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lovers. Our hero bids adieu in pathetic terms to the Tower of Music, where he first saw Pucell. Next he proceeds to the Tower of Geometry, which is wonderfully built and adorned. From thence he seeks ASTRONOMY, who resides in a gorgeous pavilion pitched in a fragrant and flowery meadow : she delivers' a prolix lecture on the several operations of the mind, and parts of the body. He then, accompanied with his greyhounds, enters an extensive plain overspread with flowers; and looking forward, sees a flaming star over a tower. Going forward, he perceives that this tower stands on a rough precipice of steel, decorated with beasts of various figures. As he advances towards it, he comes to a mighty fortress, at the gate of which were hanging a shield and helmet, with a marvellous horn. He blows the horn with a blast that shook the tower, when a knight appears; who, asking his business, is answered, that his name is Graunde Amoure, and that he was just arrived from the tower of Doctrine. He is welcomed by the knight, and admitted. This is the castle of CHIVALRY. The next morning he is conducted by the porter STEDFASTNess into the base court, where stood a tower of prodigious height, made of jasper : on its summit were four images of armed knights on horses of steel, which, on moving a secret spring, could represent a turney. Near this tower was an antient temple of Mars : within it was his statue, or picture, of gold, with the figure of Fortune on her wheel ; and the walls were painted with the siege of Troy". He

" thus.” 15 E. vi. 6. I think there are
fome elegant miniatures in this manuscript.
Our author calls him “ the famous knyght
" yclypped Ponthus, whych loved Sy..
« donye.” ch. xvi. King PONTHUS is
among the copies of James Roberts, a
printer in the reign of queen Elisabeth,
Ames, p. 342. I believe it was first printed
by Wynkyn de Worde, “ The hystory of
vi Ponthus and Galyce, and of lytel Bry-

o tayne.” With wooden cuts. 1511. 4to.

* In a wooden cut Ptolomy the astronomer is here introduced, with a quadrant : and Plato, the conynge and famous clerke, is cited.

This was a common fubje&t of tapestry, as I have before observed: but as it was the most favourite martial subject of the dark ages, is here introduced with peculiar propriety. Chaucer, from the general


G g 2

supplicates Mars, that he may be enabled to subdue the monsters which obstruct his passage to the Tower of Pucell. Mars promises him assistance; but advises him first to invoke Venus in her temple. FORTUNE reproves Mars for presuming to promise assistance; and declares, that all human glory is in the power of herself alone. Amoure is then led' by Minerva to king Melyzus, the inventor of tilts and tournaments, who dubs him a knight. He leaves the castle of CHIVALRY, and on the road meets a person, habited like a Fool, named Godfrey Gobilive', who enters into a long discourse on the falsehood of women'. They both go together

popularity of the story, has made it a subject for painted glass. Dreme CHAUC. v. 322. p. 406. Ürr. col. 1.

and with glas
Were al the windowes wel yglased
Ful clere, and nat an hole ycrased,
That to beholde it was grete joy ;
For wholly all the ftory of Troy
Was in the glaisinge ywrought thus,
Of Hector, and king Priamus,

Achilles, &c. In our author's description of the palace of Pucell, “ there was enameled with figures “ curious the Syege of Troy." cap. xxxviii. Sign. A. iii. edit. 1555. The arras was the fyege of Thebes. ibid. In the temple of Mars was also “ the fege of Thebes de“ paynted fayre and clere” on the walls. cap. xxvii. Sign. Q. iii. (See fupr. p. 216.]

Through the sumptuous hall of the castle, which is painted with the Siege of Thebes, and where many knights are playing at chefs.

- A fabulous king of Thrace, who, I think, is mentioned in Caxton's RECUYAL OF THE HYSTORYES OF Troy, now just printed ; that is, in the year 1471. Our author appeals to this romance, which he calls the Recule of Troye, as an authentic voucher for the truth of the labours of Hercules. ch. i. By the way, Boccacio's GeNEALOGY OF THE Gods is quoted in this romance of Troy, B. ii. ch. xix.

• His father is Davy Drunken nole, Who never dranke but in a fayre blacke

boule. Here he seems to allade to Lydgate's poem, called Of Jack Wat that could pull the lining out of a black boll. MS. Ashmol. Oxon. 59. ii. MSS. Harl. 2251. 12. fol. 14. One Jack Hare is the same fort of ludicrous character, who is thus described in Lydgate's Tale of froward Maymonde. MSS. Laud. D. 31. Bibl. Bodt. A froward knave pleynly to descryve, And a soggard shortely to declare, A precious knave that caftith hym never to

thryve, His mouth weel weet, his slevis riht thred

bare ; A turnebroche, (turn-spit) a boy for hogge

of ware, With louring face noddyng and slumberyng, Of new crystened, and called Jakke Hare, Whiche of a boll can plukke out the lynyng. These two pieces of Lydgate appear to be the same.

f He relates, how Aristotle, for all bis clergy, was so infatuated with love, that he suffered the lady, who only laughed at his passion, to bridle and ride him about his chamber. This story is in Gower, CONF. Amant. lib. viii. fol. clxxxix. b. edit. ut fupr. (See fupr. p. 25.)

I saw there Ariftote also
Whom that the quene of Grece also
Hath brideled, &c.


into the temple of Venus, who was now holding a solemn assembly, or court, for the redress of lovers. Here he meets with SAPIENCE, who draws up a supplication for him, which he presents to Venus. Venus, after having exhorted him to be constant, writes a letter to Pucell, which she sends by Cupid. After offering a turtle, he departs with Godfrey Gobilive, who is overtaken by a lady on a palfrey, with a knotted whip in her hand, which she frequently exercises on Godfrey. Amoure asks her name, which, she answers, is CORRECTION; that she lived in the Tower of CHASTITY, and that he who assumed the name of Godfrey Gobilive was FALSE REPORT, who had just escaped from her prison, and disguised himself in a fool's coat. She invites Amoure to her Tower, where they are admitted by Dame MEASURE; and led into a hall with a golden roof, in the midst of which was a carbuncle of a prodigious size, which illuminated the room". They are next introduced to

Then follows a long and ridiculous story
about Virgil, not the poet, but a necro-
mancer framed in the dark ages, who is
deceived by the tricks of a lady at the court
of Rome; on whom, however, her para-
mour takes ample revenge by means of his
kill in music. ch. xxix. I have mentioned
this Virgil, supr. vol. i. p. 407. See also,
fupr. p. 2;. Where I have falsely supposed
him to be the poet. This fiction is also
alluded to by Gower, and added to that of
Aristotle's, among his examples of the
power of love over the wisest men. ubi supr.

And eke Virgile of acqueintance
I sigh [law] where he the maiden praid
Which was the daughter, as men said,

Of themperour whilom of Rome.
There is an old book, printed in 1510,
entitled, “ VIRGILIUS. 'This boke treat-
“eth of the lyfe of Virgilius, and of his
“ deth, and many marvayles that he did
“ in his lyfetyme by whitchcraft and ni-

gramansy, thorouhg the help of the de

vylls of hell.” Coloph. “ Thus endeth “ the lyfe of Virgilius with many dyvers “ confaytes that he dyd. Emprunted in the

cytie of Andewarpe by me John Doelborche, duellyng at the Camer Porte." With cuts, octavo. It was in Mr. Weft's library. Virgil's Life is mentioned by Lancham among other romantic pieces, Killinw. Cafle. p. 34. edit. 1575. 12o. This fictitious personage, however, seems to be formed on the genuine Virgil, because, from the subject of his eighth Eclogue, he was supposed to be an adept in the mysteries of magic and incantation.

& In another place he is called FOLLY, and said to ride on a mare. When chivalry was at its heighth in France, it was a dirgrace to any person, not below the degree of a gentleman, to ride a mare.

h From Chaucer, Rom. Rose, V. 1120. Urr. p. 223. a.

RICHESSE is crowned with the costliest gems,

But all before full subtilty
A fine carboncle sel sawe I,
The stone so cleare was and bright,
That al so fone as it was night,
Men mightin fene to go for nede
A mile or two in length and brede.
Such light ysprange out of that stone.


a fair chamber; where they are welcomed by many famous women of antiquity, Helen, quene Proferpine, the lady Medufe, Penthesilea, &c. The next morning, CORRECTION shews our hero a marvellous dungeon, of which SHAMFASTNesse is the keeper; and here False Report is severely punished. He now continues his expedition, and near a fountain obferves a shield and a horn hanging. On the shield was a lion rampant of gold in a filver field, with an infcription, importing, that this was the way to La Bell Pucell's habitation, and that whoever blows the horn will be affaulted by a most formidable giant. He founds the horn: when instantly the giant appeared, twelve feet high, armed in brass, with three heads, on each of which was a streamer, with the inscriptions Falsehood, Imagination, Perjury. After an obstinate combat, he cuts off the giant's three heads with his sword Claraprudence. He next meets three fair ladies, VANITY, GOOD-OPERATION, Fidelity. They conduct him to their castle with music; where, being admitted by the portress OBSERVANCE, he is healed of his wounds by them. He proceeds and meets Perseverance, who acquaints him, that Pucell continued still to love: that, after she had read Venus's letter, STRANGEnEss and DISdAin came to her, to dissuade her from loving him ; but that soon after, Peace and Mercy' arrived, who soon undid all that Disdain and STRANGENESS had said, advising her to send PerseverANCE

But this is not uncommon in romance, and is an Arabian idea. See supr. vol. i. p. 378. In the History of the Seven CHAMPIONS, a book compiled in the reign of James the first by one Richard Johnson, and containing some of the most capital fi&tions of the old Arabian romance, in the adventure of the Enchanted FOUNTAIN, the knights entering a dark hall, “ tooke off their “ gauntletts from their left hands whereon " they wore marvellous great and fine diamonds, that gave so much light, that they “ might plainly see all things that were in

o the hall, the which was very great and
" wide, and upon the walls were painted
“ the figures of many furious fiends, &c."
Sec. P. ch. ix. And in Maundeville's

". The

hath in his “ chamber a pillar of gold, in which is a “ ruby and carbuncle a foot long, which “ lighteth all his chamber by night, &c.” ch. lxxii.

i Mercy is no uncommon divinity in the love-fyftem of the troubadours. See M. Millot's Hist. Litt. Des TROUBAD. tom. i. p. 181. Par. 1774.


to him with a shield. This shield PERSEVERANCE now presents, and invites him to repose that night with her cousin COMFORT, who lived in a moated manor-place under the side of a neighbouring wood". Here he is ushered into a

There is a description of a magnificent maror-place, curious for its antiquity, in an old poem, written before the year 1300, entitled a Disputation bytwene a Cryslen man and a Jewe, perhaps translated from the French, MS. Vernon. fol. 301. ut fupr. [See Carpentier's Suppl. du Čange, Lat. Gloff. V. RADIMERE.]

Forth heo (a) wenten on the ffeld
To an hul (6) thei bi held,
The eorthe clevet (c) as a scheld (d),

On the grownde grene :
Some fonde thei on (e) stîh,
Thei went theron (f ) radly;
The criften mon hedde (8) farly

What hit mihte mene.
Aftir that ftiz lay a strete,
Clere i pavet with (b) gete,
Thei fond a Maner that was mete

With murthes ful schene ;
Wel corven and wroht
With halles heize uppon (;) loft,
To a place weore thei brouht

As paradys the (k) clene.
Ther was foulen (1), fong,
Much murthes among,
Hose lenge wolde longe

Fful luitell hym thouht:
On vche a fyde of the halle,
Pourpell, pelure, and (m) palle;
Wyndowes in the walle

Was wonderli (n) i wrouht :

There was (6) dosers on the (o) dees,
Hose the cheefe wolde (2) ches
That never richere was,

In no fale (r) souht:
Both the mot and the mold

Schone al on red golde
The criftene mon hadde ferli of that (1) folde,

That hider was brouzt.
Ther was erbes * growen grene,
Spices springynge bi twene,
Such hadde I not sene,

Ffor fothe as I say:
The thrustell () fonge full (rhille,
He newed notes at his wille;
Ffaire fflowers to fille,

Ffine in that ffay :
And al the rounde table good,
Hou Arthur in eorthe (w) zod,
Sum fate and sum stod,

O the grounde grey :
Hit was a wonder fiht
As thei wer quik men (7) diht

To seo hou they (x) play. Together with fome of his expressions, I do not always understand this writer's context and transitions, which have great abruptness. In what he says of king Arthur, I suppose he means, that king Arthur's round table, and his knights turneying, were painted on the walls of the ball.

(a) They.

(b) Hill.

(c) Cleaved. (d) Shield. (c) Road. Way. Cavern ascent. (f) Readily. Easily. (8) Was very attentive. Heeded. (b) Paved with gritt, i. e. sand, or gravel. (i) With halls built high. (k) Bright, or pleasant, as Paradise. (1) Fowls, birds. (m) The guests fate on each side of the hall, cloathed in purple, furs, or ermine, and rich robes. (n) Wonderfully wrought. (0) Defer is a basket carried on the back. Lat. Dorsarium. Chaucer's H. F. ii. 850. « Or else hutchis or Delfers." We must here understand Provisions. (D) Dees is here the table. (9) Whoever would chuse the best. (r) Hall. Lat. Sala. (s) House. (1) Th ush. (w) Yod, went. Walked on earth. (w) As if they were living men. (x) To see their sports, tournaments, &c.

An Herbary, for furnishing domestic medicines, always made a part of our antiept gardens. In Hawes's poem, now before us, in the delicious garden of the castle of Music, “ Amidd s the garden “ there was an herber fayre and quadrante.” ch. xviii. In the Glossary.to Chaucer, Erbers is abfurdly interpreted Arbours. Non. PR. T. v. 1081. Or erve ive growing in our crberis.Chaucer is here enumerating various medical herbs, usually planted in crberis, or herbaries.


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