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the addition of fume epistles and epigrams, in the same style, did not, I believe, appear in print before the year 1554 Coccaie is often cited by Rabelais, a writer of a cogenial cast'. The three last books, containing a defcription of hell, are a parody on part of Dante's Inferno. In the

preface, or APOLOGETICA, our author gives an account of this new species of poetry, fince called the MACARONIC, which I must give in his own words. “ Ars ista poetica nuncupatur “ Ars MACARONICA, a Macaronibus derivata : qui Macarones « sunt quoddam pulmentum, farina, cafeo, butyro compa

ginatum, grossum, rude, et rusticanum. Ideo MACA• RONICA nil nisi groffedinem, ruditatem, et VOCABULAZZOS, “ debet in se continere :” Vavassor obferves, that Coccaie in Italy, and Antonius de Arena in France, were the two first, at least the chief, authors of the femi-latin burlesque poetry". As to Antonius de Arena, he was a civilian of Avignon; and wrote, in the year 1519, a Latin poem in elegiac verses, ridiculously interlarded with French words and phrases. It is addreffed to his fellow-students, or, in his own words, “ Ad fuos compagnones ftudiantes, qui funt de

persona friantes, bassas dansas, in galanti stilo bifognatas, cum guerra Romana, totum ad longum fine require, et cum guerra Neapolitana, et cum revoluta Genuens, et guerra Avenionenfi,

et epistola ad falotisimam garsam pro passando lo tempos '.' have gone out of my way, to mention these two obfcure writers " with so much particularity, in order to obferve,


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Cum ipfis et illis
Qui manent in villis,
Ef uxar vel ancilla,
Welcome Jacke and Gilla,
My pretty Petronilla,
And you

wil be ftilla
You shall have your

willa : Of such pater nofter pekes

All the worlde spekes. • At Venice, 8vo. Again, 1564. And, 2613. 8vo.

* See Liv. iv. c. 13. ii. 1. xi. 3.

8 See Menag. Diction. ETYMOL.
ORIG. Lang. Franc. edit, 1694. P. 462.
V. MACARON. So And Oa. Ferrarius,

» Dict. LUDR. P. 453.
iHe wrote also De BELLO MASSILIENSI.

Erythraeus mertions Bernardinus Stce phonius as writing in this way. PINAcora. i. p. 160. See also some poems in Baudius, which have a mixture of the Greek and Latin, languages; and which others have imitated, in German and Latin.



that Skelton, their cotemporary, probably copied their manner: at least to shew, that this fingular mode of versification was at this time fashionable, not only in England, but also in France and Italy. Nor did it cease to be remembered in England, and as a species of poetry thought to be founded by Skelton, till even so late as the close of queen Elizabeth's reign. As appears from the following poem on the SPANISH ARMADA, which is filled with Latin words.

A SKELTONICALL falutation,
Or condigne gratulation,
And just vexation,
Of the Spanish nation;
That in a bravado
Spent many a crusado,
In setting forth the armado
England to envado, &c'.

But I must not here forget, that Dunbar, a Scotch poet of Skelton's own age, already mentioned, wrote in this

way. His TestAMENT of Maister Andro KENNEDY, which represents the character of an idle diffolute scholar, and ridicules the funeral ceremonies of the Romiih communion, has

+ Printed at Oxford by Joseph Barnes, 1589. 4to. See also a doggrel piece of this kind, in imitation of Skelton, introduced into Browne's SHEPHERD's Pipe, Lond. 1614. 8vo. Perhaps this way of writing is sidiculed by Shakespeare, MERRY W. OF Winds. A. ii. Sc. i. Where Falstaffe says, “ I will not say, Pity me, 'tis not a sol“ dier's phrase, but I say love me: by me - Thine own true knight, sky day or night, " Or any kind of light, with all his might o. With thee to fight.See also the Interlude of Pyramus and Thisbe, in the Midsum WEX Night's DREAM. Often printed separately in quarto, as a droll for Bartholomew fair, under the

title of BottOM THE Weaver. Skelton, however, seems to have retained his popularity till late. For the first part of T. Heywood's twofold play on the earl of Huntingdon, entitled, “ Robert earl of “ Huntingdon's downfall, afterwards call“ ed Robin Hood of merry Sherwoode, “ with his love to chaste Matilda the lord “ Fitzwater's daughter, afterwards his fair • maid Marian," acted by ford Nottingham's players, and printed in quarto, at London, in 1601, is introduced by JOHN SKELTON, poet laureat 10 king Henry the eighıb. The second part, printed with the former, is introduced by FrYar Tuck, with whom I am lefs acquainted.


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almost every alternate line composed of the formularies of a Latin Will, and shreds of the breviary, mixed with what the French call Latin de cuisine'. There is some humour, arising from these burlesque applications, in the following ftanzas.

In die meæ sepultura,
I will have nane but our awin gang",
Et duos rusticos de rure,
Berand ane barrell on a stango;
Drinkand and playand cap out, even
Sicut egomet folebam;
Singand and greitand with the stevin's
Potum meum cum fletu miscebam.

I will no priestis for me fing,
Dies ille, dies ira";
Nar yet no bellis for me ring
Sicut femper folet fieri ;
But a bag-pyp to play a spring,
Et unum ale-wisp ante me,
Instead of torchis, for to bring,
Quatuor lagenas cerviha
Within the graif to sett, fit thing,
In modum crucis juxta me,
To fle the feyndis', then hardly sing
De terra plasmafti nie'.

See Ant. SCOTTISH POEMS, Edinb. 1770. p. 35. And the Notes of the learned and ingenious editor ; who says, that Dunbar's Derge is a most profane parody on the popish litanies. p. 243.

m ST. xiii. xiv.
. My own merry companions.
• A stake.

| With that verse, or stanza, in the Pfalms, “I have mingled my drink with “ weeping."

9 A hymn on the resurrection in the miffal, sung at funerals.

Instead of a cross on my grave to keep off the devil.

* A verse in the Psalms. See other in.. stances in Dunbar, ibid. p. 73. In George Bannatyne's - manuscript collection of old Scotch poetry are many examples of this mixture : the impropriety of which was not perhaps perceived by our ancestors.. Ibid. p. 268. See a very ludicrous fpeci


We must, however, acknowledge, that Skelton, notwithstanding his fcurrility, was a classical scholar; and in that capacity, he was tutor to prince Henry, afterwards king Henry the eighth: at whose accession to the throne, he was appointed the royal orator. He is styled by Erasmus, “ Britannicarum literarum decus et lumen". His Latin elegiacs are pure, and often unmixed with the monastic phraseology; and they prove, that if his natural propensity to the ridiculous had not more frequently seduced him to follow the whimsies of Walter Mapes and Golias", than to copy

the elegancies of Ovid, he would have appeared among the first writers of Latin poetry in England at the general restoration of literature. Skelton could not avoid acting as a buffoon in

any language, or any character.

I cannot quit Skelton, of whom I yet fear too much has been already said, without restoring to the public notice a play, or MORALITY, written by him, not recited in any catalogue of his works, or annals of English typography ; and, I believe, at present totally unknown to the antiquarians in this sort of literature. It is, The NIGRAMANSIR, a morall Enterlude and a pitbie written by Maister SKELTON

men in Harsenet's DetecTION, p. 156. and French. See MERCURE DE FRANCE,
Where he mentions a witch who has learned Avril. 1725. p. 724. suiv.
“ of an old wife in a chimnies end Pax, " See Op. p. 1019. 1021.

max, fax, for a spell; or can say fir w These two writers are often confounded.

John of Grantam's curse for the miller's See the Second DISSERTATION. James • eeles that were ftolne.

says, that Golias was not a name adopted “ All you that stolen the miller's eeles,

by Mapes : but that there was a real wri. " Laudate dominum de cælis,

ter of that name, a collection of whose

works he had seen. See MSS. (Bibl. “ And all they that have consented thereto, Benedicamus domino."

Bodl.] JAMES, i. p. 320. Golias and Ma

pes appear to have been cotemporaries, See a poem on Becker's martyrdom, in and of a fimilar genius. The curious Waffe's" Bibl. Liter. Num. i. p. 39. reader will find many extracts from their Lond. 1722. 4to. Hither we must refer poetry, which has very great merit in its the old Caroll on the Boar's Head, way, among James's manuscript collections. Hearne's SPICIE E G. ad Gul. Neubrig. The facility of thefe old Latin rhymers is Hist. vol. iii. p. 740. (See also fupr. amazing: and they have a degree of humour vol. i. p. 86.) Some of the metrical hymns and elegance far exceeding their age. in the French Fete De Are are in Latin

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laureate and plaid before the king and other estatys at Woodstoke on Palme Sunday. It was printed by Wynkin de Worde in a thin quarto, in the year 1504". It must have been presented before king Henry the seventh, at the royal manor or palace, at Woodstock in Oxfordshire, now destroyed. The characters are a Necromancer, or conjurer, the devil, a notary public, Simonie', and Philargyria”, or Avarice. It is partly a satire on some abuses in the church; yet not without a due regard to decency, and an apparent respect for the dignity of the audience. The story, or plot, is the tryal of SIMONY and Avarice : the devil is the judge, and the notary public acts as an assessor or scribe. The prisoners, as we may suppose, are found guilty, and ordered into hell immediately. There is no sort of propriety in calling this play the Necro

edit. 1550.

* My lamented friend Mr. William Col And again, in an antient anonymous Scotch lins, whose Odes will be remembered poem, ibid. p. 253. At a feast, to which while any taste for true poetry remains, many disorderly persons are invited, athewed me this piece at Chichester, not mong the rest are, many months before his death: and he

And twa lerit men thairby, pointed it out as a very rare and valuable Schir Ochir and fchir SIMONY. curiosity. He intended to write the His.

That is, fir Usury and fir Simony. Sis TORY OF THE RESTORATION OF LEARN

MONY is also a character in Pierce PlowING UNDER LEO The Tenth, and with

man's Visions. Paff. fec. fol. viü. b. a view to that design, had collected many

Wiccliffe, who flourished scarce books. Some few of these fell into my hands at his death. The rest, among

about the year 1350, thus describes the ftate of Simony in his time.

" Some which, I suppose, was this INTERLUDE,

“ lords, to colouren their Symony, wole were dispersed.

" not take for themselves but keverchiefs In the Mystery of Marie MACDA

“ for the lady, or a palfray, or a tun of LENE, written in 1512, a Heathen is in

66 wine.

And when some lords wolden troduced celebrating the service of Mabound, who is called Saracenorum fortifi

“ present a good man and able, for love in the midst of which, he reads a

" of god and criften fouls, then some lamus ;

« dies been means to have a dancer, a Leffon from the Alcoran, confifting of

“ tripper on tapits, or hunter or hawker, gibberish, much in the metre and manner Of Skelton. MSS. Digb. 133.

“ or a wild player of summers gamenes,

" &c.” MSS. C. C. C. Cant. 0. 161. y Simony is introduced as a person in

148. There is an old poem on this subSir Penny, an old Scotch poem, written

ject, MSS. Bodl. 48. in 1527, by Stewart of Lorne. See An

z Robert Crowley, a great reformer, of TIENT Scottish Poems. Edinb. 1770.

whom more hereafter, wrote “ The Fable 8vo. p. 154.

“ of PHILARGYRIA, the great gigant of So wily can fyr Peter wink,

Great Britain, what houses were build. And als fir SYMONY his fervand, ed, and lands appointed, for bis provision, That now is gydar of the kyrk.

" &c." 1551. 4to. VOL. II. Ааа

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