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the addition of sume epistles and epigrams, in the same style, did not, I believe, appear in print before the year 1554". : Coccaie is often cited by Rabelais, a writer of a cogenial cast'. The three last books, containing a description of hell, are a parody on part of Dante's INFERNO. In the

preface, or APOLOGETICA, our author gives an account of this new species of poetry, fince called the MACARONIC, which I must give in his own words. Ars ista poetica nuncupatur " Ars MACARONICA, a Macaronibus derivata : qui Macarones “ funt quoddam pulmentum, farina, cafeo, butyro compa

ginatum, grossum, rude, et rusticanum. Ideo MACA

RONICA nil nisi groffedinem, ruditatem, et VOCABULAZZOS, « debet in se continere 8.” Vavassor obferves, that Coccaie in Italy, and Antonius de Arena in France, were the two first, at least the chief, authors of the femi-latin burlesque poetry". As to Antonius' de Arena, he was a civilian of Avignon; and wrote, in the year 1519, a Latin poem in elegiac verses, ridiculously interlarded with French words and phrases. It is addresfed to his fellow-ftudents, or, in his own words, « Ad fucs compagnones ftudiantes, qui funt de

persona friantes, baljas dansas, in galanti stilo bifognatas, cum

guerra Romana, totum ad longum fine require, et cum guerra « Neapolitana, et cum revoluta Genuens, et guerra Avenionens, " et epistola ad falotissimam garsam pro pasando lo tempos '.” I have gone out of my way, to mention these two obfcure writers " with so much particularity, in order to obferve,

Cum ipfis et illis
Qui manent in villis,
Ex uxor vel ancilla,
Welcome Jacke and Gilla,
My pretty Petronilla,

wil be stilla
You shall have your willa :
Of such pater nofter pekes

All the worlde spekes.
· At Venice, 8vo. Again, 1564. And,
2613. 8vo.

See Liv. iv. c. 13. ii. 1. xi. 3.

& See Menag. Diction. ETYMOL.
ORIG. Lang. Franc. edit, 1694. p. 462.
V. MACARONS And Da Ferrarius,

1. Dict. LUDR. P. 453.
i He wrote also De BELLO MASSILIENSI.

* Erythraeus mentions Bernardinus Stc. phonius as writing in this way. PinacoTA. i. p. 160. See also some poeins in Baudius, which have a mixture of the Greek and Latin. languages; and which others have imitated, in German and Latin.


that Skelton, their cotemporary, probably copied their manner : at least to Thew, that this fingular mode of versification was at this time fashionable, not only in England, but also in France and Italy. Nor did it cease to be remembered in England, and as a species of poetry thought to be founded by Skelton, till even so late as the close of queen Elizabeth's reign. As appears from the following poem on the SPANISH ARMADA, which is filled with Latin words.

A SkeLTONICALL falutation,
Or condigne gratulation,
And just vexation,
Of the Spanish nation;
That in a bravado
Spent many a crusado,
In setting forth the armado
England to envado, &c'.

But I must not here forget, that Dunbar, a Scotch poet of Skelton's own age, already mentioned, wrote in this way. His TestAMENT of MAISTER ANDRO KENNEDY, which represents the character of an idle diffolute scholar, and ridicules the funeral ceremonies of the Romilh communion, has


+ Printed at Oxford by Joseph Barnes, 1589. 4to. See also a doggrel piece of this kind, in imitation of Skelton, introduced into Browne's SHEPHERD's Pipe, Lond. 1614. 8vo. Perhaps this way of writing is sidiculed by Shakespeare, MERRY W. Winds. A. ii. Sc. i. Where Falstaffe says, “ I will not say, Pity me, 'tis not a sol“ dier's phrase, but I say love me: by me ** Thine own true knight, sky day or night, • Or any kind of light, with all his might ". With thee to fight. See also the Interlude of Pyramus and Thisbe, in the MidsummEX Night's DREAM. Often printed separately in quarto, as a droll for Bartholomew fair, under the

title of Bottom The Weaver. Skelton, however, seems to have retained his popularity till late. For the first part of T. Heywood's twofold play on the earl of Huntingdon, entitled, “'Robert earl of “ Huntingdon's downfall, afterwards call

ed Robin Hood of merry Sherwoode, " with his love to chaste Matilda the lord “ Fitzwater's daughter, afterwards his fair • maid Marian,” acted by lord Nottingham's players, and printed in quarto, at London, in 1601, is introduced by JOHN SKELTON, poet laureat 10 king Henry the eighıb. The second part, printed with the former, is introduced by FrYAR TUCK, with whom I am less acquainted.


almost every alternate line composed of the formularies of a Latin Will, and shreds of the breviary, mixed with what the French call Latin de cuisne'. There is some humour, arising from these burlesque applications, in the following ftanzas.

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We must, however, acknowledge, that Skelton, notwithstanding his scurrility, was a classical scholar; and in that capacity, he was tutor to prince Henry, afterwards king Henry the eighth : at whose accession to the throne, he was appointed the royal orator. He is styled by Erasmus, “ Britanni

carum literarum decus et lumen". His Latin elegiacs are pure, and often unmixed with the monastic phraseology; and they prove, that if his natural propensity to the ridiculous had not more frequently seduced him to follow the whimsies of Walter Mapes and Golias", than to copy the elegancies of Ovid, he would have appeared among the first writers of Latin poetry in England at the general restoration of literature. Skelton could not avoid acting as a buffoon in any language, or any character.

I cannot quit Skelton, of whom I yet fear too much has been already said, without restoring to the public notice a play, or MORALITY, written by him, not recited in any catalogue of his works, or annals of English typography ; and, I believe, at present totally unknown to the antiquarians in this fort of literature. It is, The NIGRAMANSIR, a morall ENTERLUDE and a pitbie written by Maister SKELTON

men in Harsenet's DetecTION, p. 156. Where he mentions a witch who has learned “ of an old wife in a chimnies end Pax,

max, fax, for a spell; or can say fir “ John of Grantam's curse for the miller's • eeles that were stolne. All you that stolen the miller's eeles,

" Laudate dominum de cælis, “ And all they that have consented thereto,

Benedicamus domino." See a poem on Becket's martyrdom, in Waffe's Bibl. Liter. Num. i. p. 39. Lond. 1722. 4to. Hither we must refer the old Caroll on the Boar's Head, Hearne's SPICILEG. ad Gul. Neubrig. Hist. vol. iii. p. 740. (See also fupr. vol. i. p. 86.) Some of the metrical hymns in the French Fete de Ane,are in Latin

and French. See MERCURE DE FRANCE, Avril. 1725. p. 724. suiv.

u See Op. p. 1019. 1021. w These two writers are often confounded. See the Second DISSERTATION. James says, that Golias was not a name adopted by Mapes : but that there was a real wri. ter of that name, a collection of whose works he had seen. See MSS. [Bibl. Bodl.] JAMES, i. p. 320. Golias and Mapes appear to have been cotemporaries, and of a fimilar genius. The curious reader will find many extracts from their poetry, which has very great merit in its way, among James's manuscript collections. The facility of thefe old Latin rhymers is amazing: and they have a degree of humour and elegance far exceeding their age.


laureate and plaid before the king and other estatys at Woodstoke on Palme Sunday. It was printed by Wynkin de Worde in a thin quarto, in the year 1504 *:

year 1504". It must have been presented before king Henry the seventh, at the royal manor or palace, at Woodstock in Oxfordshire, now destroyed. The characters are a Necromancer, or conjurer, the devil, a notary public, Simonie', and Philargyria”, or Avarice. It is partly a satire on some abuses in the church; yet not without a due regard to decency, and an apparent respect for the dignity of the audience. The story, or plot, is the tryal of SIMONY and AVARICE : the devil is the judge, and the notary public acts as an assessor or scribe. The prisoners, as we may suppose, are found guilty, and ordered into hell immediately. There is no sort of propriety in calling this play the Necro

edit. 1550.

* My lamented friend Mr. William Col. And again, in an antient anonymous Scotch lins, whose Odes will be remembered poem, ibid. p. 253. At a feast, to which while any taste for true poetry remains, many disorderly persons are invited, athewed me this piece at Chichester, not mong the rest are, many months before his death : and he And twa lerit men thairby, pointed it out as a very rare and valuable Schir Ochir and schir SIMONY. curiosity. He intended to write the His.

That is, fir Usury and fir Simony. St. TORY OF THE RESTORATION OF LEARN.

MONY is also a character in Pierce PlowING UNDER LEO The Tenth, and with

man's Visions. Paff. fec. fol. viii. b. a view to that design, had collected many

Wiccliffe, who flourilhed scarce books. Some few of these fell into my hands at his death. The rest, among

about the year 1350, thus describes the ftate of Simony in his time.

« Some which, I suppose, was this INTERLUDE,

“ lords, to colouren their Symony, wole were dispersed.

“ not take for themselves but keverchiefs In the Mystery of MARIE MACDA

“ for the lady, or a palfray, or a tun of LENE, written in 1512, a Heathen is in

66 wine.

And when some lords wolden troduced celebrating the service of Ma

present a good man and able, for love bound, who is called Saracenorum fortissi

of god and criften fouls, then some lamus ; in the midft of which, he reads a

“ dies been means to have a dancer, a Leffon from the Alcoran, confifting of

“ tripper on tapits, or hunter or hawker, gibberish, much in the metre and manner of Skelton. M$S. Digb. 133.

“ or a wild player of summers gamenes,

66 &c.” MSS. C. C. C. Cant. 0. 161. y Simony is introduced as a person in

148. There is an old poem on this subSir Penny, an old Scotch poem, written in 1527, by Stewart of Lorne. See An

ject, MSS. Bodl. 48.

z Robert Crowley, a great reformer, of TIENT Scottish Poems. Edinb. 1770.

whom more hereafter, wrote “ The Fable 8vo. p. 154

“ of PHILARGYRIA, the great gigant of So wily can fyr Peter wink,

Great Britain, what houses were build. And als fir SYMONY his servand, ed, and lands appointed, for bis provision, That now is gydar of the kyrk.

&c." 1551. 4to. VOL. II. А аа

mancer :

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