pence for every meal they continued " them; and every man to be shriven, " upon pain os being ut out os commons." OK-ic. Juno. cap. 4. p. 244. In 1559, no member is permitted to wear an] bea above a sortnight's grOWth ; under pain os cxpulsion for the third transgression. But the fashion of wearing beards beginning to s read, in 1560 it was agreed at a council, t at " all orders before that time made, " touching BEARDS, should be void and " repealed." Dugd. ibid. p. 245. _

'In the Mystery of MARY MAGDAune, just mentioned, one os the stagedirections is, " Here enters the prynse of " the devylls in a stage, with hell onder" neth the stage." MSS. Dtcn. 133.

© Hollinsh. iii. 850.

d It is in Mr. Garrick's valuable collection. No date. 4t0. Hawkins, in' the

Aaa: '

Hisrour or Mvsrc, has first printed: Song written by Skelton, alluded to in the Cnowue or LAWRBLL, and set to music by William Cornishe, a musician of the chapel' royal under Henry the seventh. B. i. ch. i. vol. iii. p. 3. Lend. [776. It begins, '

Ah, beshrew you, by my say,

These wanton clarkes are nice alway, &e.

The same diligent and ingenious inquirer has happily illustrated a passage in Skelton's description of RIOT. Ibid, B. iii. ch. ix. vol. ii. p. 354.

Counter he coulde O Lux upon a potte;

That is, this drunken disorderly fellow could y the beginning os the hymn, O Lux 'am Trinitm, a Very popular melody, and on which many sugues and canons were antiently composed, on a quartpot at the tavern. See also, ibid. B. i. ch. vii. p. 90. ii. r. p. '30.

By the way, the abovementioned William Cornish has a poem printed at the end os Skelton's Works, called a Treati/E brz-u-rnr Tree/be and Igsarmanon. containing some some anecdotes os the state of antient wasa great writer os lNTERLUDES. He

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brother in law to fir Thomas More, extended its province, which had hitherto been confined, either to moral allegory, or to religion blended with buffoonery, and conceived a design of making it the vehicle of science and philosophy. With this view he published, A new INTERLUDE and a mery, of the nature of the z'zsiiz' Elements, declaringe many proper points of phyIq/bfflay naturall and dyvers straunge landys, G'c s. In the cosmographical part of the play, in which the poet professes to treat of dyvers straunge regions, and es the new shunde lanasys, the tracts of America recently discovered, and the manners of the natives, are described. The characters are, a Messenger who speaks the prologue, Nature, Humanity, Studious Desire, Sensual Appetite, a Taverner, Experience, and Ignorance'.

music, written while the author was in the has written, " Of GENTYLNEss AND Flect, in the year '504. MSS. Rue. 18 " NOBYLYTE. A dyaloge between the D. 4. See Thoresby's Leenss, for ' marchaunt, the knyght, and the plowOld musical composition: by se-ueral master-r, " man, dis utynge who js a veray gentylamong 'bent by WiLLt/m Conmsn. p. '* man, an how men shuld come to auc17. Morley has assigned Comysh a place " toryte, compiled in maner os an INTERin his Catalogne of English musicians. " LUDE- With dyvers TOYES and ers-ne * See supr. p. 206. " addyd therto, to make mery pastyme

' Among Mr. Garrick's OLD PLAY'. ** and disport. '_'7. Rastall me sim' fm't." [Impersi] i. vol. 3. It was written about Printed by himself in q-uarto, Without date. r 510, or rather later. One of the cha- Pr.. ** O what a gret welth and." Also, ractcrs is NATURI nalurate : under which " A new Commodyte in Englysh in maner title Bale inaccurately mentions this piece. " os an ENTrnruna ryght elygant and viii. 75. See Percy, Ess. Enc. STAcu, " full of crast of rhet0ryck: wherein is p. 8. edit. 1767. Who supposes this play " shewed and dyscrybyd, as well the to have been written about 1510, from the ' beute of good propertes of women, as following lines, " theyr vyces and evyll condicions, with __ __ Within this xx ye" a moral] conclusion and exhortation to

" vertew. 7. RastaU me imþrimi suit." KMgfexrs:$:t:fmfl-a£zz (bit In solio, without date. This is in English

Verse, and contains twelve leaves. PR. The West-Indies were discovered by Co- " lezbm, &c." He reduced a dialogue lumbus in 1492.

os Lucian into English verse, much after the l For the sake of connection I will here

manner os an interlude, viz. " NECROmention some more of Raflall's pieces. He


'* Manna. ADialogue of Lucyan for 't

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Ihave before observed, that the frequent and public exhibition of personifications in the PAGEAUNTS, which antiently accompanied every high festivity, greatly contributed to cherish the spirit of allegorical poetry, and even to enrich the imagination of Spenser 't The MORALlTlES, which now began to acquire new celebrity, and in which the same groupes of the impersonated vices and virtues appeared, must have concurred in producing this effect. And hence, at the same time, we are led to account for the national relish for allegorical poetry, which so long prevailed among our ancestors. By means of these spectacles, ideal beings becamecommon and popular objects: and emblematic imagery, which at present is only contemplated by a few retired readers in the obsolete pages of out: elder poets, grew fa

miliar to the general eye.

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N a work of this general and comprehensive nature, in

which the fluctuations of genius are surveyed, and the dawnings or declensions of taste must alike be noticed, it is impossible that every part of the subject can prove equally splendid and interesting. We have, I fear, been toiling for some time through materials, not perhaps of the most agreeable and edifying nature. But as the mention of that very rude species of our drama, called the MORALITY, has incidentally diverted our attention to the early state of the English stage, I cannot omit so fortunate and seasonable an opportunity of endeavouring to relieve the weariness of my reader, by introducing an obvious digresiion von the probable causes of the rise of the MYSTERIES, which, as I have before remarked, preceded, and at length produced, these allegorical fables. In this respect I shall imitate those map-makers mentioned by Swift, who

- - O'er inhospitable downs,
Place elephants for want of towns.

Nor shall I perhaps fail of being pardoned by- my reader, if, on the same principle, I should attempt to throw new light on the history of our theatre, by pursuirssig this enquiry through those deductions which it will naturally and more immediately suggest '.

About the eighth century, trade was principally carried on by means of fairs, which lasted several days. Charlemagne established many great marts of this sort in France; as did William the conqueror, and his Norman successors, in

I Compare vel. i. p. 235.
' England.

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