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morning of the month of January, the poet quits the copse and the bank, now destitute of verdure and flowers, and walks towards the fea-beach. The dawn of day is expreffed by a beautiful and brilliant metaphor.

By this, fair Titan with his lemis licht
Oer all the land had spred his banner bricht.

In his walk, musing on the desolations of the winter, and the distance of spring, he meets Flora disguised in a sable robe".

I met dame Flora in dule weid diffgysit
Quhilk into May was dulce and delectabill,
With stalwart' storms hir sweitness war supprift,
Her hevinlie hewis war turnid into fabill,
Quhilk umquihle? war to luffaris amiabill.
Fled from the frost the tender flouris I saw
Under dame Naturis mantill lurking law“.

The birds are then represented, flocking round NATURE, complaining of the severity of the season, and calling for the genial warmth of summer. The expostulation of the lark with Aurora, the sun, and the months, is conceived and conducted in the true spirit of poetry.

“ Allace, AURORE, the syllie lark gan cry,

Quhare has thou left thy balmy liquour sweit,
“ That us rejoyfit, mounting in the skye?

Thy sylver dropps are turnit into sleit!
“ O fair Phebus, where is thy hollum heit?

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" Quhair art thou, May, with June thy sister schene,
“ Weill bordourit with dafyis of delyte?
" And gentill Julie, with thy mantill grene
“ Enamilit with rosis reid and quhyte i

The poet afcends the cliffs on the fea-fhore, and entering a cavern, bigb in the crags, sits down to register in rhyme fome mery mater of antiquitie. · He compares the fluctuation of the fea with the instability of human affairs; and at length, being comfortably fhrouded from the falling lleet by the closeness of his cavern, is lulled asleep by the whistling of the winds among the 'racks, and the beating of the tide. . He then has the following vision.

He fees a lady of great beauty, and benignity of aspect; who says, she comes to footh his melancholy by fhewing him fome .new fpectacles. Her name is REMEMBRANCE. Instantaneously she carries him into the center of the earth. Hell is here laid open"; which is filled with popes, cardinals, abbots, archbishops in their pontifical attire, and ecclesiastics of

every degree. În explaining the causes of their punishments, a long satire on the clergy ensues. With thefe are joined bishop Caiphas, bishop Annas, the traitor Judas, Mahomet, Chorah, Dathan, and Abiram. Among the tyrants, or unjust kings, are Nero, Pharaoh, and Herod. Pontius Pilate is hung up by the heels. He sees also many duchesses and countesses, who fuffer for pride and adultery. She then gives the poet a view of purgatory'.

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A litle above that dolorous dungeon,
We enterit in ane countre full of cair;
Quhare that we saw mony one legioun
Gretand and grouland with mony ruthfull rair".
Quhat place is this, quod I, of blis fo bair?
Scho answerit and said, Purgatorie,
Qhuilk purgis saulis or they cum to glorie.

After some theological reasonings on the absurdity of this intermediate state, and having viewed the dungeon of unbaptized babes, and the limbus of the souls of men who died before Christ, which is placed in a vault above the region of torment, they reafcend through the bowels of the earth. In passing, they survey the secret riches of the earth, mines of gold, silver, and precious stones. They mount, through the ocean, which is supposed to environ the earth: then travel through the air, and next through the fire. . Having passed the three elements, they bend towards heaven, but first visit the seven planets'. They enter the sphere of the moon, who is elegantly styled,

Reg. Stephan. According to Ware, Gil The planetary system was thus divided. bertus Aourished in the year 1152. SCRIP i. The Primum Mobile, or first motion. TOR. HIBERN. p. 111. Among the ma ii. The cristalline heaven, in which were nuscripts of Magdalene college in Oxford, placed the fixed stars. iii. The twelve signs are the VistonBS of Tundal, or Tungal, of the zodiac. iv. The spheres or circles a knight of Ireland. “ Cum anima mea of the planets in this order : viz. Saturn,

corpus exueret.” MSS. Coll. Magd. 53. Jupiter, Mars, Sol, Venus, Mercury, and It is printed in Tinmouth's SANCTILO lastly the moon, which they placed in the GIU M. And in the SPECULUM Histo centre of universal nature. Again, they RIALE of Vincentius Bellovacenfis, lib. {upposed the earth to be surrounded by xxvii. cap. 88. He is called Fundalus in three elementary spheres, fire, air, and a manuscript of this piece, Bibl. Bodl. NE. water. Milton, in his Elegy on the DEATH B. 3. 16. He lived in the year 1149. OP A FAIR INFANT, makes a very poWare, ut fupr. p. 55. I believe this piece etical use of the notion of a primum mois in the Cotton library, under the name bile, where he supposes that the soul of the of TUNDALE, MS. CALIG. A. 12. f. 17. child hovers See what is said in Froissart, of the visions

Above that high firsT MOVING of a cave in Ireland, called raint Patrick's Purgatory. tom. ii. c. 200, Berners's Tranil. d Roar.

Or in th' Elysian fields, &c. SIGNAT. D. iii.

St. vi. v. 39. See PARAD, L. ji. 483. Q 9 2



Quene of the sea, and beautie of the nicht.

The sun is then described, with great force.

Than past we to the spheir of Phebus bricht,
That lusty lamp and lanterne of the hevin ;
And glader of the sterris with his licht;
And principal of all the planets sevin,
And sate in myddis of thame all full evin :
As roy royalf rolling in his fphair
Full plesandlie into his goldin chair.

For to discryve his diademe royall,
Bordourit about with stonis schyning bricht,
His goldin car, or throne imperiall,
The four stedis that drawith it full richt, &c...

They now arrive at that part of heaven which is called the CHRYSTALLine', and are admitted to the Empyreal, or heaven of heavens. Here they view the throne of God, surrounded by the nine orders of angels, singing with ineffable harmony". Next the throne is the Virgin Mary, the queen of

3 To be pronounced disfylfabically.. k Because the scriptares have mentioned ☆ SIGNAT. E. i.

several degrees of angels, Dionyfius the Most of this philosophy is immediately Areopagite, and others, have divided them borrowed from the first chapters of the Nu into nine orders ; and those they have reremburgh Chronicle, a celebrated book duced into three hierarchies. This was a when Lyndesay wrote, printed in the year tempting subject for the refining genius of 1493. It is there faid, that of the waters the fchool-divines: and accordingly we find above the firmament which were frozen in Thomas Aquinas a disquisition, De orlike crystal, God made the crystalline hea dinatione Angelorum fecundum Hierarchias ven, &c. fol. iv. This idea is taken from et Ordines. Quæst. cvži. The system, Genesis, i. 4. See also saint Paul, Epist. which perhaps makes a better figure in: Cor. ii. xii. 2. The same system is in poetry than in philosophy, has been adopted Taffo, where the archangel Michael de by many poets who did not outlive the scends from heaven, Gier. Lib. C. ix. infuence of the old scholastic fophiftry: ft. 6o. seq. And in Milton, PARAD. L. See Dante, PARAD. C. xxvii. Taffo

mentions, among La grande ofte del ciel, They pass the planets seven, and pass the TRE FOLTE SQUADRE, et ogni squadra fixed,

instrutta And that cryftallin sphere, &c.

In TRE ORDINI gira, &c.

jii. 481.

queens, “ well cumpanyit with ladyis of delyte.”. An exterior circle is formed by patriarchs, prophets, evangelists, apostles, conquerors in the three battles of the world, of the. flesh, and of the devil, martyrs, confessors, and doctours in divinitie, under the command of saint Peter, who is represented as their lieutenant-general'.

Milton, who feigns the same visionary route with very different ideas, has these admirable verses, written in his nineteenth year, yet marked with that characteristical great manner, which distinguishes the poetry of his maturer age. He is addressing his native language.

Yet I had rather, if I were to chuse,
Thy service in some graver subject use;
Such as may make thee search thy coffers round,
Before thou clothe my fancy in fit found:

Gier. Lib. xviii. 96. And Spenser speaks of the angels singing in their triNALL TRIPLICITIES. FAIR. Qu.i. xii. 39. And again, in his Hymne of HeaVENLI Love. See also Sannazarius, De Part. VIRGIN. iii. 241. Milton perhaps is the last poet who has used this popular theory. PARAD. L. v. 748. Regions they pass’d, and mighty regencies Of Seraphim, and

Potentates, and Thrones,
And it gives great dignity. to his arrange-
ment of the celestial army. See ibid. supr.

Th' empyreal hoft
Of angels, by imperial summons callid,
Innumerable before th' Almighty's throne,
Forthwith from all the ends of heaven ap-


bright. Ten thousand thousand ensigns high ad

vanc'da, Standards and gonfalons, twixt van and

Stream in the air, and for distinction serve
Of HIEARCHIes, of ORDERS, and De-

Sach splendid and sublime imagery has-
Milton's genius raised on the problems of
Thomas Aquinas! See also ibid. v. 600.
Hence a paffage in his Hymn on The.
MORNING OP Christ's Nativity is to
be illustrated. St. xiii. v. 131.

And with your ninefold harmony
Make up full concert to the angelike sym-

That is, the symphony of the nine orders
of angels was to be answered by the nine-
fold music of the spheres. One Thomas
Haywood, a moft voluminous dramatic
poet in the reign of James the first, wrote
a long poem with large notes on this fub.
ject, called THE HIERARCHIE OF AN-
Gels, printed in folio, at London, 1635.
See also Jonson's ELEGIE ON MY MUSE,
in the UNDERWOOD. p. 260. edit. fol.
Lond. 1640.

1 Ibid.



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